Thymerais landscape in the winter near Senonches
A map of the Eure-et-Loir showing the group of Thymerais communes in red
A former country of Perche under the Merovingian dynasty, it took its name from its membership Theodemer, prince of the Merovingian family. The country was then called Theodemerensis (literally Theodemer Territory) in his honor, then abbreviated Themerensis and Frenchified in Thymerais or Thimerais. The country was attached to the Kingdom of France early on.
Thymerais is also associated with the barony of Châteauneuf-en-Thymerais whose territory included in the thirteenth century the north-west of the Eure-et-Loir and some villages in Drouais, Eure and Orne, and overflowed the present townships of Courville and La Loupe.
The name Thymerais was taken in 2003 to designate the Community of Thymerais Municipalities bringing together communities in the canton of Châteauneuf-en-Thymerais. Châteauneuf-en-Thymerais and Thimert-Gâtelles are the historic center of this district.
Open to influences from the Île-de-France, Pays Chartrain, Normandy and Perche, Thymerais consists of plateaus and valleys cleared the Middle ages and covered with forests and dotted with ponds. It is a transition zone and is bounded roughly by the River Avre in north which separates the department of Eure and River Eure in south and east and by the department of Orne in the west.
The region, mainly agricultural, is a plateau but has a hilly area covered with forests south and west. These forests, especially those of Châteauneuf-en-Thymerais and Senonches alone represent more than half the area of forest in the Eure-et-Loir. The massive Senonches belongs to the Regional Park of the Perche. Its soils are composed of flint suitable for growing grain. The region is also known for its iron.
Region seems to have long been linked to the natural region of Perche in the sense that a forest area designated Perche known until the sixth century not to be confused with formed by all the constituencies established policies on the old silva pertica. This error seems perdurée since the Bry Clergerie that divided Perche into four parts:
- The Great Perche, or proper Perche;
- The Perche-Gouet, which merged with the Little Perche;
- The Thimerais, or "Land dismembered";
- The French Lands, so called because they followed the custom of France and not that of Normandy, district, according to Bry Clergerie, included the Tour grise de Verneuil and was connected to Thimerais.
The Thimerais would be born on the Perche as a result of its progressive deforestation for agricultural purposes. Name Thimerais designated the area around the castle Thimert (near Châteauneuf-en-Thymerais). The Thimerais becoming in Middle Ages, the barony of Chateauneuf; he was called "Land dismembered" because, after being joined to the Kingdom of France, he was separated from his fields and not, as is often believed, of the province of Perche. In the sixteenth century in favor of Henri de Bourbon (the future Henry IV) and Henri de Gonzague. This corner of earth, as the entire extent between Avre and Eure, was part of silva Perlica.
The villages of the region have gradually lost their suffix-Perche. Châteauneuf adopted the suffix Thymerais to distinguish a city namesake and Verneuil-en-Perche became Verneuil-sur-Avre. Only one village in his name, kept the word Perche, providing evidence of the decline in Perche. It is Louvilliers (Canton Brezolles). Having said Lovillare Pertico around 1250 and another in the late fifteenth century, this village has ceased to occur inside the Perche, never to assert that nearly its limit, and he took the name Louvilliers-lès-Perche.
The origin of Thymerais date in the seventh century, when the king Thierry III gave this territory to Theodemer, prince of the Merovingian family. The country was then called Theodemerensis (that is to say literally Territory Theodemer) and abbreviated Themerensis and Frenchified in thymerais.
According to the literature Earl of Romanet, the territory that was originally part Thymerais counties of Chartres and Dreux, was occupied by powerful lords who went independent enough to not only meet the king of France.
From a religious point of view, while the Thymerais was included in the diocese of Chartres, which he occupied the north-west. It was composed of 14 parishes.
In 1058, Albert Ribaud, lord of Thymerais, who took a stand against William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy and king of England, the latter seized Thimert and left there a governor, but the following year, King Henri Ier of France, he took up the castle and razed. Gaston, brother of Albert Ribaud built a short distance in a clearing in the woods, a fort named Chastel-neuf. It was formed around a village of the same name, which soon became the capital of Thymerais.
From a standpoint feudal, the Thymerais formed in 1200 one great fief whose center was Châteauneuf-en-Thymerais. This fee was divided into two parts, one falling and one of the crown of France. On one side Chateauneuf, and the other Senonches and Brezolles erected later Senonches County.
In the eighteenth century, La Ferte-Vidame was distracted from the barony of Châteauneuf-en-Thymerais and attached to the Crown of France and that of Maillebois and Blévy and in this way until the late eighteenth century the barony of Chateauneuf-en-Thymerais was far from having the same extent in the thirteenth century, and as Thymerais instead of a single stronghold had four: the barony of Chateauneuf, the County of Senonches, the marquisat of Maillebois and the County of La Ferte-Vidame.
In financial terms, and administrative, Thimerais was part of the election of Verneuil, included in the Generalité of Alençon and divided into four subdivisions (Thimerais addition, this election still included eight parishes in the province of Perche since the abolition of the election Longny in 1080 and a number of parishes Norman).
In military terms, the Thimerais belonged to the government of Ile de France, where he had a Chateauneuf constabulary and archers.
- Le Perche par René Musset Annales de Géographie Année 1919 Volume 28 Numéro 155 p 354
- Histoire des pays et comté du Perche, 1620, par Bry de la Clergerie
- Le Perche par René Musset Annales de Géographie Année 1919 Volume 28 Numéro 155 p 356
- Épisodes de l'invasion anglaise. La guerre de partisans dans la Haute-Normandie, 1424-1429, de Germain Lefèvre-Pontalis, Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes, Année 1895, volume 56, numéro 56, p. 441
- Géographie du Perche et chronologie de ses comtes par le vicomte de Romanet, chapitre III
- Chartes servant de pièces justificatives à la géographie du Perche par le compte de Romanet