Three Great Gardens of Japan
The Three Great Gardens of Japan (日本三名園 Nihon Sanmeien ), also known as "the three most famous gardens in Japan" are considered to include Kenroku-en in Kanazawa, Koraku-en in Okayama and Kairaku-en in Mito.
The conception of gardens in a group of three is found elsewhere as well; for example, in the three gardens of former-Emperor Go-Mizunoo who abdicated in 1629. At Shūgakui rykū, Go-Mizunoo maintained landscaped areas at separate elevations on the northeastern outskirts of Kyoto.
- Kenroku-en means "garden which combines six characteristics" – the six aspects considered important in the notion of an ideal gardens: spaciousness, serenity, venerability, scenic views, subtle design, and coolness.
- Koraku-en means "garden of pleasure after", which is a reference to a saying attributed to Confucius—explaining that a wise ruler must attend to his subjects' needs first, and only then should he consider his own interests.
- Kairaku-en means "a garden to enjoy with people." Nariaki Tokugawa who completed the garden, opened this private garden to the general populace. This was a novel concept which eventually led to the development of public parks.
- Lewis, Caroline. "Kenrokuen Garden Kanazawa," JapanVisitor.com; Koraku-en, Japan-Guide.com; and
- Japan Society of London. (1989). Proceedings, Issues 112-120, p. 54.
- "Kenroku-en," Ishikawa Prefecture, 2003.
- Bornoff, Nicholas. (2008). National Geographic Traveler Japan, p. 150.
- "Koraku-en," GoJapanGo.com; "Kairaku-en," Japan National Tourist Organization (JNTO).
- Kairaku-en garden, JapanAtlas.com
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Japan's_Top_3.|
- Kenroku-en official website
- Japan Atlas: Kenrokuen
- Okayama Korakuen Garden official site (Japanese)
- Kairaku-en official website (Japanese)