Three Fanzhen of Hebei
The Three Fanzhen of Hebei (河朔三镇) were three regions of what is now Hebei, China governed by powerful jiedushi during the Tang dynasty (618-907 CE). After the devastating Anshi Rebellion, this area became virtually independent of the central government, as these regions were controlled by ex-rebel generals who had enormous territory and forces. The independence of these fanzhen threatened the central government of the Tang dynasty.
During Emperor Xianzong's reign this region was briefly subdued by the central government, but after his death it became independent yet again. By the reign of Emperor Wenzong, the central government had lost all control over this region. The situation was summed up by Tang dynasty chancellor Niu Sengru:
"Ever since the Anshi Rebellion, the three Fanzhen has not been part of the country. Although Liu Chong briefly gave the area to the central government, in the end it became independent and 80 million strings of cash were wasted. These regions are fought over frequently; one day Zhicheng has it, the next day Daiyi. As long as the jiedushi can fend off the northern barbarians, we will not care about its allegiance."
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