Three Rural Issues
The Three Rural Issues, or San Nong (simplified Chinese: 三农; traditional Chinese: 三農; pinyin: sān nóng), refers to three issues relating to rural development in mainland China. Specifically, these issues are agriculture, rural areas and farmers. The Three Rural Issues were highlighted by Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao as areas of rural development in China that need work.
At the 2006 National People's Congress, the Three Rural Issues were especially emphasized throughout Wen Jiabao's speech on the workings of the government in 2005 and the direction of the government for the year 2006. In the rural areas, agricultural reforms had made the peasants better-off until the 1990s when land supply became insufficient and the cost of the means of production was soaring. As a result, the income of the peasants was greatly reduced. Today, the "three problem of peasantry, rural areas and agriculture" are still a major concern of the government.
Issue of Agriculture
In general, the issue is how to industrialize agriculture in China. It includes (1) increasing the marketization level of agricultural production and operation, and stabilizing the prices of agricultural products; (2) changing the situation of smallholder economic agriculture, achieving economics of scale of agricultural production and operation; (3) guaranteeing the food security in China.
Issue of Rural Areas
This is particularly reflected in the disparity of economic and cultural development between urban and rural areas. It is mainly caused by the dual segmentation based on the household registration system.
Issue of Farmers
It includes improving the income level of farmers, alleviating burdens of farmers, increasing the cultural qualities of farmers, and safeguarding the rights of farmers.
- Expectations and challenges for China's economy next year, article dated December 6, 2004, at People's Daily Online.
- President Hu Addresses "Three Rural Issues" at CRIENGLISH.com.
- China to tackle rural problems at BBC NEWS.
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