Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Rajkumar Hirani|
|Produced by||Vidhu Vinod Chopra|
|Written by||Abhijat Joshi
|Screenplay by||Abhijat Joshi
Vidhu Vinod Chopra
|Based on||Five Point Someone – What not to do at IIT!
by Chetan Bhagat
Kareena Kapoor Khan
|Narrated by||R. Madhavan|
|Music by||Shantanu Moitra|
|Cinematography||C. K. Muraleedharan|
|Edited by||Rajkumar Hirani|
|Distributed by||Reliance Entertainment|
|Budget||55 crore (US$8.7 million)|
|Box office||392 crore (US$62 million)|
3 Idiots (Hindi: ३ इडियट्स) is a 2009 Indian coming of age comedy-drama film co-written, edited and directed by Rajkumar Hirani and produced by Vidhu Vinod Chopra. Abhijat Joshi wrote the screenplay. It was loosely adapted from the novel Five Point Someone by Chetan Bhagat. The film stars Aamir Khan, Kareena Kapoor, R. Madhavan, Sharman Joshi, Omi Vaidya, Parikshit Sahni and Boman Irani.
Upon release, the film broke all opening box office records in India. It was the highest-grossing film in its opening weekend in India and had the highest opening day collections for a Bollywood film. It also held the record for highest net collections in the first week for a Bollywood film. It also became one of the few Indian films to become a major success in East Asian markets such as China, eventually bringing its overseas total to more than US$65 million — the highest-grossing Bollywood film of all time in overseas markets, before being overtaken by Dhoom 3 (2013). It was expected to be the first Indian film to be officially released on YouTube, within 12 weeks of releasing in theatres on 25 March 2010. It was officially released on YouTube in May 2012, but its access has since been restricted. The film also went on to win many awards, winning six Filmfare Awards including best film and best director, ten Star Screen Awards and sixteen IIFA awards. "3 Idiots" is ranked #124 in IMDB's top 250 world movies and also has an IMDB rating of 8.5.
The film is distinctive for featuring real inventions by little-known people in India's backyards. The brains behind the innovations were Remya Jose, a student from Kerala, who created the exercise-bicycle/washing-machine; Mohammad Idris, a barber from Meerut district in Uttar Pradesh, who invented a bicycle-powered horse clipper; and Jahangir Painter, a painter from Maharashtra, who made the scooter-powered flour mill. This film was remade in Tamil as Nanban (2012) which also received critical praise and commercial success. It has also been announced that there will be a Chinese remake of the film produced by Stephen Chow and that there are plans for a Hollywood remake produced in the United States.
||This section may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may only interest a specific audience. (February 2015)|
Farhan Qureshi (R. Madhavan) narrates the misadventures he had with his friends Raju Rastogi (Sharman Joshi) and Ranchoddas "Rancho" Shamaldas Chanchad (Aamir Khan), students at the Imperial College of Engineering, one of the best colleges in India. Farhan wants to become a wildlife photographer, but is pursuing an engineering degree to appease his father. Raju works towards the degree because he needs to improve his family's financial situation, and Rancho is unique in actually taking joy in building machines. Rancho incurs the wrath of college's dean, Professor Viru Sahastrabuddhe a.k.a. 'Virus' (Boman Irani), by giving creative and unorthodox answers in class and living by the philosophy that one should pursue excellence, not success, as success will happen if excellence is achieved. Rancho later blames the rote-learning mentality promoted by the institution for the suicide of fellow student Joy Lobo.
Virus is described as a real hardass - so hard, in fact, that he caused his son's suicide by his pressure, and cares nothing about it. He has trained himself to write simultaneously with both hands, and has a 7.5-minute power nap every day at the same time, during which his servant shaves him.
Rancho's signature motto is "All is well", a chant used for the theme song of the movie, and which has magical effects at several plot points.
Virus's model student is Chatur Ramalingam (Omi Vaidya), not-so-affectionately known as "Silencer" for his silent but malodorous farts. Chatur impresses his professors by excelling at rote recitation. When given a chance to present a speech praising Professor Sahastrabuddhe (Virus) before the college faculty and donors, he chooses to present the speech in formal Hindi, despite his limited fluency in the language; he overcomes this by having a librarian write the speech, which he memorizes without comprehension. Rancho modifies the written speech by replacing praise with obscenity; Chatur obliviously memorizes and delivers the modified speech. Rancho is thus able to humiliate Chatur while simultaneously demonstrating to Raju and Farhan the limitations of learning by rote.
Meanwhile, Rancho falls in love with Virus' daughter Pia (Kareena Kapoor), a doctor, whom the trio meet when they gatecrash a wedding, unaware that the bride is Virus's other daughter, Mona (Mona Singh). Rancho is horrified to find that Pia is engaged to a mindless and money-mad man, Suhas (Olivier Sanjay Lafont), and offers to demonstrate to her that her fiancé only cares about the value of things. "He'll tell you how much his shoes cost himself," he promises. He spills mint sauce on Suhas' shoes due to which he yells, "My $300 shoes! Italian leather!" wails the fiancé.
The trio get up to all kinds of boyish japes, usually in tit-for-tat reactive revenge for some action of the disciplinarian Virus. Finally, Farhan and Raju pee on the door of his house but Virus sees Raju and the next day he calls Raju to his office. Virus tells Raju to type a letter to his parents informing them about his termination from college and unable to handle it Raju tries to commit suicide by jumping from the window. He is taken to hospital and due to his injuries he can hear people but cannot respond or move his body. Finally Raju recovers and realizes that he has always been afraid with the challenges of his life. Raju goes for a job interview which every engineering student has to do for their future job before graduating. He eventually gets accepted but virus gets furious when he discovers this and in revenge Virus writes the questions for Raju's final exam so that Raju will fail, and cannot graduate. Meanwhile Farhan is convinced by Rancho to go tell his dad what he really wants to be is a wildlife photographer. Therefore Farhan goes to his father, Mr. Qureshi (Pareekshit Sahani)and is able to convince him. Fearing that Raju will not get the job he needs so that his sister can marry and his crippled father be supported, Rancho and Farhan steal the questions, but they are caught later and Virus sentences them to expulsion.
Virus's daughter Pia reveals that she gave the keys of his office to Rancho and Farhan so they can steal the questions. When virus asked her the reason then Pia angrily tells him he was responsible for the death of her brother. Her brother had wanted to pursue literature and become a writer; however, under Virus' insistence he failed the ICE exam three times and committed suicide, unable to bear the pressure placed on him by his father – who has always thought his death an accident.
The three earn a reprieve when Virus' pregnant elder daughter Mona goes into emergency labour; as Virus tries to rush her to hospital a heavy storm cuts electricity. Pia, the only person with medical expertise, has left the house and is unable to return owing to the thunderstorm. Rancho and his friends rush Mona into the college common room where they deliver the baby via Voice over IP to Pia, during which Rancho restores power using car batteries and a power inverter he has devised himself to convert a vacuum cleaner as a suction device.
After the baby is apparently stillborn, Rancho resuscitates it by using his signature quote "All is well" and the apparently moribund baby responds and wakes. In gratitude Virus allows the trio to take their final exams. Rancho attains the top ranking in the institution and is awarded Virus's prize pen, retained for an especially-capable student.
But the trio have discovered a mystery - Rancho is not Rancho: another man with the same name now has credit for his study and exams.
Ten years later, Rancho has vanished without trace. In their search for him, Raju and Farhan take Pia from the middle of her wedding to Suhas, and drive her to Ladakh, where they see inventions resembling those of Rancho at a creative village school. Accompanying them is Chatur, who has managed to freeload onto Raju and Farhan over the course of their journey. The four find the man behind the distinctive inventions, who turns out to be Rancho. When they ask him to reveal his real name, he identifies himself as Phunsukh Wangdu, Chatur's prospective business partner and a world-famous, reclusive scientist. Upon learning this, Chatur is horrified and begs Phunsukh/Rancho to establish the business relationship – just after he had forced him to sign a declaration of defeat and attempted to humiliate him, apparently to no effect.
The film ends with Chatur chasing Rancho and his friends and this scene resembles the philosophy of Rancho that "Excellence ke pichhe bhaago, kaamyaabi jhag maar ke pichhe aayegi" (Run for the 'Excellence' and 'Success' will anyhow chase you).
- Aamir Khan as Ranchoddas Shamaldas Chanchad/Chhote/Rancho/Phunsukh Wangdu – One of a group of three friends in the university. He went missing after graduation and his two friends traveled across India looking for him, while telling stories of their time in engineering college together. Rancho, as a student, was intelligent and had a brilliant personal philosophy. He rallied against unjust systems of teaching. At the end of the film, he is shown to be now a famous scientist and entrepreneur.
- Kareena Kapoor as Pia Sahastrabuddhe – Viru "Virus" Sahastrabuddhe's younger daughter, an intelligent and capable doctor. Rancho is her love interest, and she breaks off her engagement to another to be with Rancho.
- R. Madhavan as Farhan Qureshi – the film's narrator and a friend of Rancho and Raju. His father wanted him to be an engineer despite his lack of interest in the career. He is now an accomplished wildlife photographer. The Masked One.
- Sharman Joshi as Raju Rastogi. He comes from an impoverished family with a mother who is a retired school teacher and a paralyzed father who had been a postman. The family is so poor that they can't afford the car that would be demanded as a dowry for his sister. In the present day, he is a settled married man in Delhi who has freed his family from poverty by becoming a wealthy executive.
- Boman Irani as Dr Viru Sahastrabuddhe – better known as "Virus", he is the strict college director. He is also Pia's father, and the film's "antagonist". By the end of the movie he has changed his doctrinal method of teaching.
- Omi Vaidya as Chatur Ramalingam – better known as "Silencer". Omi plays a nerdy character born in Uganda, schooled in Pondicherry, who believes in mindless memorisation. In college, he sneers at Rancho's distinctive ideas, as does Virus. Now he is vice-president of a company.
- Rahul Kumar as Manmohan – Better known as "Millimeter" or "MM", a young man who earns a small living in the college such as helping students by ironing their clothes, finishing assignments, and getting groceries; Rancho persuades him to buy a school uniform and go to any school to gain knowledge.
- Dushyant Wagh as Centimeter/Elder Manmohan – the present-day Millimeter, who works as Rancho's/Phunsukh Wangdu's assistant in Ladakh
- Mona Singh as Mona Sahastrabuddhe – Pia's elder sister and Virus's first daughter.
- Parikshit Sahni as Mr Qureshi – Farhan's father, a strict but loving parent who just wants his son to be happy.
- Amardeep Jha as Mrs Rastogi – Raju's mother, a retired schoolteacher and dedicated mother.
- Javed Jaffrey as the real Ranchhodas Shyamaldas Chanchad – a person Raju, Farhan, and Chatur meet during the Shyamaldas Chanchad funeral service. His character is shown to be a corrupt person right from childhood, taking benefits from 'Chhote', or Phungsuk, in his homework and his exams. His father sends him to London and he sends 'Chhote' to ICE to gain an engineering degree in his name. He does appreciate what Chhote did for him, giving Raju and Farhan information on where to find him.
- Arun Bali as Shamaldas Chhanchad – father of Ranchhoddas Shamaldas Chhanchad.
- Ali Fazal as Joy Lobo – a student with a passion for machines. After Virus tells him that he will not graduate, he commits suicide.
- Akhil Mishra as Librarian Dubey
- Rohitash Gaud as Ranchhodas' servant
- Achyut Potdar as Machine Class Professor
- Madhav Vaze as Joy Lobo's father.
- Olivier Sanjay Lafont as Suhas Tandon – a materialistic man who is Pia's ex-fiance.
- Jayant Kripalani as Interviewer - the company head who conducts Raju's job interview.
Principal photography began on 28 July 2008. Hirani and his team left in late August for the shoot with the principal cast. The film was shot in Delhi, Bangalore, Mumbai, Ladakh, Chail and Shimla. Aamir and rest of the cast began shooting in early September. Hirani planned to wrap up the film by December. The first scene was shot in an aircraft with Madhavan. From Mumbai, the crew and cast comprising Aamir and Kareena went to Ladakh for a 20-day schedule. Filming of the ICE college scenes took place at the Indian Institute of Management – Bangalore campus for 33 days as a part of the second schedule of production.
The film initially opened up on 2000 prints worldwide. 3 Idiots was released in 1800 theaters in India, which was at that time a big domestic release. 3 Idiots was released in 415 screens overseas. 3 idiots was released in 2,215 theaters worldwide
|Territories and ancillary revenues||Price|
|Satellite rights with a TV channel||22 crore (US$3.5 million)|
|Worldwide distribution rights||65 crore (US$10 million)|
|Music rights (T~Series)||12 crore (US$1.9 million)|
|Total||100 crore (US$16 million)|
- The figures don't include the Print and Advertising (P&A) costs.
After its initial run, the film's adjusted worldwide lifetime gross was 3.39 billion (US$54 million).
According to Box Office, 3 Idiots grossed 11.92 billion (US$190 million) worldwide at the end of its theatrical run. Box Office India declared the film an "All Time Blockbuster", and it is one of the films on their list of "Biggest Blockbusters Ever in Hindi Cinema". The film was also listed in Guinness World Records for the record of highest box office film gross for a Bollywood film.
|Territory||Territory wise Collections break-up|
|India||202 crore (US$32 million)|
99.2 crore (US$16 million)
67.0 crore (US$11 million)
|US$6,563,894 (United States)|
|Worldwide||395 crore (US$63 million)|
The film broke all box office records upon release. It created the highest collection record for paid previews with Rs 27.5 million that time, which was broken by Chennai Express (2013). In its four-day first weekend, the film netted 380 million (US$6.0 million), and broke the record held by Ghajini for the first weekend collections. By the first week, the film netted 790 million (US$13 million), again breaking the box office record held by Ghajini. 3 Idiots had nett grossed 560 million (US$8.9 million) in its 2nd week, 302.5 million (US$4.8 million) during the third week, 160 million (US$2.5 million) in its fourth week and 97.5 million (US$1.5 million) in fifth to make a total of 1.91 billion (US$30 million) in five weeks.
3 Idiots became the then highest-grossing Bollywood film in overseas markets with overseas gross of US$25 million. 3 Idiots first weekend opening collection in overseas was $4 million. It set record collections for Indian-produced films in territories such as United States, Australia, Fiji, and some African territories. In the United States, the film earned $6.5 million since its opening, in addition to over $2.5 million in the United Kingdom, over $2 million in Canada, nearly $1 million in Australia, and over $3 million in South Korea. 3 Idiots has the biggest first week total in US with around $3 million over its first four days.
Unusual for an Indian film, 3 Idiots has become a major success in East Asian markets. The film had the longest showing period at cinemas in Taiwan, for more than two months from December 2010, breaking the record of Avatar, with over TWD $10 million grossed. The film was the first aired Indian film in Hong Kong, where it grossed HKD $22 million since its showing from 1 September 2011, as of January 2012, and the equivalent of over US$3 million as of 4 March 2012. In China, where it is known as San Geshagua ("Three Idiots"), the film grossed $1.15 million in four days in December 2011, eventually crossing the $2 million mark within 18 days, and nearly $3 million within a month, as of 5 January 2012. Alongside the original Hindi version, a Chinese-dubbed version was also released, with the popular actress Tang Wei (best known for Lust, Caution) voicing Kareena Kapoor's role. One reason for its success in East Asian markets such as China and Hong Kong is because of their similar education systems, thus many students were able to identify with the characters, with some Chinese universities "even prescribing the film in their coursework as a kind of stress-relief in their classrooms." 3 Idiots added US$ 7 million from a wide release in far eastern markets like South Korea, China, Hong Kong etc. Following its success in other Asian markets, Japanese distributor Nikkatsu has announced plans to release the film in Japan. Upon its release in Japanese markets in June 2013, it went on to collect around ¥100 million (61 million) in its first two weeks of run – That makes the film the highest grossing Hindi film ever in Japan.
3 Idiots received universal critical acclaim. Subhash K. Jha stated: "It's not that 3 Idiots is a flawless work of art. But it is a vital, inspiring and life-revising work of contemporary art with some heart imbued into every part. In a country where students are driven to suicide by their impossible curriculum, 3 Idiots provides hope. Maybe cinema can't save lives. But cinema, sure as hell, can make you feel life is worth living. 3 Idiots does just that, and much more. The director takes the definition of entertainment into directions of social comment without assuming that he knows best." Nikhat Kazmi of the Times of India gave it four and a half stars and suggests that, "The film is a laugh riot, despite being high on fundas [...] Hirani carries forward his simplistic 'humanism alone works' philosophy of the Lage Raho Munna Bhai series in 3 Idiots too, making it a warm and vivacious signature tune to 2009. The second half of the film does falter in parts, specially the child birth sequence, but it doesn't take long for the film to jump back on track." Mayank Shekhar of the Hindustan Times gave the film three and a half out of five stars and comments that "this is the sort of movie you’ll take home with a smile and a song on your lips." Taran Adarsh of Bollywood Hungama gave 3 Idiots four and a half out of five stars and states: "On the whole, 3 Idiots easily ranks amongst Aamir, Rajkumar Hirani and Vidhu Vinod Chopra's finest films. Do yourself and your family a favour: Watch 3 Idiots. It's emotional, it's entertaining, it's enlightening. The film has tremendous youth appeal and feel-good factor to work in a big way." Kaveree Bamzai of India Today gave 3 Idiots five stars and argues that "it's a lovely story, of a man from nowhere who wanted to learn, told like a fairy tale, with the secret heart carrying its coded message of setting all of us free."
Other critics gave the film a mixed review. Sonia Chopra of Sify gave the film 3 stars and said "Though a bit too calculated and designed, 3 Idiots is still an ok option for the significant message, interesting cast and scattered breezy moments." Rajeev Masand of CNN-IBN gave the film three out of five stars and states: "Going home after watching 3 Idiots I felt like I'd just been to my favorite restaurant only to be a tad under-whelmed by their signature dish. It was a satisfying meal, don't get me wrong, but not the best meal I'd been expecting." Shubhra Gupta from The Indian Express also gave it 3 stars, stating "‘3 Idiots' does not do as much for me. The emotional truth that shone through both the 'Munnabhai' movies doesn’t come through strongly enough." Raja Sen of Rediff gave the film two out of five stars and states: "Rajkumar Hirani's one of the directors of the decade, a man with immense talent and a knack for storytelling. On his debut, he hit a hundred. With his second, he hit a triple century. This time, he fishes outside the offstump, tries to play shots borrowed from other batters, and hits and misses to provide a patchy, 32*-type innings. It's okay, boss, *chalta hai*. Even Sachin has an off day, and we still have great hope."
The film has also been highly acclaimed overseas. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds a 100% "fresh" critics' rating based on six reviews as well as an audience rating of 93% based on over 20,000 votes. Derek Elley of Variety wrote that "3 Idiots takes a while to lay out its game plan but pays off emotionally in its second half." Robert Abele of Los Angeles Times wrote that there's an "unavoidable joie de vivre (symbolized by Rancho's meditative mantra 'All is well') and a performance charm that make this one of the more naturally gregarious Bollywood imports." Louis Proyect described it as a "fabulous achievement across the board. A typical Bollywood confection but also social commentary on a dysfunctional engineering school system that pressures huge numbers of students into suicide." The Korean site Naver gave the film a review rating of 9.4 out of 10; on the same site, it holds a user rating of 9.34 out of 10 based on nearly 25,000 votes, making it the 19th highest-rated film on Naver's top films list. On the Chinese site Douban, 3 Idiots holds an average audience rating of 9.1 out of 10 based on nearly 500,000 votes, making it the 10th highest-rated film on Douban's top 250 list.
Aamir Khan remuneration for 3 idiots was 2 billion (US$32 million) including shares in profits (highest ever in 2009).
The film won 40 accolades; among these are six Filmfare Awards including best film and best director, ten Star Screen Awards, sixteen IIFA awards and three National Film Awards. In January 2014, it was nominated in the Best Outstanding Foreign Language Film category for 37th Japanese Academy Awards.
When asked about plans of a 3 Idiots sequel in an interview with Hindustan Times, screenwriter Abhijat Joshi replied, saying, "Honestly, I don’t know. We have an idea for the 3 Idiots sequel, a Munna Bhai part three, and also for a PK sequel; but the PK and Munna Bhai sequels interest me the most. So, I think the 3 Idiots sequel may happen in the future, but these two I really want to work on." 
|Soundtrack album by Shantanu Moitra|
|Genre||Feature film soundtrack|
|1||"Aal Izz Well"||Sonu Nigam, Shaan, Swanand Kirkire||4:36|
|2||"Zoobi Doobi"||Sonu Nigam, Shreya Ghoshal||4:08|
|3||"Behti Hawa Sa Tha Woh"||Shaan, Shantanu Moitra||5:01|
|4||"Give Me Some Sunshine"||Suraj Jagan, Sharman Joshi||4:07|
|5||"Jaane Nahin Denge Tujhe"||Sonu Nigam||3:32|
|6||"Aal Izz Well (Remix)"||Sonu Nigam, Shaan, Swanand Kirkire||4:41|
|7||"Zoobi Doobi (Remix)"||Sonu Nigam, Jaive Samson, Shreya Ghoshal||3:29|
- Chetan gave me this book to read and I wanted to make a film on it. But I knew right from the start that I could not make a film completely on the book, as it was very anecdotal and a film needs a plot. So I had decided to rewrite it in a screenplay format. You'll see that the film is very different from the book. After I wrote the script, I called Chetan and narrated it to him. I told him that if he did not like the script, I would stop the project. But he was okay with it.
The day after the film opened, Chetan also noted:
- Initially I did sit down with Raju and Abhijat while they were deciding to make a film based on '5 Point Someone'. I even went to IIT with Abhijat a couple of times. But it was just not possible for me to be involved at every stage of the screenplay writing process since I was in Hong Kong at that time, working full-time and busy writing other books. Moreover, Abhijat is based in USA, Raju was in the US for quite a while working on the screenplay but it was not practical for me to do that [...] The film retains the soul of the book. 3 Idiots is different from the book but at the same time it does borrow many things from the book. The core theme and message of the film is coming from the book itself. And that's why the makers have officially credited the film as 'Based on a novel by Chetan Bhagat.'
A controversy developed a few days after the release, however, over the fact that Chetan's credit, "Based on the novel Five Point Someone by Chetan Bhagat" appeared in the closing credits rather than in the opening ones. At that time, Bhagat stated that he "was expecting an opening credit and I was quite surprised on not seeing it. They had bought the rights, made the payment and committed to a credit in the contract. It’s there, but it’s not about it being there, it’s about the placement and the prominence." In a 31 December 2009 blog post on his personal website, Bhagat stated that he was told the movie was only 2–5% based on the book, but when he saw it, he felt that it was 70% of the book. He also argued that he was misled by the makers of the film, though he noted, that "this has nothing to do with Mr Aamir Khan [...] I am a big fan of Aamir and he has made my story reach people. However, he was told by the makers not to read the book, and he hasn’t. Thus, he cannot comment on the issue in a meaningful manner."
A few people responded to Chetan's statements. According to the Indo-Asian News Service (IANS), during a press conference with reporters producer Vidhu Vinod Chopra "clarified that in the agreement between the producer and Bhagat, it was clearly mentioned that the author’s name would be put in the closing credits." IANS also reported that Chopra "lost his cool" and "asked a reporter to shut up after being questioned whether his hit 3 Idiots was lifted from author Chetan Bhagat’s book Five Point Someone." Chopra later apologised, stating: "I really think I’m silly. I was provoked, but I shouldn’t have done this. I saw myself on TV and saw how I was shouting 'shut up, shut up' like an animal. I told myself — 'what nonsensical behaviour'." Aamir Khan also responded to these claims. Rajkumar Hirani stated that "We have officially bought the rights for the film. We drew a contract with him and it clearly mentions about the position of his credit. With open eyes he had seen the contract, consulted his lawyer and signed the agreement [...] In the contract, we have said that the title would be given in the rolling credits. We haven't changed the font size. We haven't increased the speed of the title. It's exactly there where it was agreed to be." Chetan Bhagat later apologised stating, "I definitely do not have anything against team 3 Idiots. I may have some issues on the mistake they may have made but nothing about their personality or the kind of people they are. I apologise to their families if there was any distress caused to them. I also want to thank all my fans, who stood by me but I don't want them to turn against anyone especially Aamir."
Following the success of 3 Idiots in East Asian markets such as China and Hong Kong, the producer Vidhu Vinod Chopra has announced that Hong Kong film star Stephen Chow (known for comedy films such as Shaolin Soccer and Kung Fu Hustle) will be producing a Chinese remake of the film. Chopra also announced that there are plans for a Hollywood remake, and is in talks with three different American studios interested in remaking the film. Chopra also stated that there is an Italian film studio also interested in remaking the film.
- List of highest-grossing Bollywood films
- List of Bollywood highest-grossing films in overseas markets
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