Threshold limit value
The threshold limit value (TLV) of a chemical substance is a level to which it is believed a worker can be exposed day after day for a working lifetime without adverse health effects. Strictly speaking, TLV is a reserved term of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). However, it is sometimes loosely used to refer to other similar concepts used in occupational health and toxicology. TLVs, along with biological exposure indices (BEIs), are published annually by the ACGIH.
The TLV is an estimate based on the known toxicity in humans or animals of a given chemical substance, and the reliability and accuracy of the latest sampling and analytical methods. It is not a static definition since new research can often modify the risk assessment of substances and new laboratory or instrumental analysis methods can improve analytical detection limits. The TLV is a recommendation by ACGIH, with only a guideline status. As such, it should not be confused with exposure limits having a regulatory status, like those published and enforced by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The OSHA regulatory exposure limits permissible exposure limits (PELs) published in 29CFR 1910.1000 Table Z1 are based on recommendations made by the ACGIH in 1968, although other exposure limits were adopted more recently. Many OSHA exposure limits are not considered by the industrial hygiene community to be sufficiently protective levels. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) publishes recommended exposure limits (RELs) which OSHA takes into consideration when promulgating new regulatory exposure limits.
The TLV for chemical substances is defined as a concentration in air, typically for inhalation or skin exposure. Its units are in parts per million (ppm) for gases and in milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m³) for particulates such as dust, smoke and mist. The basic formula for converting between ppm and mg/m³ for gases is ppm = (mg/m^3) * 24.45 / molecular weight. This formula is not applicable to airborne particles.
Three types of TLVs for chemical substances are defined:
- Threshold limit value - Time weighted average (TLV-TWA): average exposure on the basis of a 8h/day, 40h/week work schedule
- Threshold limit value - Short-term exposure limit (TLV-STEL): spot exposure for a duration of 15 minutes, that cannot be repeated more than 4 times per day with at least 60 minutes between exposure periods
- Threshold limit value - Ceiling limit (TLV-C): absolute exposure limit that should not be exceeded at any time
There are TLVs for physical agents as well as chemical substances. TLVs for physical agents include those for noise exposure, vibration, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure and heat and cold stress.
The TLV is equivalent in spirit to various occupational exposure limits developed by organizations around the world; however, the materials covered, values recommended, and definitions used can differ amongst organizations. These occupational exposure limits include:
- WEEL (Workplace Environmental Exposure Level), formerly created by a committee of the American Industrial Hygiene Association; as of January 1, 2012, new WEELs are created by a committee of volunteers that is supported by the Occupational Alliance for Risk Science.
- OES Occupational exposure standard 
- MAC (Maximaal Aanvaarde Concentratie trans. Maximum Accepted Concentration)
- New Zealand
- WES (Workplace Exposure Standards)