Tianjin (Chinese: 天津; pinyin: Tiānjīn; Mandarin: [tʰjɛn˥ tɕin˥] ( ); Tianjinese: /tʰiɛn˨˩tɕin˨˩/~[tʰjɛ̃̀ɦɪ̀ŋ]; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It is governed as one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of the PRC, and is thus under direct administration of the central government. Tianjin borders Hebei Province and Beijing Municipality, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea. Part of the Bohai Economic Rim, it is the largest coastal city in northern China.
In terms of urban population, Tianjin is the fourth largest in China, after Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou. Tianjin is a dual-core city, with its main urban area (including the old city) located along the Hai River, which connects to the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers via the Grand Canal; and Binhai, a New Area urban core located east of the old city, on the coast of Bohai Sea. As of the end of 2010, around 285 Fortune 500 companies have set up base in Binhai, which is a new growth pole in China and is a hub of advanced industry and financial activity. Since the mid-19th century, Tianjin has been a major seaport and gateway to the nation's capital.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Administrative divisions
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Media
- 8 Tourism
- 9 Landmarks and Attractions
- 10 Culture
- 11 Cuisine
- 12 Transport
- 13 Religion
- 14 Sports
- 15 Education
- 16 International relations
- 17 Notable people from Tianjin
- 18 See also
- 19 References
- 20 External links
The land where Tianjin is located today was created in ancient times by sedimentation of various rivers entering the sea at Bohai Gulf, including the Yellow River which entered the sea in this area at one point.
There are diverse viewpoints for the origin of the name, "Tianjin". One version states that "Tianjin" as a word initially appeared in the poems of Qu Yuan, a famous patriotic poet of Chu State in the Warring States period. In his masterpiece "Li Sao" (离骚, The Outlet of Sorrow and Dissatisfaction), there is a verse ”朝发轫于天津兮”(At dawn, departing from the Port of the Heaven). Another view is that "Tianjin" also used to be a name of the star in the Chinese traditional astronomical system as recorded in the Astronomy Record in the Book of Sui. A third view states that "Tianjin" was recorded in the River Record in History of the Jin. The Origin from Emperor’s Name-giving-This perhaps is the most reliable point of view. Tianjin means literally The Ferry Site of Emperor (The Son of Heaven). It was said that Emperor Yongle, who was one of the sons of Emperor Taizu of the Ming Dynasty, before his enthronement for getting the crown of the Emperor, launched a war against the successor of Emperor Taizu, Zhu Yunwen, the grandson of Emperor Hongwu in Nanjing. He departed from the Gu River of Tianjin and, after his success in enthronement, gave his departure site a name: Tianjin.
The Grand Canal
The opening of the Grand Canal during the Sui Dynasty prompted the development of Tianjin into a trading center. Until 1404, Tianjin was called "Zhigu" (直沽), or "Straight Port". In that year, the Yongle Emperor renamed the city Tianjin meaning "the Heavenly Ford" to indicate that the Emperor (the Son of Heaven) forded the river at that point. This is because he had indeed forded the river in Tianjin when in contention with his nephew for the throne. Later, a fort was established in Tianjin, known as "Tianjin Wei" (天津卫), the Fort of Tianjin.
Tianjin was promoted to a prefecture in 1725. Tianjin County was established under the prefecture in 1731.
Opening up as a treaty port
In 1856, Chinese soldiers boarded The Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship registered in Hong Kong flying the British flag and suspected of piracy, smuggling, and of being engaged in the opium trade. They captured 12 men and imprisoned them. In response, the British and French sent gunboats under the command of Admiral Sir Michael Seymour to capture the Taku forts (大沽砲台) near Tianjin in May 1858. At the end of the first part of the Second Opium War in June of the same year, the British and French prevailed, and the Treaties of Tianjin were signed, which opened Tianjin to foreign trade. The treaties were ratified by the Emperor of China in 1860, and Tianjin was formally opened to Great Britain and France, and thus to the outside world. Between 1895 and 1900, Britain and France were joined by Japan, Germany and Russia, and even by countries without Chinese concessions such as Austria-Hungary, Italy and Belgium, in establishing self-contained concessions in Tianjin, each with its own prisons, schools, barracks and hospitals. These nations left many architectural reminders of their rule, notably churches and thousands of villas. Today those villas provide an exotic flavour to Tianjin.
The presence of foreign influence in Tianjin was not always peaceful; one of the most serious violent incidents to take place was the Tianjin Church Incident (天津教案). In June 1870, the orphanage held by the Wanghailou Church (望海楼教堂), Our Lady of Victories, in Tianjin, built by French Roman Catholic missionaries, was accused of the kidnapping and brainwashing of Chinese children. On June 21, the magistrate of Tianjin County initiated a showdown at the church that developed into violent clashes between the church's Christian supporters and non-Christian Tianjin residents. The furious protestors eventually burned down Wanghailou Church and the nearby French consulate and killed eighteen foreigners including ten French nuns, the French consul, and merchants. France and six other Western nations complained to the Qing government, which was forced to pay compensation for the incident.
In June 1900, the Boxers were able to seize control of much of Tianjin. On June 26, European defense forces heading towards Beijing were stopped by Boxers at nearby Langfang, and were defeated and forced to turn back to Tianjin. The foreign concessions were also under siege for several weeks.
In July 1900, the Eight-Nation Alliance recaptured Tianjin. This alliance soon established the Tianjin Provisional Government, composed of representatives from each of the occupying forces (Russian, British, Japanese, German, French, American, Austro-Hungarian, and Italian). The city was governed by this council until August 15, 1902 when the city was returned to Qing control. Eminent Qing General Yuan Shikai led efforts to transform Tianjin into a modern city, establishing the first modern Chinese police force. In 1907, Yuan supervised China's first modern democratic elections for a county council.
Western nations were permitted to garrison the area to ensure open access to Beijing. The British maintained a brigade of two battalions in Tianjin, and the Italians, French, Japanese, Germans, Russians, and Austro-Hungarians maintained understrength regiments; the United States did not initially participate. During World War I, the German and Austro-Hungarian garrisons were captured and held as Prisoners of War by Allied Forces while the Bolshevik government withdrew the Russian garrison in 1918. In 1920, the remaining participating nations asked the United States to join them, and the US then sent the 15th Infantry Regiment, less one battalion, to Tientsin from the Philippines.
Tianjin was established as a municipality of China (直辖市) in 1927.
Garrison duty was highly regarded by the troops. General George C. Marshall, the "architect of victory" in World War II when he was the United States Army Chief of Staff, served at Tientsin in the 1920s as Executive Officer of the 15th Infantry. The US withdrew this unit in 1938 and a US presence was maintained only by the dispatch of a small US Marine Corps contingent from the Embassy Guard at Beijing.
Second Sino-Japanese War
On July 30, 1937, Tianjin fell to Japan, as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War, but was not entirely occupied, as the Japanese for the most part respected foreign concessions until 1941, when the American and British concessions were occupied. In the summer of 1939, there occurred a major crisis in Anglo-Japanese relations with the Tientsin Incident. On June 14, 1939, the Imperial Japanese Army surrounded and blockaded the British concession over the refusal of the British authorities to hand over to the Japanese six Chinese who had assassinated a locally prominent Japanese collaborator, and had taken refuge in the British concession. For a time, the 1939 crisis appeared likely to cause an Anglo-Japanese war, especially when reports of the maltreatment by the Japanese Army of British subjects wishing to leave or enter the concession appeared in the British press. The crisis ended when the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was advised by the Royal Navy and the Foreign Office that the only way to force the Japanese to lift the blockade was to send the main British battle fleet to Far Eastern waters, and that given the current crisis in Europe that it would be inappropriate to send the British fleet out of European waters, thus leading the British to finally turn over the six Chinese, who were then executed by the Japanese. During the Japanese occupation, Tianjin was ruled by the North China Executive Committee, a puppet state based in Beijing.
On August 9, 1940, all of the British troops in Tianjin were ordered to withdraw. On November 14, 1941 the American Marine unit stationed in Tianjin was ordered to leave, but before this could be accomplished, the Japanese attacked the United States. The American Marine detachment surrendered to the Japanese on December 8, 1941. Only the Italian and French concessions (the local French officials were loyal to Vichy) were allowed by the Japanese to remain. Japanese occupation lasted until August 15, 1945, with the surrender of Japan marking the end of World War II.
Post World War II
In October 2010, the UN Climate Change Conference convened in Tianjin.
Tianjin is located along the west coast of the Bohai Gulf, looking out to the provinces Shandong and Liaoning across those waters, bordered by Beijing 120 kilometres (75 mi) to the northwest, and except for the east, is surrounded on all sides by Hebei. With a latitude ranging from 38° 34' to 40° 15' N, and longitude ranging from 116° 43' to 118° 04' E, the total area is 11,860.63 km2 (4,579.41 sq mi). There is 153 km (95 mi) of coastline and 1,137.48 km (706.80 mi) of land border. It lies at the northern end of the Grand Canal of China, which connects with the Yellow River and Yangtze River. The municipality is generally flat, and swampy near the coast, but hilly in the far north, where the Yan Mountains intrude into northern Tianjin. The highest point in the municipality is Jiuding Peak (九顶山) in Ji County on the northern border with Hebei, at an altitude of 1,078.5 m (3,538 ft).
The Hai River forms within Tianjin Municipality at the confluence of the Ziya River (子牙河), Daqing River (大清河), Yongding River, North Grand Canal, and South Grand Canal, and enters the Pacific Ocean within the municipality as well, in Tanggu District. Major reservoirs include the Beidagang Reservoir in the extreme south (in Dagang District) and the Yuqiao Reservoir in the extreme north in Ji County.
Tianjin features a four season, monsoon-influenced climate, typical of East Asia, with cold, windy, very dry winters reflecting the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone, and hot, humid summers, due to the monsoon. Spring in the city is dry and windy, occasionally seeing sandstorms blowing in from the Gobi Desert, capable of lasting for several days. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −3.5 °C (25.7 °F) in January to 26.6 °C (79.9 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 12.66 °C (54.8 °F). Sunshine, at 2,522 hours annually, is quite generous during most of the year. With the low annual total precipitation of 540 millimetres (21.3 in), and nearly three-fifths of it occurring in July and August alone, the city lies within the humid continental zone, with parts of the municipality being semi-arid (Köppen Dwa/BSk, respectively).
Extreme temperatures have ranged from −22.9 °C (−9 °F) to 40.5 °C (105 °F).
|Climate data for Tianjin (1971–2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||1.8
|Average low °C (°F)||−7.5
|Precipitation mm (inches)||3.3
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||1.8||2.1||2.9||4.4||6.0||8.0||12.4||10.2||6.0||4.5||3.5||2.0||63.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||178.3||176.9||205.3||229.8||265.7||251.2||217.6||223.3||223.3||211.1||173.1||166.2||2,521.8|
|Percent possible sunshine||59||59||56||58||60||57||48||53||60||61||57||57||57.1|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
In addition, the Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area (TEDA) is not a formal level of administration, but nevertheless enjoys rights similar to a regular district.
The politics of Tianjin is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in the mainland China.
The Mayor of Tianjin is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Tianjin. Since Tianjin is a municipality, the Communist Party of China Municipal Committee Secretary is colloquially termed the "Tianjin CPC Party chief".
Tianjin's GDP reached 1.12 trillion yuan in 2011, an increase of 16.4 percent over 2010. The city of Tianjin recorded China's highest per-capita GDP with $13,393, followed by Shanghai with $12,784 and Beijing with $12,447, levels on par with some developed countries.
The municipality recorded an impressive 16.5% increase in GDP in 2009, second only to the 16.9% rate in resource-rich Inner Mongolia, and nearly double the national growth rate. In the short term, infrastructure spending will buoy Tianjin's economy. There are substantial projects under way to extend the metro system and improve road and rail links with the nearby national capital, Beijing.
Although the international financial crisis spreads rapidly and the speed of world economy growth is slowing down, Tianjin economy still maintains at a steady and fast growing speed. In 2008, Tianjin total output value was RMB 635.438 billion, an increase of 16.5%, say RMB 130.398 billion increase over last year, the first time with an increase of exceeding RMB 100 billion. The total output value per capita in Tianjin was USD 7,800, nearing the level of middle developed countries. Tianjin had realized a directly contracted foreign investment of up to USD 13.256 billion, an increase of 15.1%, and actual contributed capital of USD 7.420, increasing 40.6% year on year. So far Tianjin has had 21,048 companies with foreign investment, with accumulated foreign investment of USD 47.2 billion.
At the same time, Tianjin is actively developing financial reform and innovation. The China Bohai Bank, the first national commercial bank limited by shares with headquarter in Tianjin, had setup 6 branches and 14 offices open to the public by the end of 2008. In March 2008, the national non-listed public companies equity exchange market (OTC) was established in Tianjin upon approval of the State Council. Tianjin has become the pilot city with the most industrial investment funds in China. The China National Private Equity Forum was held in Tianjin again, with approx. 500 investment companies and private fund institutions as well as about 2,000 growing enterprises involving in global capital circulation through this Capital Connection in Tianjin. Supported by the strong actual goods exchange, Tianjin takes futures industry development as a key part of its financial reform and innovation. In July 2008, the Yide Futures Broker Co., move its headquarter to Tianjin. Tianjin Finance Town Project, North Jiefang Road as its axle, has been initiated. It will be built into a comprehensive, open and intellectual finance service area within ten years.
Tianjin is transforming into a hub city for international shipping and logistics, modern manufacturing and research and development. Nominal GDP of Tianjin has swelled by 2.8 times from 184 RMB billion in 2001 to 505 RMB billion in 2007. Tianjin pillar industries are electronic information technology, automotive, bio-tech and pharmaceuticals, metallurgy and petrochemicals industries. The new coastal area, consisting of Tianjin Port, Tianjin Economic and Technology Development Area and Tianjin Bonded area, has attracted numerous world-famous businesses like Motorola, Toyota and Samsung. Globalization and opening up of the economy to the rest of the world have brought about remarkable benefits to the economic growth of Tianjin.
Government finance revenue of Tianjin has increased by more than threefold from 16 RMB billion in 2001 to 54 RMB billion in 2007. As revenue rises, expenditure on science and technology, education, culture, health and sports following suit as well, reaching 10 billion RMB in 2004, constituting to 30.7% of the city's financial expenditure. Revenue has also been used in the building of infrastructures such as new roads, new bridges and commercial houses. One of the development objectives in the 11th Five year Plan is to have financial revenue growing at the rate of 16% annually.
Skyscrapers in Tianjin:
|Goldin Finance 117||597.00m|
|Four Seasons Tower||339.00m|
|Yujiapu Administrative Services Center||299.45m|
|Bohai Bank Tower||270.00m|
|5 Taian Dao||253.40m|
Tianjin total investments in fixed assets have soared from 62 RMB billion in 2001 to 239 RMB billion in 2007, representing a 3.9 times surge over a period of six years. Tianjin has build up its competitive advantages in the investment landscape such as: convenient port transportation services, an open market, advanced logistic services, alluring preferential policies and having efficient government services. By the end of 2004, more than 118 countries and regions invested in Tianjin, setting up approximately 16, 000 enterprises. Currently, Tianjin is developing itself into an eco-city, thus, bringing multiple prospects for investments in fixed assets in the subsequent time periods.
The manufacturing sector was the largest (54.8%) and fastest-growing (18.2%) sector of Tianjin's economy in 2009. Major industries include petrochemical industries, textiles, car manufacturing, mechanical industries, and metalworking. EADS Airbus is an important manufacturer, and has opened an assembly plant for its Airbus A320 series airliners, operational since 2009. Tianjin also hit the news in 2010, as the current fastest supercomputer in the world, Tianhe-1A, is located at the National Supercomputing Center in Tianjin. GDP in 2009 hit ￥750.1 billion, with a per capita of RMB￥62,403.
|Industrial complexes in Tianjin||Details|
|Tianjin Airport International Logistics Zone||Tianjin Airport International Logistics Zone is jointly invested by Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone and Tianjin Binhai International Airport. It is located inside the airfreight area of Tianjin Binhai International Airport. It has domestic and foreign excellent airfreight logistics enterprises engaged in sorting, warehousing, distribution, processing, exhibition. It is in the process of constructing the largest airfreight base in northern China.|
|Tianjin Economic & Technological Development Area (Also known as TEDA)|
|Tianjin Baodi Economic and Technological Development Area|
|Tianjin Export Processing Zone||Tianjin Export Processing Zone is one of the first 15 export processing zones approved by the State Council on April 27, 2000. This is a special enclosed zone where the Customs conduct 24-hour administration on commodities transported into and out of the zone and relevant places. The central government granted this special economic zone special preferential policies to attract enterprises in the business of processing and trade to invest in the zone. Tianjin Export Processing Zone is located to the northeast of TEDA with a planned area of 2.54 km2 (0.98 sq mi). The area developed in the first phase is 1 m2. A permanent wall is built to separate export processing zone and non-export processing zone.|
|TEDA Western Zone||Land expansion is being carried out in Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area. The newly expanded area-the Western Zone of TEDA is located in the western part of TEDA between Tianjin Port and Tianjin International Airport. It covers an area of approximately 48 km2 (19 sq mi)|
|Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone|||
|Tianjin Tanggu National Marine High-Tech Development Area||Tianjin Tanggu Marine High-Tech Development Area was established in 1992, and was upgraded to the national-level high-tech development area by the State Council in 1995, it is the only national-level high-tech development area specializing in developing the marine Hi-Tech industry. By the end of 2008, the zone has 2068 corporations and has 5 industries there including new materials, oil manufacturing, modern machinery manufacturing, and electronic information.|
|Huayuan Area Industrial Development Park|
|Wuqing Development Area|
|Micro-Electronic Industry Park (Jinnan)||In 2003, TEDA cooperated with Jinnan District of Tianjin and build up the Science & Technology Park of TEDA, which is the extension of TEDA with new functions in space, industry, management, culture and service. Tianjin TEDA Scientific Technology Industrial Park Development & Construction Co. Ltd (TTSTIPDC) was established in October, 2003, supported by Tianjin TEDA Investment & Holding Co. Ltd and Tianjin Jinnan District Town Construction Integrative Investment Co. Ltd. The company is funded by 200 million RMB. It works at investing and managing land, energy & infrastructure project construction and marketing management, setting up creative, life, culture common establishment and common business, setting up the third industry, development and management real estate.|
|Nangang Industrial Zone||A world-level heavy and chemical industry base and harbor; an important part of the "dual-city, dual-harbor"space development strategy of Tianjin, a world-class demonstration zone of circular economy. The total planned area of Nangang Industrial Zone is 200 km2 (77 sq mi), of which the terrestrial area is 162 km2 (63 sq mi).|
Farmland takes up about 40% of Tianjin Municipality's total area. Wheat, rice, and maize are the most important crops. Fishing is important along the coast.
Tianjin Municipality also has deposits of about 1 billion tonnes of petroleum, with Dagang District containing important oilfields. Salt production is also important, with Changlu Yanqu being one of China's most important salt production areas. Geothermal energy is another resource of Tianjin. Deposits of manganese and boron under Tianjin were the first to be found in China.
Binhai New Area
Tianjin Binhai New Area (TBNA) is located in the juncture of the Beijing-Tianjin City Belt and the Circum-Bohai City Belt. It is the gateway to North China, Northeast China, and Northwest China. Lying in the center of Northeast Asia, it is the nearest point of departure of the Eurasian Continental Bridge.
|Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.|
At the end of 2009, the population of Tianjin Municipality was 12.28 million, of which 9.8 million were residential holders of Tianjin hukou (permanent residence). Among Tianjin permanent residents, 5.99 million were urban, and 3.81 million were rural.
|Ethnic groups in Tianjin, 2000 census|
Tianjin People's Broadcasting Station is the major radio station in Tianjin. Broadcasting in nine channels, it serves most of North China, part of East and Northeast China, reaching an audience of over 100 million. Tianjin Television, the local television station, broadcasts in nine channels. It also boasts a paid digital channel, featuring home improvement programs. Both the radio and television stations are now branches of the Tianjin Film, Radio and Television Group, established in October 2002.
Major local newspapers include the Tianjin Daily and Jin Wan Bao (literally, tonight newspaper), which are the flagship papers of Tianjin Daily Newspaper Group and Jinwan Mass Media Group, respectively. There are also three English-language magazines: Jin, Tianjin Plus and Business Tianjin, mostly directed at ex-pats resident in the city.
In 1912 Tianjin had 17 Chinese-language newspapers and 5 daily newspapers in other languages; none of the newspapers in the Tientsin district were trade papers. Of the foreign language newspapers, three were in English and one each was in French and German. Newspapers from Tianjin published in Tianjin included China Critic, Peking and Tientsin Times, The China Times, Tageblatt für Nordchina, 'L'Echo de Tientsin, China Tribune, Ta Kung Pao (L'Impartial), Min Hsing Pao, and Jih Jih Shin Wen Pao (Tsientsin Daily News). Newspapers from Beijing published in Tianjin included Pei Ching Jih Pao, Peking Daily News, and Le Journal de Peking.
The city has many sights; it's the streetscapes – an assemblage of historic nineteenth - and early twentieth-century European architecture, juxtaposed with the concrete and glass monoliths of contemporary China – that are its most engrossing attraction. Though wide swaths of the city are being redeveloped, much of the colonial architecture has been placed under protection, and the shopping opportunities, especially for antiques, just about justify a day-trip from the capital, an hour away by train.
In the nineteenth century, the port city caught the attention of the seafaring Western powers, who used the boarding of an English ship by Chinese troops as an excuse to declare war. With well-armed gunboats, they were assured of victory, and the Treaty of Tianjin, signed in 1856, gave the Europeans the right to establish nine concessionary bases on the mainland, from which they could conduct trade and sell opium. These concessions, along the banks of the Hai River, were self-contained European fantasy worlds: the French built elegant chateaux and towers, while the Germans constructed red-tiled Bavarian villas. Tensions between the indigenous population and the foreigners exploded in the Tianjin Incident of 1870, when a Chinese mob attacked a French-run orphanage, and again during the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, after which the foreigners levelled the walls around the old Chinese city to enable them to keep an eye on its residents.
The dense network of ex-concession streets south and west of the central train station, and south of the Hai River, now constitute the areas of most interest to visitors. Unmistakable are the chateaux of the French concession, which now make up the downtown district just south of the river, and the haughty mansions the British built east of here. Farther east, also south of the river, the architecture of an otherwise unremarkable district has a sprinkling of stern German constructions.
Landmarks and Attractions
- Astor Hotel
- Binjiang Avenue shopping street
- Drum Tower
- Five Main Avenues
- Former Concessions in Tianjin
- Tianjin Italian Style Town (意式风情区)
- Hai River Park
- Luzutang Boxer Rebellion Museum
- Memorial Hall to Zhou Enlai and Deng Yingchao
- Nanshi Cuisine Street
- St. Joseph's Cathedral of Tianjin
- Temple of Confucius Wen Miao
- Temple of Great Compassion
- Century Clock
- Tianjin Ancient Culture Street
- Tianjin Eye
- Tianjin Museum
- Tianjin Library
- Tianjin Art Gallery
- Tianjin Natural History Museum
- Tianjin Olympic Center Stadium, also known as "The Water Drop"
- Tianjin Radio and Television Tower
- Tianjin Water Park
- Tianjin World Financial Center
- Tianjin Zoo
- Yangliuqing (including Shi Family Grand Courtyard)
- Porcelain House
Sights outside the old city urban core area, but within the municipality, including Binhai/TEDA:
- Huangya Pass, a section of the Great Wall of China
- Mount Panshan
- Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city
- Soviet Aircraft Carrier Kiev
- Taku Forts
- TEDA Football Stadium, home stadium of Chinese Super League team Tianjin Teda F.C.
People from Tianjin speak the Tianjin dialect of Mandarin, from which it is derived. Despite its proximity to Beijing, the Tianjin dialect sounds quite different from the Beijing dialect, which provides the basis for Putonghua, the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China.
Tianjin is famous for its stand up [comedy] and comedians including Guo Degang and Ma Sanli. Ma Sanli (马三立) (1914–2003), an ethnic Hui and longtime resident of Tianjin, is renowned for his xiangsheng (相声), a hugely popular form of Chinese entertainment similar to comedy. Ma Sanli delivered some of his xiangsheng in the Tianjin dialect. Tianjin, along with Beijing, is a center for the art of xiangsheng.
Yangliuqing (Green Willows), a town about 15 km (9.3 mi) west of Tianjin's urban area and the seat of Xiqing District, is famous for its popular Chinese New Year-themed, traditional-style, colourful wash paintings (杨柳青年画). Tianjin is also famous for Zhang's clay figurines (泥人张) which are a type of colourful figurine depicting a variety of vivid characters, and Tianjin's Wei's kites (风筝魏), which can be folded to a fraction of their full sizes, are noted for portability.
Tianjin cuisine places a heavy focus on seafood, due to Tianjin's proximity to the sea. Prominent menus include the Eight Great Bowls (八大碗), a combination of eight mainly meat dishes. It can be further classified into several varieties, including the rough (粗), smooth (S: 细 / T: 細), and high (高). The Four Great Stews (四大扒) actually refers to a very large number of stews, including chicken, duck, seafood, beef, and mutton.
The four delicacies of Tianjin include Goubuli baozi(狗不理包子), Guifaxiang Shibajie Mahua(十八街麻花), Erduoyan Zhagao(耳朵眼炸糕) and Maobuwen Jiaozi(猫不闻饺子). Well-known foods include Caoji donkey meat, Bazhen sheep-leg mutton of Guanshengyuan, Luji Tangmian Zhagao, Baiji Shuijiao, Gaogan of Zhilanzhai, Guobacai of Dafulai, Kansubao of Shitoumen and Xiaobao chestnut. These famous snacks are available in Nanshi Food Street, which was a famous calling-card of Tianjin in the aspect of cuisine.
Port of Tianjin
Tianjin port is the world’s top-level and China’s largest artificial deepwater harbor, and the throughput capacity ranks the fifth place in the world. Located in Binhai Economic Zone, a national new economic zone of China, Tianjin harbor is the port of call of international cruises visiting the wider area, including Beijing.
Tianjin's harbor area of Binhai/TEDA has an ultramodern, high speed rubber tired tram system, which is the first of its kind in China & Asia. Constructed in 2006, this marked a return of the tram to Tianjin, which once had an extensive standard steel-wheeled tramway network. The Tianjin tram network was constructed by a Belgian company in 1904 and opened in 1906. It was the first city-wide tramway system in China. It closed in 1972.
There is also a light railway line in the city, the Binhai Mass Transit line. The line runs between downtown Tianjin and TEDA (Tianjin Economic Development Area) in the seaside region. The eastern part of the line began service on March 28, 2004. The western part of the line is scheduled to be completed in 2006.
There is also a guided rail tram system in TEDA, called TEDA Modern Guided Rail Tram.
The municipality consists of two rapid transit systems, Tianjin Metro and Binhai Mass Transit. They are currently under heavy expansion from three to nine lines. Four lines are currently operating both in the City and the Binhai area. As of October 2009, the entire network of Tianjin Metro and Binhai Mass Transit has 50 stations and 4 lines.
Construction work on the Tianjin Metro started on July 4, 1970. It was the second metro to be built in China and commenced service in 1984. The total length of track is 7.4 kilometres (5 miles). The metro service was suspended on October 9, 2001 for reconstruction. The original line is now part of Line 1 of the new metro system. It was re-opened to the public in June 2006. The track was extended to 26.188 km (16.272 mi) and there are a total of 22 stations. Construction work on Line 2 and Line 3 was completed in 2012 and the two lines are now in operation. Several new metro lines are planned.
There are two rapid transit operators in Tianjin:
- Tianjin Metro. Presently operating with 63 stations stations and three lines.
- Binhai Mass Transit (BMT). Currently operating 33 stations.
Current map of Tianjin Metro and Binhai Mass Transit
There are several railway stations in the city, Tianjin Railway Station being the principal one. It was built in 1888. The station was initially located at Wangdaozhuang (S: 旺道庄 / T: 旺道莊). The station was later moved to Laolongtou (S: 老龙头 / T: 老龍頭) on the banks of the Hai He River in 1892, so the station was renamed Laolongtou Railway Station. The station was rebuilt from scratch in 1988. The rebuilding work began on April 15, 1987 and was finished on October 1, 1988. The Tianjin Railway Station is also locally called the 'East Station', due to its geographical position. In January 2007, the station began another long-term restructuring project to modernize the facility and as part of the larger Tianjin transport hub project involving Tianjin Metro lines 2, 3, and 9 as well as the Tianjin-Beijing High-speed rail.
Tianjin West Railway Station and Tianjin North Railway Station are also major railway stations in Tianjin. There is also Tanggu Railway Station is located in the important port area of Tanggu District, and TEDA Railway Station located in TEDA, to the north of Tanggu. There are several other railway stations in the city that do not handle passenger traffic. Construction on a Beijing-Tianjin high-speed rail began on July 4, 2005 and was completed by August 2008.
The following rail lines go through Tianjin:
- Jingshan Railway, from Beijing to Shanhai Pass
- Jinpu Railway, from Tianjin to Pukou District, Nanjing
- Jinji Railway, from Tianjin urban area to Ji County, Tianjin
- Jinba Railway, from Tianjin to Bazhou, Hebei
The inter-city trains between Beijing and Tianjin will adopt a new numbering system: Cxxxx (C stands for interCity.). The train numbers range between C2001～C2298:
- C2001～C2198: From Beijing South Station to Tianjin, non-stop.
- C2201～C2268: From Beijing South Station to Tianjin, with stops at Wuqing Station (武清站) or Yizhuang Station (亦庄站);
- C2271～C2298: From Beijing South Station to Tanggu Station of Tianjin.
The new C trains take only 30 min between Beijing and Tianjin, cutting the previous D train time by more than a half. The ticket price as of Aug. 15, 08 is 69 RMB for the first-class seat and 58 RMB for the second-class seat.
There were over 9000 bus lines in the city as of 2004.
Roads and expressways
Some roads and bridges have retained names that hark back to the Republic of China era (1912-1949) such as Minquan Gate and Beiyang Road. Like with most cities in China, many roads in Tianjin are named after Chinese provinces and cities. Also, Tianjin is unlike Beijing, in that very few roads run parallel to the major four compass directions.
Tianjin has three ring roads. The Inner and Middle Ring Roads are not closed, traffic-controlled roadways and some often have traffic light intersections. The Outer Ring Road is the closest thing to a highway-level ring road, although traffic is often chaotic.
Tianjin's roads often finish in dao (道 avenue), xian (S: 线 / T: 線) line, more used for highways and through routes) and lu (路 road). Jie (街 street) is rare. As Tianjin's roads are rarely in a cardinal compass direction, jing (S: 经 / T: 經) roads and wei (S: 纬 / T: 緯) roads often appear, which attempt to run more directly north-south and east-west, respectively.
The following seven expressways of China run in or through Tianjin:
- Jingjintang Expressway, from Beijing, through Tianjin's urban area, to Tanggu District / TEDA
- Jinghu Expressway, from Jinjing Gonglu Bridge to Shanghai (together with Jingjintang Expressway, this is the expressway from Beijing to Shanghai)
- Jingshen Expressway, through Baodi District on its way from Beijing to Shenyang
- Tangjin Expressway, from Tanggu District, Tianjin, to Tangshan, Hebei—known in Tianjin as the Jintang Expressway
- Baojin Expressway, from Beichen District, Tianjin, to Baoding, Hebei—known in Tianjin as the Jinbao Expressway
- Jinbin Expressway, from Zhangguizhuang Bridge to Hujiayuan Bridge, both within Tianjin
- Jinji Expressway, from central Tianjin to Jixian County
The following six China National Highways pass through Tianjin:
- China National Highway 102, through Ji County, Tianjin on its way from Beijing to Harbin
- China National Highway 103, from Beijing, through Tianjin's urban area, to Tanggu District
- China National Highway 104, from Beijing, through Tianjin Municipality, to Fuzhou
- China National Highway 105, from Beijing, through Tianjin Municipality, to Macau
- China National Highway 112, circular highway around Beijing, passes through Tianjin Municipality
- China National Highway 205, from Shanhaiguan, Hebei, through Tianjin Municipality, to Guangzhou
Tianjin Binhai International Airport (ZBTJ) is located in Dongli District roughly 13 km (8 mi) away from downtown area. The city will also be served by the new Beijing Daxing International Airport in Beijing, currently under construction and to be completed by 2017.
Tianjin Binhai International Airport now has a terminal building which covers an area of 25,000 m2 (269,000 sq ft), a merchandise warehouse which covers an area of 29,500 m2 (318,000 sq ft) and runways measuring 3.6 km (2.2 mi) in total. It has a grade 4E airstrip, which all kinds of large aircraft can take off from and land safely on. Tianjin Binhai International Airport  has 59 flight routes, connecting 48 cities, including 30 domestic cities and 17 foreign cities. Airline companies like Japan Airlines, All Nippon Airways, Korean Air, Asiana Airlines, Singapore Airlines Cargo and Martinair Holland all have flights to Tianjin Binhai International Airport.
Tianjin has a Buddhist Temple of Great Compassion, a Catholic St. Joseph’s Cathedral (Laoxikai Church), a Catholic Our Lady of Victory Church (Wanghailou Church). A Roman Catholic Diocese of Tianjin exists.
Sports teams based in Tianjin include: Chinese Super League
- Tianjin Teda F.C. (天津泰达俱乐部)
- Tianjin Songjiang (天津松江)
Colleges and universities
Under the National Ministry of Education:
- Nankai University (南开大学) (founded 1919，one of the most prestigious universities in China)
- Tianjin University (天津大学) (founded 1895, oldest university in China)
Under the municipal government:
- Tianjin Polytechnic University (天津工业大学)
- Tianjin Medical University (天津医科大学)
- Tianjin Normal University (天津师范大学)
- Tianjin University of Science & Technology (天津科技大学)
- Tianjin University of Technology (天津理工大学)
- Tianjin University of Finance & Economics (天津财经大学)
- Tianjin University of Commerce (天津商业大学)
- Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts (天津美术学院)
- Tianjin Agricultural College (天津农学院)
- Tianjin Conservatory of Music (天津音乐学院)
- Tianjin Foreign Studies University (天津外国语大学)
- Tianjin Institute of Physical Education (天津体育学院)
- Tianjin University of Technology and Education (天津职业技术师范学院)
- Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (天津中医药大学)
- Tianjin Urban Construction Institute (天津城市建设学院)
Under the national Civil Aviation Authority:
- Civil Aviation University of China (中国民航大学)
Under the government of Hebei Province:
- Hebei University of Technology (河北工业大学) (founded 1903, the earliest institute of technology in China)
- The Florida International University Tianjin Center, opened in 2006 as a cooperative venture between the municipal government and the Miami-based university.
- The Great Wall MBA Program Oklahoma City University Meinders School of Business, established in 1986 on the campus of Tianjin University of Finance & Economics.
- Raffles Design Institute Tianjin is a joint-project between Tianjin University of Commerce, Boustead College and Raffles Design Institute, Singapore.
- Boustead College (天津商业大学宝德学院)
Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.
- TEDA International School
- Tianjin No. 1 High School (天津一中)
- Nankai High School (南开中学) founded 1904, and one of the most prestigious in China
- Yaohua High School (耀华中学) founded 1927
- Tianjin Shiyan High School (实验中学)
- Tianjin Xinhua High School (新华中学)
- Tianjin Foreign Languages School (TFLS) (天津外国语学院附属外国语学校)
- Tianjin No. 20 high School (天津市第二十中学)
- Tianjin Second Nankai High School (天津市第二南开中学）
- Tianjin No. 7 High School (天津七中)
- Tianjin No. 3 Middle School (天津市第三中学)
- Tianjin No. 5 High School (天津五中
- Tianjin No. 4 High School (天津四中)
- No 42 High School (42中学)
- No 41 High School (41中学)
- Haihe High School (海河中学)
- Tianjin High School（天津中学）
Tianjin No. 2 high school
- Affiliated Highschool of Tianjin University（天津大学附属中学）
- Affiliated Highschool of Nankai University（南开大学附属中学）
- Tianjin No.47 High School (天津市第四十七中学)
Twin towns and sister cities
Tianjin is twinned with:
|City||Country||Sister city since:|
|Kobe||Japan||June 24, 1973|
|Philadelphia||United States||February 10, 1980|
|Fitchburg, Massachusetts||United States||1980|
|Mobile, Alabama||United States|
|Greenville, South Carolina||United States||2002|
|Melbourne||Australia||May 5, 1980|
|Yokkaichi, Mie||Japan||October 28, 1980|
|Sarajevo||Bosnia and Herzegovina||May 28, 1981|
|Nord-Pas-de-Calais||France||October 10, 1984|
|Lombardy (Milan)||Italy||May 9, 1985|
|Groningen||Netherlands||September 12, 1985|
|Chiba||Japan||May 7, 1986|
|Plovdiv Region||Bulgaria||October 15, 1989|
|İzmir||Turkey||September 23, 1991|
|Abidjan||Côte d'Ivoire||September 26, 1992|
|Ulan Bator||Mongolia||September 27, 1992|
|Kharkiv||Ukraine||June 14, 1993|
|Jönköping||Sweden||September 23, 1993|
|Incheon||South Korea||December 7, 1993|
|Saarland||Germany||September 28, 1994|
|Łódź||Poland||October 1, 1994|
|Rio de Janeiro (state)||Brazil||April 18, 1995|
|Orange County||United States||August 1, 1997|
|Amazonas State||Brazil||October 20, 1997|
|Haiphong||Vietnam||January 8, 1999|
|Turku||Finland||August 17, 2000|
|Mar del Plata||Argentina||July 6, 2001|
|Clarence, New York||United States||November 10, 2001|
|Thessaloniki||Greece||March 4, 2002|
|Nampo||North Korea||August 11, 2002|
|State of Hawaii||United States||November 1, 2002|
|East Java||Indonesia||October 27, 2003|
|Phnom Penh||Cambodia||November 17, 2008|
|Pyongyang||North Korea||May 12, 2009|
|Wellington||New Zealand||July 22, 2011|
Notable people from Tianjin
- Peng Shuai, Chinese tennis player
- Wen Jiabao, former premier of China
- Harry Kingman, only major league baseball player born in China
- 天津 ("Heaven's port") is also the name of an asterism in the Chinese constellation of Girl Mansion (女宿)
- Gao Lingwen, founder of Tianjin's first public school
- List of cities in the People's Republic of China by population
- Miscellaneous series, Issues 7-11. United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 1912.
- Walravens, Hartmut. "German Influence on the Press in China." - In: Newspapers in International Librarianship: Papers Presented by the Newspaper Section at IFLA General Conferences. Walter de Gruyter, January 1, 2003. ISBN 3110962799, 9783110962796.
- Also available at (Archive) the website of the Queens Library - This version does not include the footnotes visible in the Walter de Gruyter version
- Also available in Walravens, Hartmut and Edmund King. Newspapers in international librarianship: papers presented by the newspapers section at IFLA General Conferences. K.G. Saur, 2003. ISBN 3598218370, 9783598218378.
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- "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2010-08-28.
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- Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (國家統計局人口和社會科技統計司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (國家民族事務委員會經濟發展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中國民族人口資料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN )
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- Walravens, p. 90.
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- Walravens, p. 91.
- McDougall, Bonnie S. (1984). Popular Chinese literature and performing arts in the People's Republic of China, 1949–1979. University of California Press. p. 84.
- "New Beijing-Tianjin intercity train numbering system". Shike.org.cn. 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
- http://www.tjbus.com/frontpage/index.aspx Tianjin Bus Company official website.] (Chinese)
- Moore, Malcolm (September 9, 2011). "China to build world's biggest airport". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- "Tianjin Binhai Airport - Map, Airport China, China Airport, Tianjing Binhai International Airport". Airport-china.com. 1950-05-01. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
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- "Tianjin Second Nankai High School". Tj.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
- "Tianjin No. 7 High School". Tjqz.org. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
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- "Kobe's Sister Cities". Kobe Trade Information Office. Archived from the original on 2013-04-21. Retrieved 2013-08-11.
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- "Sister Cities". Dallas-ecodev.org. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
- "Tianjin Sister-City Council for the Promotion of Enterprises". Tianjin Sister-City Council for the Promotion of Enterprises. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
- O. D. Rasmussen (1925). Tientsin: An Illustrated Outline History. Tientsin: Tientsin Press. OCLC 2594229.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
- Tianjin Government website
- Economic profile for Tianjin at HKTDC
- Official Tianjin Media Gateway
- Historic US Army map of Tianjin, 1945
- Official promotional video of Tianjin City
- Tianjin travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Tientsin". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press