Thyrotropin receptor

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Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor
Protein TSHR PDB 1XUM.png
Rendering based on PDB 1XUM.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols TSHR ; CHNG1; LGR3; hTSHR-I
External IDs OMIM603372 MGI98849 HomoloGene315 IUPHAR: TSH receptor ChEMBL: 1963 GeneCards: TSHR Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE TSHR 210055 at tn.png
PBB GE TSHR 215442 s at tn.png
PBB GE TSHR 215443 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7253 22095
Ensembl ENSG00000165409 ENSMUSG00000020963
UniProt P16473 P47750
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000369 NM_001113404
RefSeq (protein) NP_000360 NP_001106875
Location (UCSC) Chr 14:
81.42 – 81.61 Mb
Chr 12:
91.4 – 91.54 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

The thyrotropin receptor (or TSH receptor) is a receptor (and associated protein) that responds to thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as "thyrotropin") and stimulates the production of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The TSH receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily of integral membrane proteins[1] and is coupled to the Gs protein.[2]

It is primarily found on the surface of the thyroid epithelial cells.

Function[edit]

Upon binding circulating thyrotropin, a G-protein signal cascade activates adenylyl cyclase and intercellular levels of cAMP rise. cAMP activates all functional aspects of the thyroid cell, including iodine pumping; thyroglobulin synthesis, iodination, endocytosis and proteolysis; thyroid peroxidase activity; and hormone release.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Farid NR, Szkudlinski MW (2004). "Minireview: structural and functional evolution of the thyrotropin receptor". Endocrinology 145 (9): 4048–57. doi:10.1210/en.2004-0437. PMID 15231707. 
  2. ^ Calebiro D, Nikolaev VO, Lohse MJ (July 2010). "Imaging of persistent cAMP signaling by internalized G protein-coupled receptors". J. Mol. Endocrinol. 45 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1677/JME-10-0014. PMID 20378719. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Führer D, Wonerow P, Willgerodt H, Paschke R (1998). "Identification of a new thyrotropin receptor germline mutation (Leu629Phe) in a family with neonatal onset of autosomal dominant nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism.". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82 (12): 4234–8. doi:10.1210/jc.82.12.4234. PMID 9398746. 
  • Farid NR, Kascur V, Balazs C (2000). "The human thyrotropin receptor is highly mutable: a review of gain-of-function mutations.". Eur. J. Endocrinol. 143 (1): 25–30. doi:10.1530/eje.0.1430025. PMID 10870027. 
  • Szkudlinski MW, Fremont V, Ronin C, Weintraub BD (2002). "Thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor structure-function relationships.". Physiol. Rev. 82 (2): 473–502. doi:10.1152/physrev.00031.2001. PMID 11917095. 
  • Tonacchera M, Vitti P, De Servi M, et al. (2004). "Gain of function TSH receptor mutations and iodine deficiency: implications in iodine prophylaxis.". J. Endocrinol. Invest. 26 (2 Suppl): 2–6. PMID 12762632. 
  • Arturi F, Scarpelli D, Coco A, et al. (2004). "Thyrotropin receptor mutations and thyroid hyperfunctioning adenomas ten years after their first discovery: unresolved questions.". Thyroid 13 (4): 341–3. doi:10.1089/105072503321669811. PMID 12804102. 
  • Vaidya B, Campbell V, Tripp JH, et al. (2004). "Premature birth and low birth weight associated with nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism due to an activating thyrotropin receptor gene mutation.". Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) 60 (6): 711–8. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2004.02040.x. PMID 15163335. 
  • Takeshita A, Nagayama Y, Fujiyama K, et al. (1992). "Molecular cloning and sequencing of an alternatively spliced form of the human thyrotropin receptor transcript.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 188 (3): 1214–9. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(92)91360-3. PMID 1445355. 
  • Graves PN, Tomer Y, Davies TF (1992). "Cloning and sequencing of a 1.3 KB variant of human thyrotropin receptor mRNA lacking the transmembrane domain.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 187 (2): 1135–43. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(92)91315-H. PMID 1530609. 
  • Loosfelt H, Pichon C, Jolivet A, et al. (1992). "Two-subunit structure of the human thyrotropin receptor". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89 (9): 3765–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.9.3765. PMC 525571. PMID 1570295. 
  • Nagayama Y, Russo D, Wadsworth HL, et al. (1991). "Eleven amino acids (Lys-201 to Lys-211) and 9 amino acids (Gly-222 to Leu-230) in the human thyrotropin receptor are involved in ligand binding". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (23): 14926–30. PMID 1651314. 
  • Murakami M, Mori M (1990). "Identification of immunogenic regions in human thyrotropin receptor for immunoglobulin G of patients with Graves' disease". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 171 (1): 512–8. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(90)91423-P. PMID 1697467. 
  • Heldin NE, Gustavsson B, Westermark K, Westermark B (1992). "A somatic point mutation in a putative ligand binding domain of the TSH receptor in a patient with autoimmune hyperthyroidism". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 73 (6): 1374–6. doi:10.1210/jcem-73-6-1374. PMID 1955520. 
  • Libert F, Passage E, Lefort A, et al. (1991). "Localization of human thyrotropin receptor gene to chromosome region 14q3 by in situ hybridization". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 54 (1–2): 82–3. doi:10.1159/000132964. PMID 2249482. 
  • Frazier AL, Robbins LS, Stork PJ, et al. (1991). "Isolation of TSH and LH/CG receptor cDNAs from human thyroid: regulation by tissue specific splicing". Mol. Endocrinol. 4 (8): 1264–76. doi:10.1210/mend-4-8-1264. PMID 2293030. 
  • Misrahi M, Loosfelt H, Atger M, et al. (1990). "Cloning, sequencing and expression of human TSH receptor". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 166 (1): 394–403. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(90)91958-U. PMID 2302212. 
  • Nagayama Y, Kaufman KD, Seto P, Rapoport B (1990). "Molecular cloning, sequence and functional expression of the cDNA for the human thyrotropin receptor". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 165 (3): 1184–90. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(89)92727-7. PMID 2558651. 
  • Libert F, Lefort A, Gerard C, et al. (1990). "Cloning, sequencing and expression of the human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor: evidence for binding of autoantibodies". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 165 (3): 1250–5. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(89)92736-8. PMID 2610690. 
  • Cuddihy RM, Bryant WP, Bahn RS (1996). "Normal function in vivo of a homozygotic polymorphism in the human thyrotropin receptor". Thyroid 5 (4): 255–7. doi:10.1089/thy.1995.5.255. PMID 7488864. 
  • Bahn RS, Dutton CM, Heufelder AE, Sarkar G (1994). "A genomic point mutation in the extracellular domain of the thyrotropin receptor in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 78 (2): 256–60. doi:10.1210/jc.78.2.256. PMID 7508946. 
  • Sunthornthepvarakui T, Gottschalk ME, Hayashi Y, Refetoff S (1995). "Brief report: resistance to thyrotropin caused by mutations in the thyrotropin-receptor gene". N. Engl. J. Med. 332 (3): 155–60. doi:10.1056/NEJM199501193320305. PMID 7528344. 

External links[edit]