Three player mahjong

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Three player mahjong
Mahjong in Hangzhou.jpg
A game of mahjong being played in Hangzhou, China
Three Player Mahjong
Players 3
Age range 12 years and older
Setup time 2–5 minutes
Playing time Dependent on variation and/or house/tournament rules. Fast. 5-15 min.
Random chance Yes
Skill(s) required Tactics, observation, memory, risk analysis

Three-player mahjong is as different from four player mahjong as Texas hold 'em is from draw poker or as Bridge is from Euchre. While the materials and mechanisms are the same, the rule changes, dynamics and scoring systems, as well as the social atmosphere and challenges to playing, create two different worlds of tile throwing.[1] The game is embraced in some Asian countries and rejected in others where playing with less than four is considered boring and/or impractical.

Three-player mahjong is played in Japan and Korea in various regions as a game of its own and is not necessarily a simplification of the four-player game. In this sense the mahjong rules specially evolved with three players in mind. There are, however, a few rule sets from China and other Asian countries in which the local rules adapted for three players. The former is the focus of this article though in the final chapters some attention is paid to regional 3-player simplification rules. Three-player mahjong (as a game evolved for three players) played in Korea and Japan are played differently depending on age and region though they can be divided into three different games: 1) The game heavily influenced by Korean rules, 2) the game heavily influenced by Japanese rules, and 3) a game which involves the mechanisms of Japanese rules (and to an extent Korean) but with the Korean scoring system as well as several rules of its own. This article focuses on the last of these, as it is not only most suited to three players but has evolved for three-player use and is not merely a simplification of a four-player rule set designed for three.

History[edit]

Three-player mahjong is probably as old as mahjong itself, though it is speculated that mahjong originated as a game for only two players.[2] Korean/Japanese Three Player Mahjong, played in east Asia is an amalgamation of Old Korean Mahjong rules (which traditionally omitted the bamboo suit and did not allow melded chows and had a very simple scoring system) with some elements of Japanese rules including sacred discard (a player cannot rob a piece to win if he discarded it before) and many bonus points. Korean mahjong in the past included many elements of both traditional Chinese mahjong and the Japanese scoring system. The rules have changed and there are no standard rules, though this variation shown here reflects the old rules though adapted for modern three player play (as Koreans include some or all bamboo pieces now). An experienced player should be able to read the recap at the bottom of this section and understand the rules well. Non experienced players would need to read the following to understand the game.

Motivations[edit]

One of the motivations for playing with three players, is that finding a fourth may be difficult or that having one cancelling player (for a four player game) ruins the possibility of playing at all and thus knowing how to play three player mahjong means players can play, or always playing three player mahjong limits the likelihood of someone cancelling.[3] However, the dynamics of playing with three players is also a good motivation, especially when playing traditional Korean rules.

Rules[edit]

Three player Mahjong is based on the Korean version adding a few Japanese elements. It is well suited to three players, challenging and has various ways to score points.[4] The following is a basic presentation of the most commonly used rules with a list of the many variations afterwards.

Tiles[edit]

Three Player Mahjong is played with a standard mahjong set with several tiles removed. First, the north wind is removed. The 2-8 of bamboo is also removed. The four season tiles are also removed but the four flowers are kept. There are no jokers or any other extra tiles[5]

MJt1.png MJt2.png MJt3.png MJt4.png MJt5.png MJt6.png MJt7.png MJt8.png MJt9.png

Circles or Dots Numbered 1 to 9

MJw1.png MJw2.png MJw3.png MJw4.png MJw5.png MJw6.png MJw7.png MJw8.png MJw9.png

Characters Numbered 1 to 9

MJs1bird.png MJs9.png

All Four of 1 and 9 bamboo are used with 2–8 removed

MJf1.png MJf2.png MJf3.png

The East, South and West (North is omitted)

MJd3.png MJd2.png MJd1.png

The White, Green and Red Dragons

MJh5.png MJh6.png MJh7.png MJh8.png The four flowers (there is only one of each)

The circles, characters and bamboo are called simple tiles (they are numbered 1 to 9 and only tiles 1 and 9 are used in the bamboo suit). Of the dragons and winds (called honours) there are three kinds of each with no numerical value. Of both simples and honours there are four matching tiles for each value (i.e. there are four red dragons and there are four II dots).

Deal[edit]

Dealing is the same as with Hong Kong Mahjong except the wall is smaller and four tiles are placed in the middle of the wall for flower replacements (explained below).

Object[edit]

The object of the game is for players to take turns picking up a new tile from the wall and discarding one until they have a legal hand. A legal hand consists of four sets and an eye. There are three different kind of sets.

Chow[edit]

A chow consists of three pieces in one suit (either circles or characters) in numerical sequence (i.e. 2-3-4 of dots or 5-6-7 of characters). It can only be made of circles or characters as the other suits have no numerical sequence. It is only of 3 pieces, not of 2 or 4.

MJw2.png MJw3.png MJw4.png

MJt1.png MJt2.png MJt3.png

Pong[edit]

A pong consists of three identical pieces of any tile (except flowers which are bonus tiles and are always set aside). An example would be three matching red dragons or three matching 2 dots.

MJs5.png MJs5.png MJs5.png

MJd2.png MJd2.png MJd2.png

Kong[edit]

A kong is a special consists of all four pieces of any tile. See below for the procedures for declaring a kong.

MJw6.png MJw6.png MJw6.png MJw6.png

MJf4.png MJf4.png MJf4.png MJf4.png

Eye[edit]

A legal hand consists of 4 sets (chows and or pongs/kongs) and an eye. The eye is a pair of tiles (two matching identical tiles) such as two Green Dragons or two 9 bamboo.

MJs9.png MJs9.png

MJd2.png MJd2.png

General play[edit]

Turns[edit]

Three players start with 13 tiles and the dealer with fourteen. The dealer begins by discarding one tile. All players must have only 13 tiles in their hand (not including flowers which are set aside nor the 4th piece of any kong they might have (which is considered an extra tile). Any Kong declared or flower set aside, is replaced by a tile from the wall. After the dealer discards, the next player picks the next available tile from the wall (going clockwise) and discards a tile. Play continues until a player forms a legal hand with the 14th tile drawn from the wall. Play may be interrupted for any of the following reasons

Stealing a pong[edit]

If a player can use an opponent's discard to complete a pong the player calls this out (before the next player in turn has a chance to draw from the wall). He or she picks up the discarded tile, reveals the two matching pieces in his or her hand and sets them down face up on the table in front of his hand and then discards a tile. Play continues with the next player (clockwise to the player who stole the pong) taking his turn and drawing a tile from the wall. A previously discarded tile cannot be used to make a pong (nor for any other reason) after the next player draws a tile from the wall meaning all discarded tiles beforehand are untouchable.

Stealing a kong[edit]

At any point during a players turn they may add a piece in their hand to a declared pong (a pong which was formed by stealing it from another players discar). The player adds it to the pong (placing three in a row and one on top of the one in the middle) and takes a tile from the wall to compensate for the extra fourth tile of the kong. If a player has four identical tiles, during his/her turn, they may reveal it to the other players in what is considered a concealed kong (placing two tiles upside down) and draws another tile from the wall to compensate for the fourth tile in the kong.

Robbing a kong[edit]

If a player declares a kong and another player needs that piece to make a chow and win the game, the player may declare so and "go mahjong" (win). It is called robbing the Kong. This does not occur often.

Winning from a discard[edit]

A player, lacking only one piece to form a legal hand (whether completing a chow, pong, eye or special hand) may steal the discard and wins (this takes precedence over any other players attempt to steal the tile. If two players can use the tile to go mahjong, the player with the most game points takes the tile. If their hands are equal, the player closest to the player who discarded the tile wins the hand.

Revealing kongs and flowers (clarified)[edit]

Revealing a kong[edit]

During a players turn (asmentioned above), at any point if they have all four of one tile, they may declare a hidden kong (meaning the 4th piece wasn't stolen). The player reveals the pieces to the opponents putting all four in a row with two face down and the middle two face up (as the other players have the right to know which tile there are now none left of). The player takes an extra piece from the "end" of the wall to make his hand complete and then may discard.

Turning a pong into a kong[edit]

During a players turn, if a pong has been stolen and they now have the fourth piece, they may add the fourth piece to the pong to form a kong. The player take an extra piece from the end of the wall.

Flowers[edit]

The moment a player picks up a flower they should announce so, put it to the side and take a replacement piece from the middle.

Irregularities (clarified)[edit]

Changes[edit]

No changes can be made to a pong or kong which has already been declared (it cannot be taken back to form anything else).

Stealing kongs[edit]

A discard cannot be stolen to add the fourth piece to a pong which has already been declared (stolen and revealed to the other players). This can only be formed by the player him or herself taking the 4th piece from the wall on his or her turn.

Two players claiming a discard to win[edit]

If two players both need a piece to win (or from robbing the kong which would be unspeakably rare) then the player who can form the hand with the most game points takes it and wins. If both players have the same game points, then the player with the most bonus points takes it and wins. If this is also equal, then the player first clockwise to the player who discarded takes the tile and wins. Winning always takes precedence over forming a pong or kong. Two players cannot both steal a piece to form a pong or kong.

Stealing chows[edit]

Stealing chows are allowed in some versions of Mahjong but not in this version nor in Korean mahjong.

Mistakes[edit]

If it is noted that a player has 14 pieces in their hand (not including flowers or the 4th piece of a kong) after a discard (when it is not their turn) or for that matter more than fourteen or having 12 or less, if a player robs a piece but cannot form the right set, forgets to put aside a flower or has any other irregularity they are usually heavily punished. It depends on the house rules of each group of players. Serious flaws like having 14 pieces should involve having points deducted. Claiming to win mahjong while not having a legal hand should be seriously punished. Knocking over another players tile should be punished. Calling out the wrong name of a tile (while discarding) may be one of the worst offenses possible, especially if another player reveals that they could have stolen it.

Match[edit]

At the end of each hand, the dealership passes to the player clockwise. The dealer is always known as the east player and to his or her right as the south and the third player as west. These directions alternate with the dealer. Three games are known as a round. Each round is also named after a wind. The entire match last 3 sets of 3 hands (9 hands in total): The East round (three hands), South round (three hands) and west round (three hands). In each round, each player is dealer once playing in the East position (as dealer) once and the other players taking the south and west positions.

Example of a 9 hand game
Hand Number Prevailing Wind Player 1 Player 2 Player 3
1 East East (dealer) South West
2 East West East (dealer) South
3 East South West East (dealer)
4 South East (dealer) South West
5 South West East (dealer) South
6 South South West East (dealer)
7 West East (dealer) South West
8 West West East (dealer) South
9 West South West East (dealer)

Whether the dealer wins or not, or if there is a winner or not, wind position changes each time. Unlike other versions of mahjong being East does not give any special bonuses, it does not double the players scores in any way. If a hand ends in a draw (goulash hand), the winner of the next hand first takes the proper points from his opponents and then an extra 10 points from each player. The dealer passes to the next player, even on a goulash hand. If there is a second draw, the winner of the next round takes 20 points from each player after the game points and bonus points are settled and so on (some place a limit on how long this can continue.

The wall is usually four sides but can be three in informal play. Players may chose to continue playing a second match after the first one ends (accumulating the points into a double match) or even a triple match meaning a total of 27 hands.

Minimum game points[edit]

Only the winners hand is scored (the other players hands take no points). Points are counted based on the individual sets a player has, if they are made of simples or honours (i.e. circles or dragons), if these sets match the players seat (wind tiles), how the hand is composed as a whole (i.e. only one suit or all pongs and an eye) and special patterns. As well bonus points are scored for having kongs, flowers and other criteria mentioned later. When being introduced to a game, the mechanics may be so overwhelming that no points may be scored and players simply try to win with any legal hand (0 points) until the mechanics of the game is understood. Once this is achieved, the player should be introduced to the minimum point chart and should be encouraged to form hands of at least three minimum points (passed on sets and or overall composition of hand and or special patterns). The scoring chart below gives all possible points. Experienced players will play for a higher minimum.

Melds and point settlement[edit]

Winning mahjong requires a minimum of three game points (4 points for experienced players as 3 point minimum may seem low and for advanced players 5 or more), which do not include the many different bonus points. A player must have the minimum game points before being able to win. Bonus points are included in the winners final score but do not count towards the minimum game points a player needs to go mahjong.

Discarder pays[edit]

If a player wins by stealing a discard, the player who discards has to pay the winner double the winners game points (the other player pays nothing). Both players pay the winner bonus points.

If a player wins from the wall, both players pay the winner game points plus bonus points.

Japanese elements[edit]

The sacred discard is in effect. It means that a players must place their discards in front of them in neat rows showing the history of their discards (usually in rows of 6). A player cannot use a discarded tile from another payer to win based on a previously discarded tile by him/herself.

A player may declare ready, in which their hand is hidden. When doing so, they must have the minimum points to win if they pick up the desired tile(s) to go mahjong. The player must also have a concealed hand. The player declares this (and indicates so by rotating his last discard sideways to indicate when he/she declared really), and cannot change their hand until winning mahjong (though may add a tile to a pong to form a hidden Kong). The player gains an extra 2 bonus points for doing this with the option of showing the other players his/her tiles gaining 5 bonus points if he wins (rare).

A "ready opponent" is a player who was ready to win a three point hand (or whatever the minimum game points are) needing one more specific tiles from the wall or a discard. It means that the player was waiting to win (the player needed a 14th tile to complete a legal hand). This player does not pay the winner the winning bonus (2 points). Furthermore if he/she discards the winning tile, this player does not have to pay for the game points of the other player, but only their bonus points. This rule is optional.

Points[edit]

The point system requires a little learning (or it can be printed or written down until players have experience with it). It is not as simple as Hong Kong mahjong however nowhere near as complicated as New Hong Kong Mahjong rules, Taiwan on Standard Chinese rules nor Japanese rules. There are three classes of points which are: minimum points, bonus points and limit hands. In order to win a player needs to have at least 3 minimum points or a limit hand. Experienced players will play a minimum of 4 points. Advanced players will play a minimum of 5 or more. At a minimum of 5 points, goulash hands are common (a hand in which no player wins). Once the player wins (only the winner scores points) the player adds up all of his/her minimum points and bonus points together. If a player has a limit hand, the player scores either the agreed limit (between 40 and 80 points often) or a half limit (half that value) and there is no need to total the other points.

Limit hands can make or break a game and the limit can change everything. Gambling players may keep a low limit to not bankrupt other players. The limit may also be kept low to keep the match competitive. If one player discards a piece to another and wins a limit hand, the points between each player can be up to 160 for just one hand leaving the rest of the games unenjoyable and leaving it very unlikely that the other players could win the match.

Game points[edit]

You need to either score one element which is worth the minimum game points (beginners 3, experienced 4, advanced 5 or more) to win or score a combination of two or more elements. Naturally more than one point can apply to one element. For instance a Kong of a players seat wind would score 3 points (one point for a wind, one point for being the seat wind and one point for being a kong).

It would be wise to learn the points one step at a time, first with game points, then with bonus points and then limit hands. As with all games of Mahjong, there is great variation among points, and not all elements need to be accepted nor implemented and there is ample room for adding elements and changing them based on experience and the intimacy of players.

  • 1 point Any Dragon Pong
  • 1 point extra if player has two dragon pongs (three points in total)
  • 1 point Any Wind Pong
  • 1 point More if the wind is players seat wind
  • 1 point More if the wind pong is the prevailing (or round) wind
  • 1 point Any Kong (can be combined with pongs of winds, bamboo and dragons)
  • 1 point Pong of 1 or 9 bamboo
  • 1 point more for having both pongs of 1 and 9 bamboo
  • 1 points for having all simples (no honours)
  • 1 point extra for having all chows and a pair of simples
  • 2 points for having two identical chows
  • 3 points for having three chows of 1 to 9 in circles or 1 to 9 in characters
  • 2 points For having a concealed hand (no tile was stolen/robbed from another players discard except the winning piece)
  • 2 points more for having a concealed hand and winning from the wall
  • 3 points For having all pongs (including kongs) and any pair
  • 3 points For having a clean hand (hand is made up only of circle tiles and honour tiles or is made of only character and honour tiles)
  • 3 points extra if the hand is pure without honours (the hand consists purely of circle tiles or purely of character tiles)
  • 2 points for having 3 concealed pongs/kongs
  • 3 points for having 7 pairs (special hand consisting of seven different pairs)

Bonus points[edit]

The winner adds his/her game points to all the following bonus points which may apply.

  • 2 points for winning
  • 1 point more if player wins by a tile from the wall
  • 1 point more if the tile was the last tile from the wall
  • 1 point more if the winning tile was used to replace a flower or kong
  • 1 point more if the winning tile was stolen by another player making a kong
  • 1 point more for every extra tile player has that matches the tile the player used to win
  • 1 point more for every flower player has
  • 4 points extra if player has all 4 flowers
  • 2 points if player has a concealed hand (player scores both game points and bonus points)
  • 2 points extra if player has a completely concealed hand (won from the wall and not a discard)
  • 2 points if player declared ready

North Wind and Dora[edit]

In specific regions of Japan and Korea, certain optional table rules are common. Two of note are the use of the North Wind as a special tile and the use of dora. Each will be explained here.

The use of the North wind[edit]

In this variation, the North wind is included in the set, and it functions exactly as flower tiles do with two exceptions. A player who draws a North wind tile may declare it as a flower and replace it with another tile, he may discard the tile (as a safe discard which cannot be stolen except to complete rare hands) or use the piece in a rare hand. The only two hands that can include the North tile are the Thirteen Orphans (one of each wind, each dragon, 1 and 9 of all three suits and one extra matching tile). If the player forms a seven pairs hand, he may use the North wind as the seventh pair scoring extra points). If a player claims a North wind tile as a flower and another player can use it to complete a 13 orphans hand or a seven pairs with a North wind, then he may rob it and go mahjong. The same applies if a player discards the piece as a so-called "safe discard". The forming of these hands is rare and so discarding the North wind tile towards the end of a game or if a player is declared ready is usually a sound strategy.

North wind tiles as flowers are scored separately from the actual flower tiles. Having one North wind scores no bonus points. Two North winds scores one bonus point. Three north winds score two bonus points. All four north winds score eight bonus points. If the North wind is included in the set, having no flowers or North winds in a winning hand scores two bonus points.

Having seven pairs with the North wind forming the seventh pair scores an additional two game points, two extra points if the tile is drawn from the wall. The winning piece must be a North wind.

Dora Tiles[edit]

There are two forms of dora which may optionally be used in three player mahjong.

Red Dora Tiles[edit]

In some Japanese mahjong sets, one 5 bamboo is coloured red and one 5 circle tile is coloured red (the other matching three of each tile is the normal colour). There are thus only two of these tiles. A player who wins with one red dora tile in their hand scores one bonus point and if they have both red dora tiles they score 6 bonus points (in total). These dora tiles count as bonus points and do not count as game points nor towards the minimum game points needed to go mahjong.

Revealed Dora Tiles[edit]

The second form of dora which is distinct from the first, is the revealing of one tile from the wall before the game begins. If a simple tile is revealed, then the next tile in order becomes a dora tile (i.e. if the 5 circles is revealed, then all 6 circles become dora...or if the 2 character tiles are revealed then the 3 characters become dora). If a nine is revealed then the 1 of the same suit becomes dora. If a 1 bamboo is revealed then a 9 bamboo becomes dora. If a wind is revealed then the next wind in compass order becomes dora. If a dragon is revealed then the next dragon in alphabetical order becomes dora: Green-Red-White-Green.

A player scores one bonus point for each of these dora tiles used in the winning hand. The player scores one extra point if the player forms the eye using these tiles, two extra points if the player forms a pong and scores four extra points if the player forms a kong using these tiles.

The red dora tiles are considered distinct from the revealed dora tiles and they should not be confused with each other. Table rules might include the red dora tiles but not the revealed dora tiles or the reverse. If table rules include both dora tiles, care should be taken not to mix the points scored for having them in their winning hand but to do so separately.

Variations[edit]

Playing with all the points above and all possible variations is impracticable and complicated. Players chose which points they want to use and will periodically change or add some as long as there is a full consensus. The following variations can be regional. All variations can be incorporated into the basic game.

Experienced players will raise the minimum game points needed to four points or more (each time becoming exponentially more challenging). There are a few limit hands. Limit hands are special hands that a player may have which score a set amount of points. The amount is high, and depends on whatever limit the players set. If playing for stakes, the limit may be low to avoid having to pay large amounts to each other. A couple patterns (13 orphans and heavenly gates), much like 7 pairs, are special hands. They are the only three hands a player can have which do not fit the pattern of four melds and an eye (pongs/chows and a pair). They must be concealed hands though may be won on a discard or from the wall. They are optional and players do not need to include them in their game if not desired. A limit hand may effectively end a match if not playing for stakes as players may not be motivated to continue as beating a player who has won a limit has is incredibly difficult as winning limit hands (full limits especially) are exceedingly rare.

Only the winner of each game scores points for his/her hand (other players do not score any points but pay points to the winner). The winner will collect his/her total points from each player if he/she wins from the wall (unless a player was declared ready [see below]). If the winner wins on the discard of a player, that player pays the winner and the bonus points for the other player (the other player pays the winner only the game points). There are no doubles nor faan systems as in continental versions of mahjong. Points are never doubled for any reason. In the case of a player winning a half limit or limit hand, both players pay the winner (regardless of if there was a discard or not) either the limit or half of the limit (the limit depends on the players though it should be at least 40 points) and if he/she wins on a discard, the player who discards pays double.

Limit hands[edit]

Hands are optional and players may use all hands or choose based on consensus which ones to use. As all are difficult and the limit hands being very rare, all hands are included by most experienced players.

Half limit[edit]

  • Two dragons and a pair of the other dragon (little dragons)
  • Two winds and a pair of the other winds (little winds)
  • All bamboo and honours
  • At least one terminal in all sets and honours
  • Pure hand with pong of seat dragon or wind (concealed)
  • Four concealed pongs
  • Three kongs and a pair of honours
  • Little Jade Dragon (pair of 5 bamboo with the green dragon)
  • Three concealed Kongs
  • Four Kongs (concealed or not)

Full limit[edit]

  • All honours and or Terminals
  • Great Dragons (all three dragons)
  • Great Winds (all three winds)
  • Pong of 1 and 9 bamboo and pair of 5 bamboo
  • Four concealed kongs
  • Thirteen orphans (1 and 9 of each suit, one of each dragon, one of each wind and a pong of any one of these elements)
  • Nine gates is a concealed hand of 1112345678999 tiles in one suit, and winning on any extra tile of the same suit
  • Pearl Dragon (all circles and a pong/kong of the white dragon, note pair must also be circles)
  • Ruby Dragon (all character tiles and a pong/kong of the red dragon, note pair must also be characters)
  • Great Jade Dragon (pong of 1 and 9 bamboo with the green dragon)

Dead wall[edit]

Thirteen tiles are not used in the game and are placed to the side. The dealer turns over one piece. The next tile in sequence is considered a dora (having any of those pieces in a hand will give a bonus point). For example, if the tile turned over is a 3 circle, then all 4 circles will be considered dora and having a pong of 4 circles will score 3 bonus points. If a 9 is turned over then the 1 circle is considered a dora. The sequence of dragons is green, red, white, green (i.e. if a red dragon is turned over, the white dragons are dora tiles). The sequence of winds is north, east, south, north. If a flower tile is turned over then all flower tiles score 2 bonus points in total and having all three (as the flower turned over is considered a part of the dead wall and not used during the game) then the usual 8 bonus points in total are given.

Old Korean three player mahjong[edit]

Korean three player mahjong is simply playing normal Old Korean rules with three players. The North wind is kept in play, meaning in each round one wind is not attributed to a player. The point system is the same as Korean/Japanese three player mahjong though with less possible points. The minimum needed to win is two game points (not including bonus points). There are also no half limit hands. Declaring ready (reach) is used as well as the sacred discard (players cannot win on a piece discarded by another player if that player had discarded it himself before. All bamboos are removed, though players may choose to play with the 1 and 9 of bamboo, a pong being worth one point and both being worth 3. There are no 5 bamboo in the game nor seasons, nor jokers.

Chows cannot be melded with a discard unless it is to complete a hand (mahjong). The dealer is east and does not pay nor receive double points. The pay out system is a simple one stake per point. Only the winner takes points. If the winner wins by drawing from the wall, he/she takes his/her total game points and bonus points from each player. If the winner wins off of a discard, that player pays for both opponents hands and the other opponent pays nothing.

If the dealer wins the seat winds still change and the next player in order becomes dealer. If there is no winner during one game, the hand is not repeated; the next player in turn becomes dealer and takes one extra point from his opponents the next round. If that game results in a draw the winner of the following game takes two points extra. If that game results in a draw the winner of the following game takes three points extra. If there is no winner in the fourth game, depending on the variation, either the entire match is cancelled or the first player to win a game takes three points (regardless of how many draw games there are).

If all three players declare ready, depending on the variation, either that particular game is considered a draw, or the winner only wins his game points from the other players.

Japanese three player mahjong[edit]

Popular in the western part of Honshū, three player Japanese mahjong has elements is based on the structure of modern Japanese mahjong with a few changes which makes it more suited to three players and far less complicated than 4 player mahjong. Though the scoring is still somewhat complex. It has come concepts in common with the Korean/Japanese version such as the sacred discard and the payment system. There is no ghost player. The limit is 1 Yaku (fan) which may be considered low by players of other versions.

Refer to the article on Japanese Mahjong for unique Japanese playing concepts. Tiles 2-8 are removed form the character suit. Chows cannot be melded. All four winds are used. Flowers are optional and not normally used. A dora tile is exposed at the beginning of the game. 5's dora are also commonly used. The north wind acts as a flower though alternatively may be discarded as a safe tile (unless the opponent is going for a Kokushi Musou). Once all north wind tiles are exposed the next tile becomes an additional dora (there are lots of doras). There is a dead wall of 14 tiles. A player may rob a concealed kong or a declared North dora or discarded N dora to make 13 orphans. A player cannot use a discard to win if his hand, previously to using the discard, does not contain a Yaku and it is not a single wait (only one tile can complete the hand).

One Yaku (Faan)

  • A relevant wind pong/kong (seat wind or round wind)
  • A dragon pong/kong
  • Two identical chows (of the same suit)
  • Four chows and a pair of simples or non relevant wind
  • Riichi (declaring ready. Cannot change the hand until winning)
  • Tanyao (No honours or terminals)

Two Yaku

  • All sets contain a 1 or 9 or honours
  • 7 different pairs
  • Declaring Riichi on first turn
  • 1-9 of the same suit
  • 3 Hidden Pongs
  • Three Kongs
  • Three Identical Chows (of the same suit)
  • Four Pongs at least one melded

3 Yaku

  • Clean Hand
  • Each set contains terminals. No honours.
  • Three pongs in a row in the same suit

4 Yaku

  • Little Three Dragons

5 Yaku

  • Only terminals and Honours

6 Yaku

  • Pure hand (only one suit and no honours)

Yakuman (Limit)

  • Winds in the first play
  • Pure Terminals
  • Heavenly Gates
  • All three dragons
  • All Four Winds
  • Little Four winds and any pong
  • 13 Orphans
  • Staying the dealer 8 times in a row and winning any legal hand.
  • Jade Dragon
  • Four Kongs won immediately even without a pair
  • Four pongs in a row
  • All Honours

Double Yakuman

  • 13 Orphans, without having discarded any of the tiles previously nor having claims a N tile as dora.
  • Four pongs and winning on a pair.

Triple Yakuman

  • Heavenly Gates without having discarded any such tiles previously.
  • Dealer winning on first turn

Bonus Yaku

  • Robbing the Kong
  • Winning on last tile
  • Wins within one round of declaring Riichi
  • Winning off a replacement
  • Dora
  • 2 bonus yaku for winning

The payment table is complex.

[6]

Malaysian three player mahjong[edit]

Mahjong is played with only circles and honours as well as the extra 8 flowers in a Malaysian mahjong set and jokers. The point system is not changed from four player mahjong.[7]

Recap[edit]

The following is an overview of set up, game play and scoring. Experienced players should be able to understand the game based on the following and using the scoring table further below. Each element however is detailed in the following sections.

The North wind is removed. Walls are formed as walls of 13 for dealer and the wall without a seated player and 12 for opponents, or in informal play, dealer with a wall of 19 and opponents with walls of 18 having no fourth wall. Each round includes three matches of three hands and there is no North round. Chows cannot be melded by discards, only pongs and kongs. Seasons are not used. 2-8 of bamboo is removed from the game with the option of using two 5 bamboo pieces which can only be used as a pair (which when successful scores many points). Sacred discard is in effect (you cannot win on a discarded tile if you have discarded it yourself earlier that hand). Discards are placed in front of players in rows of 6. There is not doubling and dealer passes to next player in all cases. In the case of a goulash game (no winner) the next winner takes one point from each player extra. Limit hands are optional and the limit starts at 40 points. Half limit hands in such a case being 20. Limit hands must be concealed. There is a distinction between game points and bonus points. A minimum of 3 game points is necessary to win (with experienced player playing with 4 and advanced players 5 minimum game points or more). Only winner scores, taking his total score (game points and bonus points) from each player with no doubling of any kind. Discarder pays the other players score and only the bonus points if the player was ready to win (waiting for one piece with a legal minimum game points hand to be acquired). Seat dragons match seat winds (east is green, south is red and west is white). Seasons are omitted. Flowers score one bonus point each regardless of which numbered flower it is.

Changes in dynamics[edit]

The game dynamics in three player mahjong, regardless of the rule set vary based on speed, the use of tiles, point keeps, using ghost players or not and how the lack of a fourth seat wind is dealt with.

Speed[edit]

The game is always faster. With one less hand and more tiles available to the other players, the game is speedy.[8]

Wall[edit]

The wall remains the same, though playing with dead walls depends on the variation and the players. In very casual play the wall can consist of three sides.[9]

Pieces[edit]

In some variations an entire suit is removed.[10] In Malaysian mahjong only the circles and honours are used. In Korean mahjong one suit is removed or in other variations as well as in Japan, numbers 2-8 is removed from one suit. This radically changes the dynamics making certain hands more common such as single suited hands and hands without chows.[11]

East[edit]

In many versions east scores or pays double (a little more complicated in Japanese scoring), however in Korean scoring and Korean/Japanese scoring, there is no doubling of any kind.[4]

Ghost player[edit]

In some versions there is a ghost player,[5] meaning 13 tiles are not used in the wall to mimic the lack of tiles in 4 player versions. This player also takes one of the four winds, (though no tiles are dealt out to any ghost player nor are points given). In Korean, Japanese and Korean/Japanese mahjong, there is no ghost player and all tiles are used during the games.

Dragons[edit]

In some variations, each player has a seat dragon as well as a seat wind which changes the point structure. There is however never a prevailing dragon even if there is a prevailing wind. When there is a seat dragon, East is green, South is red and West is white (fortunately it follows in alphabetical order in English from dealer to last player).

Melded (or declared) chows[edit]

In some variations these are not allowed. Only pongs and kongs in three player games can be melded (or declared) meaning a chow can only be formed by a discard on winning.[2]

In Korean mahjong, 3 player Japanese mahjong and in Korean/Japanese mahjong, melded chows are never allowed except if done to compelete a hand.

Social nature[edit]

It is far more social and less likely to be played for stakes as it is looked down on as a less serious version of mahjong. However, in some versions such as Korean/Japanese three player, the rules can be intricate or complex and playing for small or large stakes forces the players to try to make more complex hands.

Point systems[edit]

The point system may or may not change depending on the variation of mahjong. In some variations a higher minimum point is expected or less points are given for certain hands. Table rules are common in three player versions and a comprehensive list of variations or versions would be a massive undertaking not in the known works in any.[12] In Hong Kong Mahjong, the doubling system is used in which certain points pay off a certain amount of money which doubles each subsequent level. For instance 1 or 2 points pay nothing. 3 or 4 points pay one unit, 5 or 6 points pay two units, 7 to 10 points pay 4 units and anything more pays 8 units. The Japanese system is rather complicated, though is simplified in three player version. The Korean system and Korean/Japanese system is a simple pay a unit per point to the winner. country.[13]

Rule agreement[edit]

The best rule set to use is the one you are familiar with, adapting them to three players as you are comfortable.[13] Korean/Japanese mahjong has a comprehensive set of rules well attuned for three player gaming, for those with some experience in mahjong. The Malaysian version is a very simplified way for social playing. House rules of are the essence and players will decide their own rules over time.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Great Mahjong Book: History, Lore, and Play
  2. ^ a b "FAQ 13: Mah-Jongg tile games for <4 players". Sloperama.com. Retrieved 2013-08-24. 
  3. ^ Mah Jong for Beginners
  4. ^ a b The Great Mahjong Book: History, Lore, and Play
  5. ^ a b "Three Player Mahjong - Mahjong Wiki (麻将维基)". Mahjong.wikidot.com. 2010-06-24. Retrieved 2013-08-24. 
  6. ^ David Hurley. "Japanese Three Player Mahjong". Japanese-mahjong.com. Retrieved 2013-08-24. 
  7. ^ Mahjong
  8. ^ David Hurley. "Three Player Mahjong News 2004". Japanese-mahjong.com. Retrieved 2013-08-24. 
  9. ^ Mah Jong for Beginners
  10. ^ The book of mahjong: an illustrated guide. Lo, Amy. Art. 2.19
  11. ^ "Welcome to Chevron Carsville". Chevroncars.com. 2009-06-01. Retrieved 2013-08-24. 
  12. ^ A Mah Jong Handbook: How to Play, Score, and Win
  13. ^ a b http://homepage.mac.com/zenblaster/mj/mah_how.html
  14. ^ Mah Jong for Beginners

External links[edit]