Tianshui train station in winter 2009
Location of Tianshui City jurisdiction in Gansu
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Municipal seat||Qinzhou District|
|• Total||14,300 km2 (5,500 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,171 m (3,842 ft)|
|• Density||230/km2 (590/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|Licence plate prefixes||甘E|
The entrance to the Fuxi Temple in Tianshui
|Literal meaning||City of Sky and Water|
|Literal meaning||Qin Province|
|Literal meaning||Commandery of Heaven and Water|
Qin, whose House of Ying were the founding dynasty of the Chinese empire, developed from Quanqiu (present-day Lixian) to the south. After the invasions of the Rong which unseated the Western Zhou, Qin recovered the territory of Tianshui from the nomads. It became an important region of their duchy and, later, kingdom. Characteristically Qin tombs have been excavated at Fangmatan nearby, including one 2200-year-old map of Qin's Gui County.
Under the Qin Empire, the area was part of Longxi Commandery but the Emperor Wu of the Han separated the region as the Tianshui Commandery as part of his expansion towards the Tarim Basin. The general Li Guang came from the city. The Han conquests and explorations eventually resulted in the development of the Northern Silk Road: Tianshui formed its junction with the Wei River, after which it followed the road past Mount Long to Chang'an (present-day Xi'an). Nearby are the Maijishan Grottoes, filled with thousands of Buddhist sculptures representing figures such as Buddha and the original male form of Guanyin, produced between the Wei and Song dynasties by monks travelling along the road and by local Buddhists.
During the Northern Wei, the city was known as Hanyang and was the center of the Hanyang Commandery. During the Western Wei, this name was changed to Hanyang County. During the Tang and Five Dynasties, the city of Tianshui was known as Shanggui (上邽). It alternated with Chengji (present-day Qin'an) as the capital of the province of Qinzhou (秦州). Li County was separated from Tianshui's jurisdiction during the ninth year of Chenghua (AD 1473) during the Ming dynasty.
|1||Qinzhou District||秦州区||Qínzhōu Qū||650,000||2,442||266|
|2||Maiji District||麦积区||Màijī Qū||580,000||3,452||188|
|3||Qingshui County||清水县||Qīngshuǐ Xiàn||310,000||2,003||155|
|4||Qin'an County||秦安县||Qín'ān Xiàn||600,000||1,601||375|
|5||Gangu County||甘谷县||Gāngǔ Xiàn||600,000||1,572||382|
|6||Wushan County||武山县||Wǔshān Xiàn||440,000||2,011||219|
|7||Zhangjiachuan Hui Autonomous County||张家川回族自治县||Zhāngjiāchuān
Tianshui has a monsoon-influenced, cool semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), with four distinct seasons of comparatively equal length. Winters are cold but dry, with January 24-hour average temperature of −2.0 °C (28.4 °F), while summers are warm and somewhat humid, with July 24-hour average temperature of 22.8 °C (73.0 °F). Much of the annual rainfall occurs from June to September, and the annual mean temperature is 11.00 °C (51.8 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 34% in September to 50% in December, the city receives 1,911 hours of bright sunshine annually.
|Climate data for Tianshui (1971−2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||3.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.9
|Precipitation mm (inches)||5.1
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||5.0||5.2||7.9||8.9||10.5||11.2||11.8||10.7||11.2||10.6||5.4||3.0||101.4|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||144.3||128.4||142.2||182.0||201.7||190.0||195.7||193.4||125.4||123.7||133.4||151.0||1,911.2|
|Percent possible sunshine||46||42||39||47||47||44||45||47||34||35||43||50||43.3|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
- Main data bulletin of the sixth national census in 2010, 2011-05-09(Chinese)
- People's Daily Online. "Chinese surname history: Qin".
- Xinhua Online. "Over 2,200-Year-old Map Discovered in NW China".
- Hogan, C. Michael. The Megalithic Portal. "Silk Road, North China".
- Shrotriya, Alok & al. "Artistic treasures of Maiji Mountain caves".
- Dudbridge, Glen. A Portrait of Five Dynasties China: From the Memoirs of Wang Renyu (880–956), pp. 8 ff. Oxford University Press (Oxford), 2013. Accessed 14 Dec 2013.
- Catholic Hierarchy.org. "Diocese of Tsinchow [Tianshui]".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tianshui.|