Three X Sisters
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The Three X Sisters were an American all-girl harmony singing trio, initially known as The Hamilton Sisters and Fordyce. They were on stage singing together as early as 1922, and formed their trio in 1924, which was composed of Pearl Santos (née Hamilton) (1900–1978), Violet Hamilton (1908–1983) who were both from Cumberland, Maryland, and Jessie Fordyce (1905–2000). They were known on NBC radio as "radio's foremost harmony trio."
History and career
Pearl, Violet, and Jessie had individually all been fairly well known in their theater venues by 1914. Earlier, Pearl and Vi had individually sung in Cumberland, Maryland, theaters and won prizes for their song competition accomplishments. Jessie was on the Brooklyn, New York, vaudeville circuit and beyond - as a young child star 'Baby Helen', her stepping-stone success through songs, and vocal imitations that impressed the masses. Pearl Hamilton began her career on Broadway as early as 1917. Her roommate during this era was Joan Page, another 'Stars of the Future' entertainer/singer. The average salary in 1919 was $22.00 per week for the All Jazz Revue "chrous girls." Pearl started out as a soft shoe (ballet style) and high-kick dancer. The Hamiltons began their professional singing careers at the Haymarket Theatre in Chicago, Illinois. Some walk-on or cameo parts in silent films with Paramount Pictures showed their dancing talents. Later references to this accompanied their radio singing career. In 1920, Pearl and Violet (Hamiltons), were part of the vocal chorus. A later addition was friend Jessie (Yule) Fordyce with the 'All Jazz Revue' showcase.
Pearl and Violet started entertaining with the 'All Jazz Review', their first known performance, sponsored by Irons & Clamage and the Swear Club (a women's club) was reviewed by The Billboard on January 10, 1920. Pearl, "a tall, willowy girl, Is a dancing wonder" as her artistry in dance had become well known. The trio started out on Broadway and in vaudeville, with Helen Kane Schroeder, the original Boop-boop-a-Doop Girl. The trio did various song and dance acts, eventually settling for close harmony, which was associated with three-part harmony singing. The Hamilton Sisters and Fordyce earliest known performance together was at B.F. Keiths Theater in Syracuse, New York, on May 13, 1923. In 1924 they were touring in vaudeville, backed by the Raymond Fagan Orchestra; a band compared to Paul Whiteman or the Vincent Lopez Orchestras. Pearl Hamilton met Ed Santos, who played trumpet with Fagan's band, and a year later they married in Rochester, New York. During early July 1925, The Hamilton Sisters and Jessie Fordyce were singing at the Eighty-First Street Theatre. In 1926, the trio toured with another popular all-girl act, Jerry and her Baby Grands, appearing together at the Palace Theater in New York. They also toured together in Canada.
The Hamilton Sisters and Fordyce gained enough success to tour abroad. After they departed from "Stars of the Future" entertainment showcase, spring of 1927, their management, fronted by Ed Wolfe, had them tour Europe and the United Kingdom. They departed by airplane at a Long Island airport with the American portion of New York's Savoy Orpheans musical unit during the week of May 23, 1927.
In the UK, they met up with American songwriters Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart. They also spent time in the recording studio with Bert Ambrose, a British bandleader, musical director Caroll Gibbons, and violinist/director Reg Batton. They toured with the New York band and appeared on London and Manchester stages.
On October 27, 1927, Harry Plunket Greene, Irish baritone tenor, wrote of the trio after an England performance "The Hamilton Sisters & Fordyce are just A1 as they are. I wouldn't interfere with them for anything. It's just perfect in its way. I do trust they leave things alone, not try to change."
That November, the trio teamed up with Billy Mayerl, pianist, to do close harmonizing on Who You, That's Who?, and Zulu Wail. They first sang over radio airwaves while in England on the BBC. The trios' return to America; departed England on December 10 for Paris. They sailed from Cherbourg, France (New York, Passenger Lists) on the U.S.S. Leviathan on Dec. 15, 1927 for New York City.
When the popularity of the vaudeville showcase Playtime had become a real success, it attracted the attention of Broadway with Rain or Shine in early 1928. Jessie had the idea for Playtime. The routine they did placed their on-stage performance alongside Joe Cook, comedian. The Hamiltons and Fordyce were so well received that the Playtime showcase was recommended to run on its own merit.
The group's radio success started when the trio appeared in publicity photographs wearing eye masks, and capitalized on the new popularity of radio. Pearl needed to make a choice between investing in records, or concentrate on radio work. She chose to tour the US extensively, and sign with such sponsors as Ford, Chase and Sanborn, Best Foods, Tydol, Babbo, and others to pursue the radio career for her trio. A CBS Radio sponsor hired them, and they took a new stage name, "The Three X Sisters". In 1932, they were featured alongside other harmony trios in the November issue of Radio Digest Magazine. From October to December on the WABC-CBS radio program might find this scenario with the Three X Sisters at the 7:30pm time, followed by Connie Boswell at 7:45pm. They were also with ABC radio doing some cartoon scenario songs, appeared on the Eddie Cantor Show, harmonized the song "Those Eddie Cantor Eyes". Some radio transcribed tunes which they sang to identify the 1930s era in rhythm and the blues are "Old Clothes", "Good Times Coming", and "Still No Luck With You". By 1934 they were guests on The Nick Kenny Radio Hour and were performers/singers in part of the Nick Kenny (poet) scripted "Radio Scandals". They also introduced animation soundtrack songs over radio ariwaves. The voice-work they did for the popular Max Fleischer Cartoons synched with their early radio-work, and by 1933 they had a regular time-slot with NBC Radio. They continued on the airwaves until 1938, and were still popular at the Chicago Theater in Illinois, Palace Theater in NYC, and the Stanley Theater (now Benedum Center) in Pennsylvania on the same playbill as The Three Stooges. Entertainment news columnists found amusement in the name recognition.
Recordings and Movie Shorts in the 1930s
In 1932, the Three X Sisters were part of the CBS Tydol Jubilee Show and toured for a while with one of the hottest dance bands in the country, Paul Specht and His Orchestra, which was also popular with the college audience. In July they teamed up with Eddy Duchin and released at least one tune, "The Clouds Will Soon Roll By", as the Hamilton Sisters. In October of the same year, the sisters recorded several songs with the band of Isham Jones – another popular CBS artist – and two songs were recorded for RCA Victor. Jones experimented with arrangements that had an early Swing era bounce. The 1932 Victor- Isham Jones band segments were filmed in its unique character. Pearl, Vi, and Jessie decided to give up their weekends to do movie shorts. The Audition, 1932, featured a few acts, including the trio backed by the jazz guitaristEddie Lang (heard but not seen in film); this is the same time frame that Annette Hanshaw had teamed with the jazz guitarist, while he plucked his way along "Here Comes The Showboat", and it remained a popular short into 1933. Later in 1933, the trio was at the Coolidge memorial service - Washington Cathedral - "Three X Sisters" were part of the memorial service entertainment. Pearl started to use recording services at this time to preserve some of their radio performances. Teamed up with Mary Small on some of the "Little Miss Babo Surprise Party" in 1934. In 1935 the trio was teamed up with the Paramount Studio Orchestra which included another featured guitarist (with camera close-up's) on the Excuse My Gloves also known as Pardon My Glove movie short - the Three X Sisters sang amazingly to "Rex and His Sound Effects." It was reviewed with Ted Huseing, announcer, as one of the "outstanding" short features during the summer of 1935. The vocals and harmony are wonderful - the music sounds very Sweet and Swing era oriented.
Harmony Trio Broadcast Over 1930s Radio Airwaves
The early 1930s saw the radio departures of the Boswell Sisters, Brox Sisters, and Pickens Sisters. During 1932, the Three X Sisters found themselves at a top harmonizers spot on the radio airwaves. They had become Columbia networks' radio artists. During the summer/fall 1932, the "X Sisters" were featured with Paul Specht and his Orchestra on other nightly radio programs throughout that year.  Competition between the Three X Sisters and the Do-Re-Mi harmony trio place the female harmonizers at the tops of their singing game in February 1933 by having the ladies harmonists (individually) sing and musical accompaniment perform at different locations, and have it all brought together over a radio broadcast by station managers. After the trio and Specht departed their Tidewater Oil Show (Tydol), they found a new nich with the Eddie Cantor Show (Chase and Sanborn Show) in 1933, as well as, in May with the Musical Grocery Store Program (Best Foods - sponsor for Hellman's Mayonnaise) were also doing harmonies with Tom Howard and the Rythmn Boys. In 1934, they had many guest spots on the Miss Bab-O Program (Babbitt Company—a detergent soap company). In February 1933, the trio signed their first "Artist Bureau" radio contract with N.B.C. Monday, February 13, was their first song assignment at 6:30 over the WJZ (AM) network. Their harmonies continued and by 1935, they renewed their radio contract with NBC for 26 weeks. They were well known at the WJZ and WEAF (WNBC (AM)) microphone.
Radio had the Three X Sisters in a prominent spot as of 1933, and they were at the "Theatre Circuit" microphone at the Waldorf Astoria from 1933-1935. Eddie Duchin and Emil Coleman Orchestras were at most of those events. Many Three X Sisters songs were featured during 1934,as well as in April and July during guest appearances on Little Miss Bab-O's Surprise Party with Mary Small and (William) Bill Wirges and His Orchestra.
In August 1934, the X's (were also Bab-O's guests) - then Mary Small, James Wallington, and other NBC personalities were performing at the Steel Pier in Atlantic City, NJ. In mid-February 1935, they were touring Chicago and broadcast over WJZ on Monday and Wednesday, until their arrival back in New York after March 2, as 1935 in music also proved to be a popular time for them. Early November 1935, the trio headlined a big gala variety stage-show at the Hotel Astor. Despite the forever present 1930s great depression the trio got plenty of radio work. After only three weeks on the radio in America they were hired for movie shorts Radio Guide magazine ran a full page story about Mary Small, radio singer, and Small said about her singing career ... "There are three lovely ladies to whom I owe a great deal. They are Vi and Pearl Hamilton, and Jessie Fordyce, whom you hear on the radio as the Three X Sisters. It was they who heard me in Baltimore when I was eleven years old and really got me started." (October 5, 1935) Mary was a fan of the Three X Sisters before she became a radio singer.
Their radio popularity continued in 1936, while they shared the stage with the New Zeigfield Follies, Oliver Wakefield, monologist, as the Three X Sisters had also featured an advanced publisher's desk song the Last Round Up, another of Billy Hill's popular tunes. In 1937, they remained well known in the songwriters' publishing world, especially that of Shapiro, and Bernstein Music Publishers on Broadway with Tin Pan Alley, sheet music from publishers had an appreciation for their NBC microphone. More radio recordings had been made of their song journey, and some with the Harry Smith Recording Studio in New York. Rumors about their radio departure reached the entertainment pages early in the year, however, not before the songbirds put together some of the best blues styled harmonies. They were sought for sheet-music songs but also for advanced song material for soundtracks from Hollywood movies. Some of these radio songs (mechanically transcribed onto '78 recorded discs) were "It Looks Like Rain In Cherry Blossom Lane" and "Would You?" (on air advertisement for the motion picture, San Francisco). "We sell songs on the air...," quoted from Pearl, which affirmed the Three X Sisters radio notoriety.
Broadway styles changed
On September 29, 1940 over the NBC (Blue Network), Graham McNamee, on Behind the Mike, described to the studio audience how "radio's most popular harmony trio" had discovered the singing talents of Mary Small. Pearl, Vi, and Jessie talk with Graham and Ed Wolf about Mary's wonderful voice. A Three X Sisters reunion took place January 26, 1941 on NBC radio with Graham McNamee on his Behind the Mike program (this can be listened to online), where it reintroduced their harmony singing. The group also introduced on this program an English version of the Latin-style song "Frenesi", which was their last recorded radio appearance. In 1940, Pearl's written composition and Mary's singing collaborated on 'Smile America Smile.' Later, in 1943 or 1944, they attended some USO benefit concerts. Pearl and Mary Small performed at one event with Pearl's songwriting, piano, and big-band style arrangement, as Mary sang the song "Smile America Smile".
- "My Heart Stood Still" (R.Rodgers, L.Hart); June 1927; England.(Brunswick-105) Ambrose & His Mayfair Orch., vocals, Hamilton Sisters and Fordyce.
- "The Birth of the Blues" (DeSylva, Brown, Henderson); June 1927; England. (Brunswick-108) band and vocals - same as above.
- "One Summer Night" (Coslow, Spier); June 1927; England. (Brunswick-107) band and vocals - same as above.
- "Possibly"; June 1927; England. (Brunswick-107) band and vocals - same as above.
- "Someone to Watch Over Me"; (G. Gershwin). 1927; England. Savoy Orpheans. (HMV-B5322) vocals, Hamilton Sisters and Fordyce.
- "Blue Room" (R. Rodgers, L. Hart); 1927; England. Recorded. Savoy Orpheans. (HMV-B5322)vocals Hamilton Sisters and Fordyce.
- "One Summer Night" ;Savoy Orpheans (different version) (HMV-B5333). Recorded date same as above.
- "The Man I Love"; 1927; England, stage show. vocals, Hamilton Sisters and Fordyce.
- "Who, You That's Who?" (Yellen-Ager) (Columbia 4698); November 1927; England. piano, Billy Meryl; vocals, Hamilton Sisters and Fordyce.
- "Zulu Wail" (Skinner-Bibo) (Columbia 4698); November 1927; England. piano, Billy Meryl; vocals, Hamilton Sisters and Fordyce.
- "Here Comes the Showboat" (B.Rose, M.Pinkard);(Vitaphone-Warner Bros.); the Audition 1932; guitarist, Eddie Lang; vocals, Three X Sisters.
- "The Clouds Will Soon Roll By" (Woods,Brown) ; July 1, 1932; (Columbia 2680-D) Eddie Duchin & His Central Park Casino Orchestra. vocals, Hamilton Sisters.
- "Where, I Wonder, Where?" (Victor 24161)
- "What Would Happen to Me if Something Happened to You?" (Victor 24162) October 13, 1932. New York Studio No.1.(RCA Victor) Isham Jones & His Orch., vocals, Three X Sisters.
- "Shuffle Off to Buffalo"; June 16, 1933 (scripted lyrics from broadway 42nd Street Musical); Radio Transcript Recording; vocals, Three X Sisters.
- "Everbody Loves My Baby"; Oct.21,1932; CBS Radio log.
- "The Night When Love Was Born"; Oct.21,1932; CBS Radio log.
- "I Love To Sing At The Opera"; 1933; Radio Transcript Recording; vocals, Three X Sisters.
- "Scat Song"; 1933; Soundtrack 'Sing Sisters Sing' Paramount Pictures cartoon;vocals ".
- "If Mother's Could Live On Forever"; July 20, 1937 (NBC):Radio Transcript Recording (ARS).
- "Marcus Park Your Carcus Somewhere Else": Radio Transcript Recording (ARS);(WEAF) July 20, 1937.
- "Old Clothes"; Radio Transcript Recording (ARS); (WEAF) July 20, 1937
- "Would You?"; 1937; Radio Transcript Recording (NBC). vocals Three X Sisters.
- "Why'd Ya' Make Me"; Aug. 20,1938 (WNEW).
- "It Looks Like Rain In Cherry Blossom Lane"; July 20, 1937 (NBC); Radio Transcript Recording (ARS).
- "Sing and Be Happy"; Aug. 17, 1937; Radio Transcript Recording.
- "So Many Memories" (R.Rodgers, L.Hart); July 20, 1937; Radio Transcript Recording (included with Yours and Mine).
- "This Is My Last Affair" (H.Johnson); July 20, 1937; Radio Transcript Recording (NBC) (included with "Yours and Mine") vocals,Violet Wanita Hamilton
- "Yours and Mine"; July 20, 1937 (NBC); Radio Transcript Recording (ARS).
- "You Can't Brush Me Off" (Irving Berlin); Recorded demo 1940.vocals, Violet Wanita Hamilton.
- "Tiger Rag"; Radio Transcript Recording.
- Good Times Coming; Radio Transcript Recording.
- "Frenesi" (Alberto Dominguez): (English words by Ray Charles and S.K. Russell) (NBC-Behind the Mike); Jan. 26, 1941; Radio Transcript Recording. vocals, Three X Sisters.
- "Maybe, I Lost Your Love? By Lovin' You So"; 1946 (Shapiro & Bernstein,publishers); Introduced by Russ Morgan and His Orchestra. Recorded by the Hamilton Sisters (Pearl and Vi)Dec. 11,1945.
- "Muddy Water"; Recorded demo 1937. vocals,Violet Wanita Hamilton.
- "Barnacle Bill The Sailor"; Three X Sisters with Paul Specht & His Orchestra (WABC); November 18, 1932.
- "Betty Boop" (John Green, Edward Heyman). Famous Music Corporation. (WABC); November 1932.
- "Poor Robinson Caruso"; Harry Smith Recording Service, NYC; (WEAF) April 5, 1937. Musicians, Luz Brothers. vocals, Three X Sisters.
- "Rex and His Soundeffects"; Paramount Pictures 'Excuse My Gloves' (also known as 'Pardon My Glove') 1935;vocals, Three X Sisters.
Notable Songs -
- "A-Tisket, A-Tasket", "You Too Can Be The Life Of The Party", Alexander's Ragtime Band; performed live at the Hippodrome, Baltimore, Maryland October 30, 1938.
- "Bye, Bye Baby" (R. King); (WEAF) July 20, 1937; Radio Recording Service (ARS).
- "Throwing Stones At The Sun"
- "The Old Spinning Wheel"
- "I'm An Old Cowhand"
- "Colorado Moon"
- "Please, Mr. President" (WEAF);June 16, 1933.
- "Sweet Georgia Brown"
- "Mardi Gras", "Song of the Islands", "Mississippi Mud"; radio performance with Paul Specht & Orchestra, 7:30pm (WABC) November 18, 1932.
- [dead link]
- "Glenn Alexander Santos - Google". Profiles.google.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "Clipper (December 1914)". Archive.org. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- "Haymarket Theatre in Chicago, IL". Cinema Treasures. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- "Picasa Web Albums - Glenn Alexander S... - Three X Siste". Picasaweb.google.com. 2011-12-26. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "Picasa Web Albums - Glenn Alexander S... - Three X Siste". Picasaweb.google.com. 2011-12-26. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- Micrographone. "Trumpet Solo 1950s demo by Edward Santos Sr. (from 1920s Raymond Fagan Orchestra)". YouTube. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "Picasa Web Albums - Glenn Alexander S... - Three X Siste". Picasaweb.google.com. 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- [dead link]
- "Glenn Alexander Santos - Google". Profiles.google.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "File:London Palladium week of June 20, 1927. Hamilton Sisters and Fordyce.JPG - Wikimedia Commons". Commons.wikimedia.org. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- Pictures account for this, as reproduced in Santos, Glenn (1998) In Sweet Harmony: The Three X Sisters, Apple Blossom Publishing, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 99-94889. The photograph session also included British bandleader Bert Ambrose of Ambrose & his Mayfair Orchestra. Also Richard Rogers and Lorenz Hart, American songwriters. Various recordings were made on HMV, Columbia, and RCA labels. Popular American tunes were "Blue Room", "My Heart Stood Still", and "Someone to Watch Over Me".
- SS Leviathan 1913
- "Three X Sisters at the piano 1933 Photos from Glenn Alexander Santos (Glenn) on Myspace". Myspace.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "Stanley Theatre in Philadelphia, PA". Cinema Treasures. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "The Griffin: volume 01, issue 07 - Jan. 12, 1934 :: The Griffin Student Newspaper". Canisiusarchives.cdmhost.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- Bab-O is now sold by Dollar Tree: http://dollartree.com/Bab-O-Gel-with-Bleach/p18795/index.pro . Accessed August 16, 2013.
- "NBC Radios Three X Sisters Photos from Glenn Alexander Santos (Glenn) on Myspace". Myspace.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "Google Profielen". Plus.google.com. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- "one summer night,vocals hamilton sisters and fordyce". YouTube. 2010-12-01. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- "'The Blue Room' Savoy Orpheans (directed by Carroll Gibbons). 1927.". YouTube. 1927-07-01. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- "Hamilton Sisters & Fordyce (aka,Three X Sisters)". YouTube. 2010-11-26. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- "Isham Jones Orchestra,Three X Sisters vocals". YouTube. 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- "Isham Jones Orchestra,Three X Sisters, vocals". YouTube. 2010-12-09. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- "Three X Sisters - Shuffle Off To Buffalo". YouTube. 2010-11-26. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- "old clothes song - Three X Sisters". YouTube. 2010-12-11. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- "Why'd Ya' Make Me? : Three X Sisters, vocals : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Archive.org. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- "Sing And Be Happy - Three X Sisters, vocals". YouTube. 2012-07-13. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- "'Yours and Mine' 'This Is My Last Affair' 'So Many Memories' : Three X Sisters,vocals : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Archive.org. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- "Three X Sisters Violet recorded demo 1940". YouTube. 2010-12-30. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- "Three X Sisters, Violet sings blues1937.wmv". YouTube. 2010-12-01. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
- "Three X Sisters song". YouTube. 2010-11-23. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
||This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (July 2013)|
- Calvin Coolidge memorial, 1933; Robert Trout's papers.
- Popular Songs Magazine; 'X Marks the Spot'. BBC, England. Leslie Green, May 1935.
- Cumberland Young Ladies Successful On The London Stage. Cumberland Daily News. Cumberland, Maryland. Sept. 28, 1927.
- Fleischer Story, Leslie Cabarga: Books. Museum of Television and Radio; NBC and WJZ radio appearances, 1933, 1934, 1941.
- New York Times newspaper: Radio Listings (various) 1932-1938.
- Singing Sisters ; http://www.americanradiohistory.com/Archive-Radio-Digest/Radio-Digest-1932-11.pdf. 1932 in music
- Moanin' Low: A Discography of Female Popular Vocal Recordings, 1920-1933 (Discographies) (9780313292415): Ross Laird: Books.
- Micrographone. picasaweb - Glenn Alexander Santos. 
- Radio Guide; They Wouldn't Believe Me (Mary Small); Wed. Oct. 5, 1935.