Tianjin

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"Tientsin" redirects here. For other uses, see Tientsin (disambiguation).
Tianjin
天津市
Municipality
Tianjin Municipality
Clockwise from top: Jinwan Square, Tianjin Financial Center and Hai River, Xikai Church, Panorama of downtown Tianjin, Tianjin Railroad Station, Tianjin Eye
Clockwise from top: Jinwan Square, Tianjin Financial Center and Hai River, Xikai Church, Panorama of downtown Tianjin, Tianjin Railroad Station, Tianjin Eye
Location of Tianjin Municipality within China
Location of Tianjin Municipality within China
Coordinates: 39°08′N 117°11′E / 39.133°N 117.183°E / 39.133; 117.183Coordinates: 39°08′N 117°11′E / 39.133°N 117.183°E / 39.133; 117.183
Country People's Republic of China
Settled ca. 340 BC
Divisions
 - County-level
 - Township-
level

13 districts, three counties
240 towns and villages
Government
 • Type Municipality
 • CPC Secretary Sun Chunlan
 • Mayor Huang Xingguo
 • Congress Chairman Xiao Huaiyuan
 • Conference Chairman He Lifeng
Area
 • Municipality 11,760 km2 (4,540 sq mi)
 • Urban 174.9 km2 (67.5 sq mi)
 • Metro 5,606.9 km2 (2,164.8 sq mi)
Population (2012 census)
 • Municipality 14,131,500
 • Density 1,200/km2 (3,100/sq mi)
 • Urban 11,524,238
 • Metro 11,524,238
Demonym Tianjinese
Tianjiner
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 300000 – 301900
Area code(s) 22
GDP 2013
 - Total CNY1.44 trillion
(US$234.91 billion) (20th)
 - Per capita CNY 101,900
(US$16,623) (1st)
HDI (2010) 0.795[1] (3rd) – high
Licence plate prefixes A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M
E (taxis)
City flower Chinese rose
Website (Chinese) www.tj.gov.cn
www.tj.gov.cn/english
Tianjin
褚遂良书法.jpg
Chinese
Hanyu Pinyin Tiānjīn
About this sound [Listen] 
Postal Map Tientsin
Literal meaning sky ferry

Tianjin (Chinese: 天津; pinyin: Tiānjīn; Mandarin: [tʰjɛn˥ tɕin˥] ( ); Tianjinese: /tʰiɛn˨˩tɕin˨˩/~[tʰjɛ̃̀ɦɪ̀ŋ]; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It is governed as one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of the PRC, and is thus under direct administration of the central government. Tianjin borders Hebei Province and Beijing Municipality, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea. Part of the Bohai Economic Rim, it is the largest coastal city in northern China.

In terms of urban population, Tianjin is the fourth largest in China, after Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou. In terms of administrative area population, Tianjin also ranks fifth in Mainland China.[2] Tianjin is a dual-core city, with its main urban area (including the old city) located along the Hai River, which connects to the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers via the Grand Canal; and Binhai, a New Area urban core located east of the old city, on the coast of Bohai Sea. As of the end of 2010, around 285 Fortune 500 companies have set up base in Binhai, which is a new growth pole in China and is a hub of advanced industry and financial activity. Since the mid-19th century, Tianjin has been a major seaport and gateway to the nation's capital.

History[edit]

The land where Tianjin is located today was created in ancient times by sedimentation of various rivers entering the sea at Bohai Gulf, including the Yellow River which entered the sea in this area at one point. Before this time, it was open sea.

17th century depiction of Tianjin

There are diverse viewpoints for the origin of the name, "Tianjin". One version states that "Tianjin" as a word initially appeared in the poems of Qu Yuan, a famous patriotic poet of Chu State in the Warring States period. In his masterpiece Li Sao, there is a verse, ”At dawn, departing from the Port of the Heaven” (Chinese: 朝发轫于天津兮; pinyin: Zhāo fārèn yú tiānjīn xī). Another view is that "Tianjin" also used to be a name of the star in the Chinese traditional astronomical system as recorded in the Astronomy Record in the Book of Sui. A third view states that "Tianjin" was recorded in the River Record in History of the Jin. The Origin from Emperor’s Name-giving-This perhaps is the most reliable point of view. Tianjin means literally The Ferry Site of Emperor (The Son of Heaven). It was said that Emperor Yongle, who was one of the sons of Emperor Taizu of the Ming Dynasty, before his enthronement for getting the crown of the Emperor, launched a war against the successor of Emperor Taizu, Zhu Yunwen, the grandson of Emperor Hongwu in Nanjing. He departed from the Gu River of Tianjin and, after his success in enthronement, gave his departure site a name: Tianjin.

The Grand Canal[edit]

The opening of the Grand Canal during the Sui Dynasty prompted the development of Tianjin into a trading center. Until 1404, Tianjin was called "Zhigu" (直沽), or "Straight Port". In that year, the Yongle Emperor renamed the city Tianjin meaning "the Heavenly Ford" to indicate that the Emperor (the Son of Heaven) forded the river at that point. This is because he had indeed forded the river in Tianjin when in contention with his nephew for the throne. Later, a fort was established in Tianjin, known as "Tianjin Wei" (天津卫), the Fort of Tianjin.

Qing Dynasty[edit]

During the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) Tianjin was promoted to a prefecture or Zhou (州) in 1725 with Tianjin County established under the prefecture in 1731. Later it was to upgraded to an urban prefecture or Fu (府) before becoming a relay station (驻地) under the command of the Viceroy of Zhili.

1902 map of Tianjin

Opening up as a treaty port[edit]

In 1856, Chinese soldiers boarded The Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship registered in Hong Kong flying the British flag and suspected of piracy, smuggling, and of being engaged in the opium trade. They captured 12 men and imprisoned them. In response, the British and French sent gunboats under the command of Admiral Sir Michael Seymour to capture the Taku forts near Tianjin in May 1858. At the end of the first part of the Second Opium War in June of the same year, the British and French prevailed, and the Treaties of Tianjin were signed, which opened Tianjin to foreign trade. The treaties were ratified by the Emperor of China in 1860, and Tianjin was formally opened to Great Britain and France, and thus to the outside world. Between 1895 and 1900, Britain and France were joined by Japan, Germany and Russia, and even by countries without Chinese concessions such as Austria-Hungary, Italy and Belgium, in establishing self-contained concessions in Tianjin, each with its own prisons, schools, barracks and hospitals. These nations left many architectural reminders of their rule, notably churches and thousands of villas. Today those villas provide an exotic flavour to Tianjin.

The presence of foreign influence in Tianjin was not always peaceful; one of the most serious violent incidents to take place was the Tianjin Church Incident. In June 1870, the orphanage held by the Wanghailou Church (Our Lady of Victories), in Tianjin, built by French Roman Catholic missionaries, was accused of the kidnapping and brainwashing of Chinese children. On June 21, the magistrate of Tianjin County initiated a showdown at the church that developed into violent clashes between the church's Christian supporters and non-Christian Tianjin residents. The furious protestors eventually burned down Wanghailou Church and the nearby French consulate and killed eighteen foreigners including ten French nuns, the French consul, and merchants. France and six other Western nations complained to the Qing government, which was forced to pay compensation for the incident.

In June 1900, the Boxers were able to seize control of much of Tianjin. On June 26, European defense forces heading towards Beijing were stopped by Boxers at nearby Langfang, and were defeated and forced to turn back to Tianjin. The foreign concessions were also under siege for several weeks.

Concessions era bank building on Heping Road

In July 1900, the Eight-Nation Alliance recaptured Tianjin. This alliance soon established the Tianjin Provisional Government, composed of representatives from each of the occupying forces (Russian, British, Japanese, German, French, American, Austro-Hungarian, and Italian). The city was governed by this council until August 15, 1902 when the city was returned to Qing control. Eminent Qing General Yuan Shikai led efforts to transform Tianjin into a modern city, establishing the first modern Chinese police force. In 1907, Yuan supervised China's first modern democratic elections for a county council.

Western nations were permitted to garrison the area to ensure open access to Beijing. The British maintained a brigade of two battalions in Tianjin, and the Italians, French, Japanese, Germans, Russians, and Austro-Hungarians maintained understrength regiments; the United States did not initially participate. During World War I, the German and Austro-Hungarian garrisons were captured and held as Prisoners of War by Allied Forces while the Bolshevik government withdrew the Russian garrison in 1918. In 1920, the remaining participating nations asked the United States to join them, and the US then sent the 15th Infantry Regiment, less one battalion, to Tianjin from the Philippines.

Tianjin was established as a municipality of China in 1927.

Garrison duty was highly regarded by the troops. General George C. Marshall, the "architect of victory" in World War II when he was the United States Army Chief of Staff, served at Tianjin in the 1920s as Executive Officer of the 15th Infantry. The US withdrew this unit in 1938 and a US presence was maintained only by the dispatch of a small US Marine Corps contingent from the Embassy Guard at Beijing.

1939 Tianjin flood

Second Sino-Japanese War[edit]

On July 30, 1937, Tianjin fell to Japan, as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War, but was not entirely occupied, as the Japanese for the most part respected foreign concessions until 1941, when the American and British concessions were occupied. In the summer of 1939, there occurred a major crisis in Anglo-Japanese relations with the Tientsin Incident. On June 14, 1939, the Imperial Japanese Army surrounded and blockaded the British concession over the refusal of the British authorities to hand over to the Japanese six Chinese who had assassinated a locally prominent Japanese collaborator, and had taken refuge in the British concession. For a time, the 1939 crisis appeared likely to cause an Anglo-Japanese war, especially when reports of the maltreatment by the Japanese Army of British subjects wishing to leave or enter the concession appeared in the British press. The crisis ended when the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was advised by the Royal Navy and the Foreign Office that the only way to force the Japanese to lift the blockade was to send the main British battle fleet to Far Eastern waters, and that given the current crisis in Europe that it would be inappropriate to send the British fleet out of European waters, thus leading the British to finally turn over the six Chinese, who were then executed by the Japanese. During the Japanese occupation, Tianjin was ruled by the North China Executive Committee, a puppet state based in Beijing.

On August 9, 1940, all of the British troops in Tianjin were ordered to withdraw. On November 14, 1941 the American Marine unit stationed in Tianjin was ordered to leave, but before this could be accomplished, the Japanese attacked the United States. The American Marine detachment surrendered to the Japanese on December 8, 1941. Only the Italian and French concessions (the local French officials were loyal to Vichy) were allowed by the Japanese to remain. When Italy signed an armistice with the Allies in September 1943, Japanese troops took the Italian concession following a battle with its garrison, and the Italian Social Republic formally ceded it to Wang Jingwei's Japan-controlled puppet state. Japanese occupation of the city lasted until August 15, 1945, with the surrender of Japan marking the end of World War II.

Post World War II[edit]

More recently, since 2008 Tianjin has held the annual Meeting of the New Champions of World Economic Forum (also called Summer Davos), in alternating years with another Chinese city, Dalian.[3]

In October 2010, the UN Climate Change Conference convened in Tianjin.[4]

Tianjin Haihe Jinwan Plaza
Panorama of Hai River

Geography[edit]

Map of the Hai River Basin.
Satellite image of Tianjin
Hai river

Tianjin is located along the west coast of the Bohai Gulf, looking out to the provinces Shandong and Liaoning across those waters, bordered by Beijing 120 kilometres (75 mi) to the northwest, and except for the east, is surrounded on all sides by Hebei. With a latitude ranging from 38° 34' to 40° 15' N, and longitude ranging from 116° 43' to 118° 04' E, the total area is 11,860.63 km2 (4,579.41 sq mi). There is 153 km (95 mi) of coastline and 1,137.48 km (706.80 mi) of land border.[5] It lies at the northern end of the Grand Canal of China, which connects with the Yellow River and Yangtze River. The municipality is generally flat, and swampy near the coast, but hilly in the far north, where the Yan Mountains intrude into northern Tianjin. The highest point in the municipality is Jiuding Peak (九顶山) in Ji County on the northern border with Hebei, at an altitude of 1,078.5 m (3,538 ft).

The Hai River forms within Tianjin Municipality at the confluence of the Ziya River (子牙河), Daqing River (大清河), Yongding River, North Grand Canal, and South Grand Canal, and enters the Pacific Ocean within the municipality as well, in Tanggu District. Major reservoirs include the Beidagang Reservoir in the extreme south (in Dagang District) and the Yuqiao Reservoir in the extreme north in Ji County.

Climate[edit]

Tianjin features a four season, monsoon-influenced climate, typical of East Asia, with cold, windy, very dry winters reflecting the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone, and hot, humid summers, due to the monsoon. Spring in the city is dry and windy, occasionally seeing sandstorms blowing in from the Gobi Desert, capable of lasting for several days. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −3.5 °C (25.7 °F) in January to 26.6 °C (79.9 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 12.66 °C (54.8 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 48% in July to 61% in October, the city receives 2,522 hours of bright sunshine annually. Having a low annual total precipitation of 540 millimetres (21.3 in), and nearly three-fifths of it occurring in July and August alone, the city lies within the humid continental zone, with parts of the municipality being semi-arid (Köppen Dwa/BSk, respectively).[6]

Extreme temperatures have ranged from −22.9 °C (−9 °F) to 40.5 °C (105 °F).[7]

Climate data for Tianjin (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
5.0
(41)
11.7
(53.1)
20.5
(68.9)
26.1
(79)
30.1
(86.2)
31.0
(87.8)
30.2
(86.4)
26.3
(79.3)
19.7
(67.5)
10.6
(51.1)
3.9
(39)
18.1
(64.5)
Average low °C (°F) −7.5
(18.5)
−4.9
(23.2)
1.3
(34.3)
8.9
(48)
14.6
(58.3)
19.7
(67.5)
22.7
(72.9)
21.9
(71.4)
16.4
(61.5)
9.3
(48.7)
1.3
(34.3)
−4.9
(23.2)
8.2
(46.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 3.3
(0.13)
4.0
(0.157)
7.7
(0.303)
20.9
(0.823)
37.7
(1.484)
71.1
(2.799)
170.6
(6.717)
145.7
(5.736)
46.1
(1.815)
22.7
(0.894)
10.4
(0.409)
4.1
(0.161)
544.3
(21.428)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.8 2.1 2.9 4.4 6.0 8.0 12.4 10.2 6.0 4.5 3.5 2.0 63.8
 % humidity 56 54 53 51 56 64 76 77 68 64 63 59 61.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 178.3 176.9 205.3 229.8 265.7 251.2 217.6 223.3 223.3 211.1 173.1 166.2 2,521.8
Percent possible sunshine 59 59 56 58 60 57 48 53 60 61 57 57 57.1
Source: China Meteorological Administration[8]

Measures to improve air quality[edit]

In May of 2014, the city's administration enacted new laws in an attempt to lower the city's pollution levels. These measures included several restrictions on days of severe pollution; halving the number of vehicles allowed on roads, halting construction and manufacturing activity, closing schools, and halting large-scale outdoor activities.[9]

Foreign-born professional sportsmen have made statements regarding Tianjin's air quality, citing it as an impediment to athletic activity and being thick enough to "taste".[10]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Tianjin is divided into 16 county-level divisions, including 13 districts and three counties.

In addition, the Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area (TEDA) is not a formal level of administration, but nevertheless enjoys rights similar to a regular district.

Airport Industrial Park, Dongli District

These districts and counties are further subdivided, as of December 31, 2004, into 240 township-level divisions, including 120 towns, 18 townships, 2 ethnic townships and 100 subdistricts.

Politics[edit]

The politics of Tianjin is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in the mainland China.

The Mayor of Tianjin is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Tianjin. Since Tianjin is a municipality, the Communist Party of China Municipal Committee Secretary is colloquially termed the "Tianjin CPC Party chief".

Economy[edit]

Premier Wen Jiabao and Klaus Schwab at World Economic Forum in Tianjin

Tianjin's GDP reached 1.12 trillion yuan in 2011, an increase of 16.4 percent over 2010. The city of Tianjin recorded China's highest per-capita GDP with $13,393, followed by Shanghai with $12,784 and Beijing with $12,447, levels on par with some developed countries.[11]

The municipality recorded an impressive 16.5% increase in GDP in 2009, second only to the 16.9% rate in resource-rich Inner Mongolia, and nearly double the national growth rate. In the short term, infrastructure spending will buoy Tianjin's economy. There are substantial projects under way to extend the metro system and improve road and rail links with the nearby national capital, Beijing.

Although the international financial crisis spreads rapidly and the speed of world economy growth is slowing down, Tianjin economy still maintains at a steady and fast growing speed. In 2008, Tianjin total output value was RMB 635.438 billion, an increase of 16.5%, say RMB 130.398 billion increase over last year, the first time with an increase of exceeding RMB 100 billion. The total output value per capita in Tianjin was US$7,800, nearing the level of middle developed countries. Tianjin had realized a directly contracted foreign investment of up to $13.256 billion, an increase of 15.1%, and actual contributed capital of $7.420, increasing 40.6% year on year. So far Tianjin has had 21,048 companies with foreign investment, with accumulated foreign investment of $47.2 billion.

At the same time, Tianjin is actively developing financial reform and innovation. The China Bohai Bank, the first national commercial bank limited by shares with headquarters in Tianjin, had setup 6 branches and 14 offices open to the public by the end of 2008. In March 2008, the national non-listed public companies equity exchange market (OTC) was established in Tianjin upon approval of the State Council. Tianjin has become the pilot city with the most industrial investment funds in China. The China National Private Equity Forum was held in Tianjin again, with approx. 500 investment companies and private fund institutions as well as about 2,000 growing enterprises involving in global capital circulation through this Capital Connection in Tianjin. Supported by the strong actual goods exchange, Tianjin takes futures industry development as a key part of its financial reform and innovation. In July 2008, the Yide Futures Broker Co. moved its headquarters to Tianjin. Tianjin Finance Town Project, North Jiefang Road as its axle, has been initiated. It will be built into a comprehensive, open and intellectual finance service area within ten years.

Tianjin is transforming into a hub city for international shipping and logistics, modern manufacturing and research and development. Nominal GDP of Tianjin has swelled by 2.8 times from 184 RMB billion in 2001 to 505 RMB billion in 2007. Tianjin pillar industries are electronic information technology, automotive, bio-tech and pharmaceuticals, metallurgy and petrochemicals industries. The new coastal area, consisting of Tianjin Port, Tianjin Economic and Technology Development Area and Tianjin Bonded area, has attracted numerous world-famous businesses like Motorola, Toyota and Samsung. Globalization and opening up of the economy to the rest of the world have brought about remarkable benefits to the economic growth of Tianjin.

Government finance revenue of Tianjin has increased by more than threefold from 16 RMB billion in 2001 to 54 RMB billion in 2007. As revenue rises, expenditure on science and technology, education, culture, health and sports following suit as well, reaching 10 billion RMB in 2004, constituting to 30.7% of the city's financial expenditure. Revenue has also been used in the building of infrastructures such as new roads, new bridges and commercial houses. One of the development objectives in the 11th Five year Plan is to have financial revenue growing at the rate of 16% annually.

Skyscrapers in Tianjin:

Tianjin city center
Goldin Finance 117 597.00m
Four Seasons Tower 339.00m
Yujiapu Administrative Services Center 299.45m
Powerlong Center 289.00m
Bohai Bank Tower 270.00m
5 Taian Dao 253.40m

Tianjin total investments in fixed assets have soared from 62 RMB billion in 2001 to 239 RMB billion in 2007, representing a 3.9 times surge over a period of six years. Tianjin has build up its competitive advantages in the investment landscape such as: convenient port transportation services, an open market, advanced logistic services, alluring preferential policies and having efficient government services. By the end of 2004, more than 118 countries and regions invested in Tianjin, setting up approximately 16, 000 enterprises. Currently, Tianjin is developing itself into an eco-city, thus, bringing multiple prospects for investments in fixed assets in the subsequent time periods.

Industry[edit]

The manufacturing sector was the largest (54.8%) and fastest-growing (18.2%) sector of Tianjin's economy in 2009. Major industries include petrochemical industries, textiles, car manufacturing, mechanical industries, and metalworking. EADS Airbus is an important manufacturer, and has opened an assembly plant for its Airbus A320 series airliners, operational since 2009. Tianjin also hit the news in 2010, as the current fastest supercomputer in the world, Tianhe-1A, is located at the National Supercomputing Center in Tianjin. GDP in 2009 hit ¥750.1 billion, with a per capita of RMB¥62,403.

Industrial complexes in Tianjin Details
Tianjin Airport International Logistics Zone Tianjin Airport International Logistics Zone is jointly invested by Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone and Tianjin Binhai International Airport. It is located inside the airfreight area of Tianjin Binhai International Airport. It has domestic and foreign excellent airfreight logistics enterprises engaged in sorting, warehousing, distribution, processing, exhibition. It is in the process of constructing the largest airfreight base in northern China.[12]
Tianjin Economic & Technological Development Area (Also known as TEDA) As one of the first state-level economic and technological development zones, TEDA was founded on December 6, 1984, with the approval of the State Council. It enjoys relevant state preferential policies with the major task to attract domestic and foreign investment to develop high and new technology oriented modern industries. As an affiliated organ of the Tianjin Municipal Government, the Administrative Commission of Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area exercises unified administration of TEDA on behalf of the Tianjin Municipal Government and enjoys provincial-level administrative and economic management rights.
Tianjin Baodi Economic and Technological Development Area
Tianjin Export Processing Zone Tianjin Export Processing Zone is one of the first 15 export processing zones approved by the State Council on April 27, 2000. This is a special enclosed zone where the Customs conduct 24-hour administration on commodities transported into and out of the zone and relevant places. The central government granted this special economic zone special preferential policies to attract enterprises in the business of processing and trade to invest in the zone. Tianjin Export Processing Zone is located to the northeast of TEDA with a planned area of 2.54 km2 (0.98 sq mi). The area developed in the first phase is 1 m2. A permanent wall is built to separate export processing zone and non-export processing zone.

[13]

TEDA Western Zone Land expansion is being carried out in Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area. The newly expanded area-the Western Zone of TEDA is located in the western part of TEDA between Tianjin Port and Tianjin International Airport. It covers an area of approximately 48 km2 (19 sq mi)
Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone
US Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi visiting a Tianjin electric car factory in 2009
Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone is the largest free trade zone in northern China as well as the only free trade zone in northern China. The zone was approved to be established in 1991 by State Council. It is 30 km (19 mi) from Tianjin city proper, less than 1 km (0.62 mi) away from the wharf and only 38 km (24 mi) away from Tianjin Binhai International Airport.[14]
Tianjin Tanggu National Marine High-Tech Development Area Tianjin Tanggu Marine High-Tech Development Area was established in 1992, and was upgraded to the national-level high-tech development area by the State Council in 1995, it is the only national-level high-tech development area specializing in developing the marine Hi-Tech industry. By the end of 2008, the zone has 2068 corporations and has 5 industries there including new materials, oil manufacturing, modern machinery manufacturing, and electronic information.[15]
Huayuan Area Industrial Development Park
Wuqing Development Area
Micro-Electronic Industry Park (Jinnan) In 2003, TEDA cooperated with Jinnan District of Tianjin and build up the Science & Technology Park of TEDA, which is the extension of TEDA with new functions in space, industry, management, culture and service. Tianjin TEDA Scientific Technology Industrial Park Development & Construction Co. Ltd (TTSTIPDC) was established in October, 2003, supported by Tianjin TEDA Investment & Holding Co. Ltd and Tianjin Jinnan District Town Construction Integrative Investment Co. Ltd. The company is funded by 200 million RMB. It works at investing and managing land, energy & infrastructure project construction and marketing management, setting up creative, life, culture common establishment and common business, setting up the third industry, development and management real estate.
Nangang Industrial Zone A world-level heavy and chemical industry base and harbor; an important part of the "dual-city, dual-harbor"space development strategy of Tianjin, a world-class demonstration zone of circular economy. The total planned area of Nangang Industrial Zone is 200 km2 (77 sq mi), of which the terrestrial area is 162 km2 (63 sq mi).

Agriculture[edit]

Farmland takes up about 40% of Tianjin Municipality's total area. Wheat, rice, and maize are the most important crops. Fishing is important along the coast.

Tianjin Binhai New Area CBD

Resources[edit]

Tianjin Municipality also has deposits of about 1 billion tonnes of petroleum, with Dagang District containing important oilfields. Salt production is also important, with Changlu Yanqu being one of China's most important salt production areas. Geothermal energy is another resource of Tianjin. Deposits of manganese and boron under Tianjin were the first to be found in China.

Binhai New Area[edit]

Tianjin Binhai New Area (TBNA) is located in the juncture of the Beijing-Tianjin City Belt and the Circum-Bohai City Belt. It is the gateway to North China, Northeast China, and Northwest China. Lying in the center of Northeast Asia, it is the nearest point of departure of the Eurasian Continental Bridge.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1953 2,693,831 —    
1982 7,764,141 +188.2%
1990 8,785,402 +13.2%
2000 9,848,731 +12.1%
2010 12,938,224 +31.4%
2013 14,720,000 +13.8%
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

At the end of 2009, the population of Tianjin Municipality was 12.28 million, of which 9.8 million were residential holders of Tianjin hukou (permanent residence). Among Tianjin permanent residents, 5.99 million were urban, and 3.81 million were rural.[16] Tianjin has recently shifted to rapid population growth, its population has reached 14.72 million as of 2013 end.[17]

The majority of Tianjin residents are Han Chinese. There are also 51 out of the 55 minor Chinese ethnic groups living in Tianjin. Major minorities include Hui, Koreans, Manchus, and Mongols.

Old Guanyinhao Bank
Ethnic groups in Tianjin, 2000 census
Ethnicity Population Percentage
Han 9,581,775 97.29%
Hui 172,357 1.75%
Manchu 56,548 0.57%
Mongols 11,331 0.12%
Korean 11,041 0.11%
Zhuang 4,055 0.041%
Tujia 3,677 0.037%

Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.[18]

Media[edit]

Tianjin People's Broadcasting Station is the major radio station in Tianjin. Broadcasting in nine channels, it serves most of North China, part of East and Northeast China, reaching an audience of over 100 million.[19] Tianjin Television, the local television station, broadcasts in nine channels. It also boasts a paid digital channel, featuring home improvement programs.[20][non-primary source needed] Both the radio and television stations are now branches of the Tianjin Film, Radio and Television Group, established in October 2002.[21][non-primary source needed]

Major local newspapers include the Tianjin Daily and Jin Wan Bao (literally, tonight newspaper), which are the flagship papers of Tianjin Daily Newspaper Group and Jinwan Mass Media Group, respectively. There are also three English-language magazines: Jin,[22][non-primary source needed] Tianjin Plus[23][non-primary source needed] and Business Tianjin,[24][non-primary source needed] mostly directed at ex-pats resident in the city.

Previous newspapers[edit]

The first German newspaper in northern China, Tageblatt für Nordchina, was published in Tianjin.[25]

In 1912 Tianjin had 17 Chinese-language newspapers and 5 daily newspapers in other languages; none of the newspapers in the Tianjin district were trade papers. Of the foreign language newspapers, three were in English and one each was in French and German. Newspapers from Tianjin published in Tianjin included China Critic, Peking and Tientsin Times, The China Times,[26] Tageblatt für Nordchina, 'L'Echo de Tientsin, China Tribune, Ta Kung Pao (L'Impartial), Min Hsing Pao, and Jih Jih Shin Wen Pao (Tsientsin Daily News).[27] Newspapers from Beijing published in Tianjin included Pei Ching Jih Pao, Peking Daily News, and Le Journal de Peking.[26]

In 1930 the newspaper Deutsch-Mandschurische Nachrichten moved from Harbin to Tianjin and changed its name to the Deutsch-Chinesische Nachrichten.[28]

Tourism[edit]

The city has many sights; it's the streetscapes – an assemblage of historic nineteenth - and early twentieth-century European architecture, juxtaposed with the concrete and glass monoliths of contemporary China – that are its most engrossing attraction. Though wide swaths of the city are being redeveloped, much of the colonial architecture has been placed under protection, and the shopping opportunities, especially for antiques, just about justify a day-trip from the capital, an hour away by train.

In the nineteenth century, the port city caught the attention of the seafaring Western powers, who used the boarding of an English ship by Chinese troops as an excuse to declare war. With well-armed gunboats, they were assured of victory, and the Treaty of Tianjin, signed in 1856, gave the Europeans the right to establish nine concessionary bases on the mainland, from which they could conduct trade and sell opium. These concessions, along the banks of the Hai River, were self-contained European fantasy worlds: the French built elegant châteaux and towers, while the Germans constructed red-tiled Bavarian villas. Tensions between the indigenous population and the foreigners exploded in the Tianjin Incident of 1870, when a Chinese mob attacked a French-run orphanage, and again during the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, after which the foreigners levelled the walls around the old Chinese city to enable them to keep an eye on its residents.

The dense network of ex-concession streets south and west of the central train station, and south of the Hai River, now constitute the areas of most interest to visitors. Unmistakable are the châteaux of the French concession, which now make up the downtown district just south of the river, and the haughty mansions the British built east of here. Farther east, also south of the river, the architecture of an otherwise unremarkable district has a sprinkling of stern German constructions.

Landmarks and attractions[edit]

Sights outside the old city urban core area, but within the municipality, including Binhai/TEDA:

Culture[edit]

A traditional Tianjin lunch of Goubuli Baozi
traditional Opera in Tianjin

People from Tianjin speak the Tianjin dialect of Mandarin, from which it is derived. Despite its proximity to Beijing, the Tianjin dialect sounds quite different from the Beijing dialect, which provides the basis for Putonghua, the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China.

Tianjin is a respected home base of Beijing opera, one of the most prestigious forms of Chinese opera.

Western oil painting tells the fairy tale of China

Tianjin is famous for its stand up [comedy] and comedians including Guo Degang and Ma Sanli. Ma Sanli (马三立) (1914–2003), an ethnic Hui and longtime resident of Tianjin, is renowned for his xiangsheng (相声), a hugely popular form of Chinese entertainment similar to comedy. Ma Sanli delivered some of his xiangsheng in the Tianjin dialect. Tianjin, along with Beijing, is a center for the art of xiangsheng.[29]

Yangliuqing (Green Willows), a town about 15 km (9.3 mi) west of Tianjin's urban area and the seat of Xiqing District, is famous for its popular Chinese New Year-themed, traditional-style, colourful wash paintings (杨柳青年画). Tianjin is also famous for Zhang's clay figurines which are a type of colourful figurine depicting a variety of vivid characters, and Tianjin's Wei's kites, which can be folded to a fraction of their full sizes, are noted for portability.

Cuisine[edit]

Tianjin cuisine places a heavy focus on seafood, due to Tianjin's proximity to the sea. Prominent menus include the Eight Great Bowls (Chinese: 八大碗; pinyin: Bādà wǎn), a combination of eight mainly meat dishes. It can be further classified into several varieties, including the rough (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), smooth (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), and high (Chinese: ; pinyin: gāo). The Four Great Stews (Chinese: 四大扒; pinyin: sì dà bā) actually refers to a very large number of stews, including chicken, duck, seafood, beef, and mutton.

The four delicacies of Tianjin include Goubuli baozi, Guifaxiang Shibajie Mahua (Chinese: 十八街麻花; pinyin: shíbā jiē máhuā), Erduoyan Zhagao (Chinese: 耳朵眼炸糕; pinyin: erduoyǎn zhà gāo) and Maobuwen Jiaozi (Chinese: 猫不闻饺子; pinyin: māo bù wén jiǎozi). Well-known foods include Caoji donkey meat, Bazhen sheep-leg mutton of Guanshengyuan, Luji Tangmian Zhagao, Baiji Shuijiao, Gaogan of Zhilanzhai, Guobacai of Dafulai, Kansubao of Shitoumen and Xiaobao chestnut. These famous snacks are available in Nanshi Food Street, which was a famous calling-card of Tianjin in the aspect of cuisine.

Transport[edit]

Main article: Transport in Tianjin

Port of Tianjin[edit]

Tianjin port is the world's top-level and China’s largest artificial deep water harbor, and the throughput capacity ranks the fifth place in the world. Located in Binhai Economic Zone, a national new economic zone of China, Tianjin harbor is the port of call of international cruises visiting the wider area, including Beijing.

Trams[edit]

Tianjin's harbor area of Binhai/TEDA has an ultramodern, high speed rubber tired tram system, which is the first of its kind in China & Asia. Constructed in 2006, this marked a return of the tram to Tianjin, which once had an extensive standard steel-wheeled tramway network. The Tianjin tram network was constructed by a Belgian company in 1904 and opened in 1906. It was the first city-wide tramway system in China. It closed in 1972.

Rapid transit[edit]

Light railway[edit]

There is also a light railway line in the city, the Binhai Mass Transit line. The line runs between downtown Tianjin and TEDA (Tianjin Economic Development Area) in the seaside region. The eastern part of the line began service on March 28, 2004. The western part of the line is scheduled to be completed in 2006.

There is also a guided rail tram system in TEDA, called TEDA Modern Guided Rail Tram.

Metro[edit]

The municipality consists of two rapid transit systems, Tianjin Metro and Binhai Mass Transit. They are currently under heavy expansion from three to nine lines. Four lines are currently operating both in the City and the Binhai area. As of October 2009, the entire network of Tianjin Metro and Binhai Mass Transit has 50 stations and 4 lines.

Construction work on the Tianjin Metro started on July 4, 1970. It was the second metro to be built in China and commenced service in 1984. The total length of track is 7.4 kilometres (5 miles). The metro service was suspended on October 9, 2001 for reconstruction. The original line is now part of Line 1 of the new metro system. It was re-opened to the public in June 2006. The track was extended to 26.188 km (16.272 mi) and there are a total of 22 stations. Construction work on Line 2 and Line 3 was completed in 2012 and the two lines are now in operation. Several new metro lines are planned.

There are two rapid transit operators in Tianjin:

Current map of Tianjin Metro and Binhai Mass Transit[edit]
Current map of Tianjin Metro and Binhai Mass Transit


Rail[edit]

There are several railway stations in the city, Tianjin Railway Station being the principal one. It was built in 1888. The station was initially located at Wangdaozhuang (simplified Chinese: 旺道庄; traditional Chinese: 旺道莊; pinyin: Wàngdàozhuāng). The station was later moved to Laolongtou (simplified Chinese: 老龙头; traditional Chinese: 老龍頭; pinyin: Lǎolóngtóu) on the banks of the Hai He River in 1892, so the station was renamed Laolongtou Railway Station. The station was rebuilt from scratch in 1988. The rebuilding work began on April 15, 1987 and was finished on October 1, 1988. The Tianjin Railway Station is also locally called the 'East Station', due to its geographical position. In January 2007, the station began another long-term restructuring project to modernize the facility and as part of the larger Tianjin transport hub project involving Tianjin Metro lines 2, 3, and 9 as well as the Tianjin-Beijing High-speed rail.

Tianjin West Railway Station and Tianjin North Railway Station are also major railway stations in Tianjin. There is also Tanggu Railway Station is located in the important port area of Tanggu District, and TEDA Railway Station located in TEDA, to the north of Tanggu. There are several other railway stations in the city that do not handle passenger traffic. Construction on a Beijing-Tianjin high-speed rail began on July 4, 2005 and was completed by August 2008.

The following rail lines go through Tianjin:

The inter-city trains between Beijing and Tianjin will adopt a new numbering system: Cxxxx (C stands for interCity.). The train numbers range between C2001~C2298:

  • C2001~C2198: From Beijing South Station to Tianjin, non-stop.
  • C2201~C2268: From Beijing South Station to Tianjin, with stops at Wuqing Station (武清站) or Yizhuang Station (亦庄站);
  • C2271~C2298: From Beijing South Station to Tanggu Station of Tianjin.[30]

The new C trains take only 30 min between Beijing and Tianjin, cutting the previous D train time by more than a half. The ticket price as of Aug. 15, 08 is 69 RMB for the first-class seat and 58 RMB for the second-class seat.

Bus[edit]

Tianjin Bus Route 606

There were over 900 bus lines in the city as of 2004.[31]

Roads and expressways[edit]

Some roads and bridges have retained names that hark back to the Republic of China era (1912-1949) such as Minquan Gate and Beiyang Road. Like with most cities in China, many roads in Tianjin are named after Chinese provinces and cities. Also, Tianjin is unlike Beijing, in that very few roads run parallel to the major four cardinal directions.

Tianjin has three ring roads. The Inner and Middle Ring Roads are not closed, traffic-controlled roadways and some often have traffic light intersections. The Outer Ring Road is the closest thing to a highway-level ring road, although traffic is often chaotic.

Tianjin's roads often finish in dao (Chinese: ; literally: "avenue"), xian (simplified Chinese: 线; traditional Chinese: ; literally: "line"). These are most often used for highways and through routes. The terms lu (Chinese: ; literally: "road"). Jie (Chinese: ; literally: "street") are rare. As Tianjin's roads are rarely in a cardinal compass direction, jing (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; literally: "avenue") roads and wei (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; literally: "avenue") roads often appear, which attempt to run more directly north-south and east-west, respectively.

The following seven expressways of China run in or through Tianjin:

The following six China National Highways pass through Tianjin:

Airport[edit]

Tianjin Binhai International Airport (ZBTJ) is located in Dongli District roughly 13 km (8 mi) away from downtown area. The city will also be served by the new Beijing Daxing International Airport in Beijing, currently under construction and to be completed by 2017.[32]

Tianjin Binhai International Airport now has a terminal building which covers an area of 25,000 m2 (269,000 sq ft), a merchandise warehouse which covers an area of 29,500 m2 (318,000 sq ft) and runways measuring 3.6 km (2.2 mi) in total. It has a grade 4E airstrip, which all kinds of large aircraft can take off from and land safely on. Tianjin Binhai International Airport [33] has 59 flight routes, connecting 48 cities, including 30 domestic cities and 17 foreign cities. Airline companies like Japan Airlines, All Nippon Airways, Korean Air, Asiana Airlines, Singapore Airlines Cargo and Martinair Holland all have flights to Tianjin Binhai International Airport.

Religion[edit]

Tianjin has a Buddhist Temple of Great Compassion, a Catholic St. Joseph’s Cathedral (Laoxikai Church), a Catholic Our Lady of Victory Church (Wanghailou Church). A Roman Catholic Diocese of Tianjin exists.[34]

A Mazu Temple in Tianjin.
House decorated by more than Seven hundred million pieces of ceramic.

Sports[edit]

Sports teams based in Tianjin include: Chinese Super League

China League One

China Baseball League

China Women Volleyball League

Martial arts[edit]

Together with Beijing, Tianjin had been for many centuries considered an epicenter for traditional Chinese martial arts. Many past and present masters of arts such as Baji Quan, Pigua Zhang, Xing Yi Quan, Bagua Zhang and others lived or are living in the city.[35][36][37] The districts most famous for martial arts in the city are Hong Qiao and Nankai, and martial artists abound in public green spaces such as Xigu Park and the Tianjin Water Park.

Education[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Under the National Ministry of Education:

Under the municipal government:

Under the national Civil Aviation Authority:

Under the government of Hebei Province:

Foreign institutions:

Private:

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

High schools[edit]

Tianjin No.20 High School
Tianjin Shiyan High School

Notable people from Tianjin[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (in Chinese). United Nations Development Programme China. 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  2. ^ "最新中国城市人口数量排名(根据2010年第六次人口普查)". www.elivecity.cn. 2012. Retrieved 2014-05-28. 
  3. ^ "World Economic Forum: The Inaugural Annual Meeting of the New Champions". China.org. Retrieved 29 August 2008. 
  4. ^ the CNN Wire Staff (October 4, 2010). "Global climate talks kick off in China". CNN. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  5. ^ 天津地理位置、行政区划、人口民族概况 (in Chinese). Chinagate. 30 November 2007. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  6. ^ Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644.
  7. ^ "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2010-08-28. 
  8. ^ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年) (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. June 2011. Retrieved 2010-11-20. [dead link]
  9. ^ "China's Tianjin to restrict vehicle use to curb pollution". Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  10. ^ "Paartalu Airs Player Concerns about Smoggy China". Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  11. ^ "Tianjin's GDP Reaches 900 billion". 
  12. ^ "Tianjin Airport International Logistics Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  13. ^ "Tianjin Export Processing Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  14. ^ "Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone | China Industrial Space". Rightsite.asia. Retrieved 2012-12-11. 
  15. ^ "Tianjin Tanggu National Marine High-Tech Development Area | China Industrial Space". Rightsite.asia. Retrieved 2012-12-11. 
  16. ^ "第二次湖南R&D资源清查主要数据公报(第四号)". Stats.gov.cn. 2011-02-21. Archived from the original on 2001-09-27. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  17. ^ http://news.enorth.com.cn/system/2014/07/11/012008269.shtml
  18. ^ Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (國家統計局人口和社會科技統計司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (國家民族事務委員會經濟發展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中國民族人口資料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN )
  19. ^ 天津人民广播电台 (in Chinese). Radiotj.com. 2010-12-22. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  20. ^ [1] (Chinese)[dead link]
  21. ^ [2] (Chinese)[dead link]
  22. ^ "''Jin''". Jinmagazine.com.cn. 2011-08-16. Retrieved 2012-12-11. [dead link]
  23. ^ Tianjin Plus. "''Tianjin Plus''". Tianjinplus.com. Retrieved 2012-12-11. 
  24. ^ "''Business Tianjin''". Businesstianjin.com. Retrieved 2012-12-11. [dead link]
  25. ^ Walravens, p. 90.
  26. ^ a b United States Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, p. 187.
  27. ^ United States Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, p. 188.
  28. ^ Walravens, p. 91.
  29. ^ McDougall, Bonnie S. (1984). Popular Chinese literature and performing arts in the People's Republic of China, 1949–1979. University of California Press. p. 84. 
  30. ^ "New Beijing-Tianjin intercity train numbering system". Shike.org.cn. 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  31. ^ http://www.tjbus.com/frontpage/index.aspx Tianjin Bus Company official website.] (Chinese)
  32. ^ Moore, Malcolm (September 9, 2011). "China to build world's biggest airport". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  33. ^ "Tianjin Binhai Airport - Map, Airport China, China Airport, Tianjing Binhai International Airport". Airport-china.com. 1950-05-01. Retrieved 2012-12-11. [dead link]
  34. ^ "Refugee Review Tribunal Australia - RRT Research Response". 2007-04-16. Retrieved 2014-01-08. 
  35. ^ http://cookdingskitchen.blogspot.co.il/2013/06/the-world-of-martial-arts-that-has-long.html
  36. ^ http://cookdingskitchen.blogspot.co.il/2012/12/master-zhou-man-artist-teacher.html
  37. ^ http://wulinmingshi.wordpress.com/2014/05/29/the-martial-spirit-of-tianjin-an-interview-with-nitzan-oren-by-jonathan-bluestein/
  38. ^ "Great Wall MBA Program". Okcu.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-06-10. Retrieved 2012-12-11. 
  39. ^ "Tianjin No. 1 High School". Tjyz.org. Retrieved 2012-12-11. 
  40. ^ "Tianjin No. 4 High School". Tj4z.cn. 2012-03-28. Retrieved 2012-12-11. 
  41. ^ "Tianjin No. 5 High School". Tj5ms.cn. Retrieved 2012-12-11. 
  42. ^ "Tianjin No. 7 High School". Tjqz.org. Retrieved 2012-12-11. 
  43. ^ "Tianjin No. 47 High School". Tj47zx.org. 
  44. ^ Tianjin Shiyan High School[dead link]
  45. ^ "Tianjin Xinhua High School". Xinhuaedu.cn. Retrieved 2012-12-11. 
  46. ^ "Tianjin Foreign Languages School (TFLS)". Tjfls.cn. Retrieved 2012-12-11. [dead link]
  47. ^ "Tianjin Second Nankai High School". Tj.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2012-12-11. 

Bibliography

  1. Miscellaneous series, Issues 7-11. United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 1912.
  2. Walravens, Hartmut. "German Influence on the Press in China." - In: Newspapers in International Librarianship: Papers Presented by the Newspaper Section at IFLA General Conferences. Walter de Gruyter, January 1, 2003. ISBN 3110962799, 9783110962796.
  3. Also available at (Archive) the website of the Queens Library - This version does not include the footnotes visible in the Walter de Gruyter version
  4. Also available in Walravens, Hartmut and Edmund King. Newspapers in international librarianship: papers presented by the newspapers section at IFLA General Conferences. K.G. Saur, 2003. ISBN 3598218370, 9783598218378.

Further reading[edit]

  • O. D. Rasmussen (1925). Tientsin: An Illustrated Outline History. University of Michigan: Tientsin Press. OCLC 2594229. 
  • Maurizio Marinelli, Giovanni Andornino, Italy’s Encounter with Modern China: Imperial dreams, strategic ambitions, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
  • Maurizio Marinelli, “The Triumph of the Uncanny: Italians and Italian Architecture in Tianjin”, In Cultural Studies Review, Vol. 19, 2, 2013, 70-98.
  • Maurizio Marinelli, “The Genesis of the Italian Concession in Tianjin: A Combination of Wishful Thinking and Realpolitik”. Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 15 (4), 2010: 536-556.

External links[edit]