|• Collector||Sanal Kumar|
|• Total||3,032 km2 (1,171 sq mi)|
|• Density||985/km2 (2,550/sq mi)|
|• Official||Malayalam, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-KL-8-XXXX|
Thrissur (also Trichur, Trishur; Malayalam: തൃശൂര്, Sanskrit: श्रीशिवपुरम्) is a revenue district of Kerala situated in the central part of that state. Spanning an area of about 3,032 km2, Thrissur district is home to over 10% of Kerala’s population. Thrissur district was formed on July 1, 1949, with the headquarters at Thrissur City. Thrissur is known as the cultural capital of Kerala, and the land of Poorams. The district is famous for its ancient temples, churches, and mosques. Thrissur Pooram is the most colourful and spectacular temple festival in Kerala.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Map
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Demographic and geographic data
- 6 Geography and climate
- 7 Culture
- 8 Government and politics
- 9 Media
- 10 Industries
- 11 Places of interest in Thrissur Rural District
- 12 Important towns in Thrissur Rural District
- 13 Photo gallery of Thrissur District
- 14 Notes
- 15 External links
The name Thrissur is derived from 'Thiru-Shiva-Perur' (Malayalam / Tamil), which translates to "The city with the name of the Lord Siva". Thrissur was also known as "Vrishabhadripuram" and "Then Kailasam" (Kailasam of the south) in ancient days. Another interpretation is 'Tri-shiva-peroor' or the big land with three Shiva temples, which refers to the three places where Lord Shiva resides - namely Vadakkunnathan temple, Asokeswaram Siva temple and Irattachira Siva temple.
From ancient times, Thrissur District has played a part in the political history of south India. The early political history of the District is interlinked with that of the Cheras of the Sangam age, who ruled over vast portions of Kerala with their capital at Vanchi. The whole of the present Thrissur District was included in the early Chera Empire. The District can claim to have played a part in fostering the trade relations between Kerala and the outside world in the ancient and medieval period.
Kodungalloor, which had the distinction of being the "Primum Emporium India", gave shelter to all the three communities which have contributed to the prosperity of Malabar. These three communities are the Christians, the Jews and the Muslims. The history of Thrissur district from the 9th to the 12th centuries is the history of Kulasekharas of Mahodayapuram and the history since 12th century is the history of the rise and growth of Perumpadappu Swarupam.
In 1790 Raja Rama Varma (1790–1805) popularly known as Saktan Tampuran ascended the throne of Cochin. With the accession of this ruler the English or modern period in the history of Cochin and of the District began. Saktan Tampuran was mainly responsible for the destruction of the power of the feudal Nair chieftains and increase of royal power. Another force in the public life of Trichur and its suburbs was the Namboodithiri community and Menons of Royal ancestry. A large part of the Trichur Taluk was for long under the domination of the Yogiatiripppads, the ecclesiastical heads of the Vadakkunnathan and Perumanam Devaswoms.
The wave of nationalism and political consciousness which swept through the country since the early decades of this century has its repercussions in the District as well. Thrissur District has been in the forefront of the country-wide movement for temple entry and abolition of untouchability. The Guruvayur Satyagraha is a memorable episode in the history of the national movement.
According to the 2011 census Thrissur district has a population of 3,110,327, roughly equal to the nation of Mongolia or the US state of Iowa. This gives it a ranking of 113th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 1,026 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,660/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 4.58%. Thrissur has a sex ratio of 1109 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 95.32%. Thrissur was also the second highest urbanized district in Kerala after Ernakulam.
According to the 2001 India census, Thrissur District had a population of 2,975,440. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Thrissur has a literacy rate of 86%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 87%, and female literacy is 85%. 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. Hindus, Christians and Muslims (16.43%) constitute the bulk of the population, with Hindus as the majority, with 59.24%, closely followed by Christians(24.21%).
The Hindu community consists of and Nairs and Ezhavas. Ambalavasis and Tamil brahmins also form a percentage of the Hindu population. The Scheduled Castes, around 12% of the population of the district, also form a section among the Hindus of the district. The Catholics - both Syro Malabar and Latin, Jacobites and Chaldeans are the main sections of the Christian Community in the district. Catholics constitute 90% of the Christian population of the district spreading in 5 dioceses namely Thrissur (4,60,000), Irinjalakkuda (2,52,000) and Kottapuram (75,000). Jacobites and Chaldean Syrians constitute the rest.
Kunnamkulam, a small town in the northern part of the district is the center for the Jacobites. Jacobite church (50000 followers) has its Thrissur diocese centered at Mannuthy. Chaldean Syrians spread around Thrissur city with 25,000 followers. A church known as Thozhiyoor church has its own headquarters at Guruvayur with 7000 followers.Malankara Orthodox Church has a few hundreds of followers in the district. Muslims live predominantly in the coastal belt of the district, from north Punnayoorkkulam to South Azhikode. They are dominant in Guruvayur and Chavakkad, in good in numbers Kodungalloor, Kaipamangalam and Nattika areas Sunnis are the major section in Muslim community.
Demographic and geographic data
Source: Official Statistics 2007
|Sex ratio : Females/1000||1,092|
|Density of Population||981|
|Per Capita Income (in Rs)||21,362|
|Literacy rate||92.27%; Male 95.11%; Female 89.71%|
|Coastal line in km.||54|
|Water bodied area in ha.||5,573|
|Forest area in ha.||103619|
Geography and climate
Thrissur is situated in south western India Kerala, India. Thrissur is at sea level and spans an area of about 3032 km². It is bounded on the north by small parts of Malappuram district, on the east and North by Palakkad district and east by small parts of Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu, on the south by Ernakulam district, and on the west by the Arabian Sea (54 km).
Descending from the heights of the Western Ghats in the east, the land slopes towards the west forming three distinct natural divisions - the highlands, the plains and the sea board
The Periyar, the Chalakudy, the Karuvannur, the Kurumali River (main tributary of the Karuvannur river) and the Ponnani (Bharatha Puzha) are the main river systems in the district. They take their origin from the mountains on the east, and flow westward and discharge into the Arabian Sea. There are a number of tributaries also joining these main rivers. There are waterfalls such as Athirappilly Falls which is vastly known as "Indian Niagra" nowadays.
The district has a tropical humid climate with an oppressive hot season and plentiful and seasonal rainfall. Annual rainfall is about 3000 mm. The hot season from March to May is followed by the South West Monsoon season from June to September. The period from December to February is the North East Monsoon season. However the rain stops by the end of December and the rest of the period is generally dry.
Eastward panoramic view
Westward panoramic view
Thrissur, with its rich history, cultural heritage and archaeological wealth, is called as cultural capital of Kerala. The town is famous for its Pooram festival. This district is also a veritable treasure trove of history. The sylvan beauty of Northern Kerala begins here, with tiny, tranquil hamlets by the sides of tediously flowing rivers. An ancient cultural center, Thrissur houses the Kerala Kalamandalam, the Kerala Sahitya Academy, the Kerala Lalitakala Academy and the Kerala Sangeeta Nataka Academy.
The town is built around a hillock, crowned by the famous Vadakkumnathan (Siva) Temple. The temple is a classical example of Kerala style of architecture and houses several sacred shrines. Malik Bin Deenar and 20 others who were the followers Muhammad, the founder of Islam, first landed in Kodungallur in Thrissur district when they came to India. Islam received royal patronage in some places here, and later spread to other parts of India. He built the mosque Cheraman Juma Masjid there in the shape of a Hindu temple. It is generally considered to be the second mosque in the world after the one at Medina.
Thrissur also has added to its name The Church of Our Lady of Dolors, popularly known as the New Church. It is the biggest church in South Asia. The first church of India is also situated in Thrissur, the St. Thomas church at Palayoor. The Metropolitan of the Chaldean Syrian Church (the name used for the Church of the East in India) is also headquartered in Thrissur, and many religious publications are printed by Mar Narsai Press. The largest Christian pilgrim center in the district, St.Joseph's Shrine is situated at Pavaratty. There is a legend which tells Saint Thomas (Apostle) was landed in Kodungalloor (Muziris) in 52 AD. The Saint Thomas Church established by him houses many ancient relics. But this is not accepted by historians.
Guruvayur, famous for the Sree Krishna Temple, is situated 25 km to the North of the city. It is a sacred place not only for Keralites but for Hindus all over the world as well. The adjacent towns of Chavakkad and Kunnamkulam are important centers of Muslims and Christians respectively. The Temple at Thriprayar is another important place of worship. This ancient temple is one of the few Temples dedicated to Lord Srirama in Kerala. Incidentally, two other temples dedicated to Lord Rama, viz., the Thiruvilwamala Temple and the Kadavallur Temple fall in Thrissur district.
Kodungallur, the capital of the erstwhile Chera Empire, is a region of great archeological and historical significance. The famous Bhagavathi Temple here attracts thousands of devotees from all over Kerala. The Cheraman Juma Masjid, believed to be the oldest Mosque in India is situated here. Irinjalakkuda, where the only Bharatha Temple in India is located, is another place of importance. The Unnayi Warrier Smaraka Kalanilayam which is located near the Koodalmanickyam Temple is an important center of Kathakali Learning. Since ancient times Thrissur has been the most important center of Vedic Learning in Kerala. Yagas are still conducted in her soil with the same fervour as they used to be. The only centre of traditional Vedic Learning left in Kerala is situated at the heart of Thrissur Town.
Government and politics
The main legislative constituency in the district is Thrissur Assembly Constituency. Apart from the city constituency, there are 12 other constituencies from the district of Thrissur: Ollur Assembly Constituency, Guruvayoor, Chalakkudy, Kaipamangalam, Nattika, Kodungallur, Irinjalakuda, Puthukad, Manaloor, Kunnamkulam, Wadakkancheri and Chelakkara. There are two parliament constituencies: Thrissur Lok Sabha constituency and Chalakudy. C. N. Jayadevan is the Thrissur MP and Innocent (actor) is the Chalakudy MP. For administrative purposes, the district of Thrissur is divided into six talukas. These six taluk centres are administrative hubs for 151 villages in Thrissur.
The first newspaper which published from Thrissur was Lokamanyan in 1920. Then came Deenabandhu in 1941. Major Malayalam newspapers published in Thrissur include Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi, Deshabhimani, Deepika, Kerala Kaumudi and Madhymam. A number of evening papers are also published from the city. Newspapers in other regional languages like Hindi, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu are also sold in large numbers.
Thrissur is known for the power loom industry and the Textile Mills like the Alagappa Textiles in Alagappa Nagar, Kerala Lakshmi Mills at Pullazhi, Thrissur Cotton Mills at Nattika, Rajgopal Textiles at Athani, Sitaram Spinning and Weaving Mills Thrissur, Vanaja Textiles at Kuriachira(now defunct), Bhagavathy Spinning Mills at Thanikkudam and Kunnath Textiles at Thrissur. Thrissur are engaged in the manufacture of hosiery products.
The coir and the tile industry offer employment for many people in the district. The first saw mill in the state was erected at Trichur (1905). Most of the timber is brought down from the forests to Thrissur and Chalakkudy, which are the most important timber marts in the District. Canning is a developing industry in Thrissur and Darlco Cannings and Kayee Plantations Cannings; both have major units at Thrissur. The Thrissur Fruits and Vegetables Marketing Society are establishing a canning industrial unit at Nadathara and it is going on very successfully. Besides all these the match stick industry, pharmaceuticals, printing etc. give Thrissur its fame as a bustling industrial centre. The first Worker's Indian Coffee House of the state was opened in Thrissur (1957).
The 400 kV Electric Power Station at Madakkathara near Thanikkudam is the major electrical hub connecting the KSEB electrical power system to the national electrical grid. The station serves more than 30% of the state's electrical energy requirements and acts as the principal feed to the northern half of Kerala.
Avinissery, a village south of Thrissur city is an important centre of Khadi and Village Industries.
Places of interest in Thrissur Rural District
- Athirapilly Water Falls (63 km from Thrissur City): This 80 feet high waterfall at the threshold of the Sholayar ranges is a popular picnic spot. Two amusement parks - DreamWorld and SilverStorm - are located nearby.
- Vazhachal : Just a short drive from Athirapilly is close to dense forests and a part of the Chalakudy river.
- Punnathur Kotta Elephant Sanctuary (23 km from city): It is the largest elephant park in the world, with over 60 elephants.
- Peechi Dam: (20 km from city) It is a good picnic spot
- Poomala Dam: A picturesque natural reserve and tourist spot with an irrigation dam.
- Chavakad Beach (25 km): A sea shore for rare scenic beauty. Acknowledged as one of the best beaches along the west coast.
- Vazhani Dam (24 km from city): It is a good picnic spot
- Snehatheeram beach: This beautiful and calm beach is around 23 km from town of Thrissur near by Nattika village. Many fishing boats and community can be seen.Few beach resorts are also nearby.
- Chimmony dam (35 km from city): It is a beautiful picnic spot with facilities for boating
- Kerala Kalamandalam (30 km): It is in Cheruthuruthy and was founded by the Poet Sri. Vallathol Narayana Menon, to encourage the study of the ancient arts of Kerala such as Kathakali and Mohiniyattom.
- Koodalmanikyam Temple
- There are many Hindu temples in Thrissur Rural District
Important towns in Thrissur Rural District
- Timeline of Thrissur
- Harinagar Poonkunnam
Photo gallery of Thrissur District
East Gate of Vadakumnathan Temple.
Poothan and Thira for the Machattu Vela festival, near Wadakkanchery.
- "Official Census 2001". Government of Kerala. Retrieved 2010-09-18.
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01.
Mongolia 3,133,318 July 2011 est.
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- The Official Website of Thrissur District
- Official website of Thrissur district http://www.tsr.kerala.gov.in/barefacts.htm
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