Tiberius Claudius Nero (praetor 42 BC)
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Tiberius Claudius Nero (ca. 85 – 33 BC) was a member of the Claudian family of ancient Rome. He was a descendant of the original Tiberius Claudius Nero a consul, son of Appius Claudius Caecus the censor. His father Drusus Claudius Nero served under Pompey in 67 BC, battling the pirate menace, and was famous for recommending that the members of the Catiline Conspiracy be confined. His mother was a descendant of the Claudian Family. His family was republican.
He was the father of the Roman Emperor Tiberius and Nero Claudius Drusus, father-in-law to Antonia Minor, grandfather to the Emperor Claudius, Germanicus, and Livilla, great-grandfather to the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, and great-great-grandfather to the Emperor Nero.
He served as quaestor to Julius Caesar in 48 BC, commanding his fleet in the Alexandrian War. He achieved victory over the Egyptian navy, and was rewarded with a priesthood. Caesar further charged him with Roman colonies in Gaul and in other provinces.
Despite his service with Caesar, he was a republican and optimate at heart. After Caesar's murder in 44 BC, when it seemed that the assassins were triumphant, he suggested that they be rewarded for their services to the state. But because of his previous alliance with the dictator, he was allowed to be elected praetor in 42 BC.
Around this time, he married his relative Livia Drusilla, whose father Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus was from the same gens. His son of the same name was born 16 November 42 BC, at Fondi, Italy. Shortly afterwards, the Second Triumvirate began to break down, causing a dangerous situation in Rome as the triumvirs went to battle with each other. Tiberius Nero was forced to choose sides, and in his distrust of Octavian, he cast his lot with Mark Antony. In 41 BC, he fled Rome with Livia and Tiberius in tow, joining Antony's brother Lucius in Perusia. Perusia was besieged by Octavian's men by the time Tiberius Nero arrived, and when the town fell in 40 BC, he was forced to flee first to Praeneste, and then Naples.
In Naples, Tiberius Nero tried in vain to raise a slave battalion against Octavian, and then took refuge with Sextus Pompey, who was then acting as a pirate leader in Sicily. Nero and family joined Mark Antony soon after in Achaea.
In 40 BC, Octavian and Mark Antony finally reconciled. After 3 years of fleeing from Octavian, Tiberius Nero returned to Rome with his wife and the younger Tiberius, aged 3.
Legend says that Octavian, immediately after catching sight of Tiberius' wife, Livia, fell in love with her, despite the fact that he was still married to Scribonia. Octavian divorced Scribonia in 38 BC, on the very day that she gave birth to his daughter Julia the Elder ( Dio Cassius 48.34.3). Seemingly around that time, when Livia was six months pregnant, Tiberius Claudius Nero was persuaded or forced by Octavian to divorce Livia. The child was born between mid-March and mid-April 38 BCand was named Decimus Claudius Drusus, which was later changed to Nero Claudius Drusus. Octavian and Livia got married on 17 January, waiving the traditional waiting period. Tiberius Claudius Nero was present at the wedding, giving her in marriage "just as a father would" (Dio Cassius 48.44.1-3).
As agreed, Drusus was taken to his father's home. Tiberius Nero raised and educated his sons. When he died in 37 BC, his sons went to live with their mother and stepfather. The younger Tiberius delivered his funeral eulogy.