Tibetan independence movement

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The Tibetan independence movement is a movement for the independence of Tibet and the political separation of Tibet from the People's Republic of China. It is principally led by the Tibetan diaspora in countries like India and the United States, and by celebrities and Tibetan Buddhists in the United States and Europe. The movement is not supported by the 14th Dalai Lama, who although having advocated it from 1961 to the late 1970s, proposed a sort of high-level autonomy in a speech in Strasbourg in 1988,[1] and has since then restricted his position to either autonomy for the Tibetan people in the Tibet Autonomous Region within China,[2] or for the autonomy to extend also to areas of neighboring Chinese provinces inhabited by Tibetans.[3]

Among other reasons for independence, campaigners assert that Tibet has been historically independent. However, some dispute this claim by using different definitions of "Tibet" and "independence." The campaigners also argue that Tibetans are currently mistreated and denied certain human rights, although the Chinese government disputes this and claims progress in human rights. Various organizations with overlapping campaigns for independence and human rights have sought to pressure various governments to support Tibetan independence or to take punitive action against China for opposing it.

Historical background[edit]

Main article: History of Tibet
Map of Asia in 1890, showing Tibet within Qing China. The map was published in the Meyers Konversations-Lexikon in Leipzig in 1892.
Map of Asia from the 1925 Finnish encyclopedia Pieni Tietosanakirja, depicting Tibet within Republican China.
An 1864 map published in the US, showing "regional" boundaries in bold red superimposed on contemporary national borders. "Tibet" is shown as one such "region", alongside "Farther India" and "Hindostan".

After the Mongol Prince Köden took control of the Kokonor region in 1239, he sent his general Doorda Darqan on a reconnaissance mission into Tibet in 1240. During this expedition the Kadampa monasteries of Rwa-sgreng and Rgyal-lha-khang were burned, and 500 people killed. The death of Ögödei the Mongol Qaghan in 1241 brought Mongol military activity around the world temporarily to a halt. Mongol interests in Tibet resumed in 1244 when Prince Köden sent an invitation to the leader of the Sakya sect, to come to his capital and formally surrender Tibet to the Mongols. The Sakya leader arrived in Kokonor with his two nephews Drogön Chögyal Phagpa ('Phags-pa; 1235–80) and Chana Dorje (Phyag-na Rdo-rje) (1239–67) in 1246. This event marked the incorporation of Tibet into the Mongol Empire.

In 1710, the Qing Dynasty army entered Tibet, in aid of the local and defeated the Mongol and Lha-bzang Khan of Khoshut. Later, the Chinese emperor assigned Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama to be in charge of religious and political matters of Tibet. The Dalai Lama was leader of area around Lhasa, Panchen Lama was leader area of Shigatse Prefecture.

By the early 18th century, the Qing Dynasty sent resident commissioners (amban) to Lhasa. Tibetan factions rebelled in 1759 and killed the resident commissioners after the central government decided to reduce the number of soldiers to about 100. The Qing army entered and defeated the rebels and reinstalled the resident commissioner. The number of soldiers in Tibet was kept at about 2,000. The defensive duties were assisted by a local force which was reorganized by the resident commissioner, and the Tibetan government continued to manage day-to-day affairs as before.

In 1904, a British mission, accompanied by a large military escort, invaded Tibet, forcing its way through to Lhasa. 13th Dalai Lama escaped. Britain forced The Great Three Tibetan Temple signing of the Convention Between Great Britain and Tibet. The head of the mission was Colonel Francis Younghusband. The principal motivation for the British mission was a fear, which proved to be unfounded, that Russia was extending its footprint into Tibet and possibly even giving military aid to the Tibetan government. But on his way to Lhasa, Younghusband killed 1,300 Tibetans in Gyangzê (as written in "The Great Game" of Peter Hopkirk), because the natives were in fear of what kind of unequal treaty the British would offer the Tibetans. Some documents claim that 5,000 Tibetans were killed by the British army.

The Anglo-Chinese Convention of 1906 recognized Chinese suzerainty over the region [4] and the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907, without Lhasa's and Beijing's acknowledgement, recognized the suzerainty of China over Tibet.[5] The Qing central government claimed for sovereignty and direct rule over Tibet in 1910. The thirteenth Dalai Lama fled to British India in February 1910. In the same month, the Chinese government issued a proclamation 'deposing' the Dalai Lama and instigating the search for a new incarnation.[6]

The subsequent outbreak of World War I and civil war in China meant that the Chinese factions only controlled part of Tibet. The government of the 13th Dalai Lama controlled Ü-Tsang (Dbus-gtsang) and western Kham, roughly coincident with the borders of the Tibet Autonomous Region today. Eastern Kham, separated by the Yangtze River was under the control of Chinese warlord Liu Wenhui. The situation in Amdo (Qinghai) was more complicated, with the Xining area controlled by Chinese Muslim warlord Ma Bufang, who constantly strove to exert control over the rest of Amdo (Qinghai).

The Chinese Muslim General Ma Fuxiang, the chairman of the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission stated that Tibet was an integral part of the Republic of China.

Our Party [the Guomindang] takes the development of the weak and small and resistance to the strong and violent as our sole and most urgent task. This is even more true for those groups which are not of our kind [Ch. fei wo zulei zhe]. Now the peoples [minzu] of Mongolia and Tibet are closely related to us, and we have great affection for one another: our common existence and common honor already have a history of over a thousand years.... Mongolia and Tibet's life and death are China's life and death. China absolutely cannot cause Mongolia and Tibet to break away from China's territory, and Mongolia and Tibet cannot reject China to become independent. At this time, there is not a single nation on earth except China that will sincerely develop Mongolia and Tibet."[7]

In 1950, the People's Liberation Army of the People's Republic of China entered Tibet, after taking over the rest of China from Republic of China during the five years of civil war. In 1951, the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, a treaty signed by representatives of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama, provided for rule by a joint administration under representatives of the central government and the Tibetan government. Most of the population of Tibet at that time were serfs, bound to land owned by lamas. Any attempt at land reform or the redistribution of wealth would have proved unpopular with the established landowners. This agreement was initially put into effect in Tibet proper. However, Eastern Kham and Amdo were outside the administration of the government of Tibet, and were thus treated like any other Chinese province with land reform implemented in full. As a result, a rebellion broke out in these regions in June 1956. The rebellion eventually spread to Lhasa, but was crushed by 1959. The 14th Dalai Lama and other government principals fled to exile in India.

Beginning in the 1950s the Central Intelligence Agency trained Tibetans as paramilitaries.[8]

CIA and MI6 activities in Tibet (1950-1970)[edit]

According to the 14th Dalai Lama, the CIA supported the Tibetan independence movement "not because they (the CIA) cared about Tibetan independence, but as part of their worldwide efforts to destabilize all communist governments".[9]

Agents of Western governments had infiltrated Tibet by the mid-1950s, a few years after Tibet was annexed by the People's Republic of China. British MI6 agent Sydney Wignall, in his recent autobiography,[10] reveals that he travelled to Tibet with John Harrop in 1955 posing as mountaineers. Captured by the Chinese authority, Wignell recalled that he was surprised to find two CIA agents were already under Chinese detention.

Clandestine military involvement by the U.S. began following the series of uprisings in the eastern Tibetan region of Kham in 1956. Several small groups of Khampa fighters were trained by the CIA camp and then airdropped back into Tibet with supplies. In 1958, with the rebellion in Kham ongoing, two of these fighters, Athar and Lhotse, attempted to meet with the Dalai Lama to determine whether he would cooperate with their activities. However, their request for an audience was refused by the Lord Chamberlain, Phala Thubten Wonden, who believed such a meeting would be impolitic. According to Tsering Shakya, "Phala never told the Dalai Lama or the Kashag of the arrival of Athar and Lhotse. Nor did he inform the Dalai Lama of American willingness to provide aid".[11]

Following a mass uprising in Lhasa in 1959 during the celebration of the Tibetan New Year and the ensuing Chinese military response, the Dalai Lama went into exile in India. Some sources state that the Dalai Lama's escape was assisted by the CIA. After 1959, the CIA trained Tibetan guerrillas and provided funds and weapons for the fight against China. However, assistance was reduced during the course of the 1960s and finally ended when Richard Nixon decided to seek rapprochement with China in the early 1970s. Kenneth Conboy and James Morrison, in The CIA's Secret War in Tibet,[12] reveal how the CIA encouraged Tibetan revolt against China — and eventually came to control its fledgling resistance movement. The New York Times reported on October 2, 1998 that the Dalai Lama's administration acknowledged that it received $1.7 million a year in the 1960s from the CIA, but denied reports that the Tibetan leader benefited personally from an annual subsidy of $180,000. The money allocated for the resistance movement was spent on training volunteers and paying for guerrilla operations against the Chinese, the Tibetan government-in-exile said.[13][14] The budget figures for the CIA's Tibetan program were as follows:

Positions on the status of Tibet[edit]

The status of Tibet before 1950, especially in the period between 1912 and 1950, is largely in dispute between supporters and opponents of Tibetan independence.

According to supporters of Tibetan independence, Tibet was a distinct nation and state independent between the fall of the Mongol Empire in 1368 and subjugation by the Qing Dynasty in 1720; and again between the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912 and its incorporation into the PRC in 1951. Moreover, even during the periods of nominal subjugation to the Yuan and Qing, Tibet was largely self-governing. As such, the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA) views current PRC rule in Tibet as illegitimate, motivated solely by the natural resources and strategic value of Tibet, and in violation of both Tibet's historical status as an independent country and the right of the Tibetan people to self-determination.[citation needed] It also points to PRC's autocratic and divide-and-rule policies, and assimilationist policies, regarding those as an example of imperialism bent on destroying Tibet's distinct ethnic makeup, culture, and identity, thereby cementing it as an indivisible part of China.[citation needed] After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, both Mongolia and TIbet declared independence and recognized each other as such.

On the other hand, opponents assert that the PRC rules Tibet legitimately, by saying that Tibet has been part of Chinese history since 7th century as Tibetan Empire has close interaction with the Chinese dynasties through royal marriage. In addition to the de facto power that the Chinese has since then, Yuan Dynasty conquest in 13th century and that all subsequent Chinese governments (Ming Dynasty, Qing Dynasty, Republic of China, and People's Republic of China) have been exercising de jure sovereignty power over Tibet.

In addition, as this position argues that no country gave Tibet diplomatic recognition between 1912 and 1950, they say that China, under the Republic of China government, continued to maintain sovereignty over the region, and the leaders of Tibet themselves acknowledged Chinese sovereignty by sending delegates to the following: the Drafting Committee for a new constitution of the Republic of China in 1925, the National Assembly of the Republic of China in 1931, the fourth National Congress of the Kuomintang in 1931, a National Assembly for drafting a new Chinese constitution in 1946, and finally to another National Assembly for drafting a new Chinese constitution in 1948.[16] Finally, some within the PRC considers all movements aimed at ending Chinese sovereignty in Tibet, starting with British attempts in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, to the CTA today, as one long campaign abetted by malicious Western imperialism aimed at destroying Chinese integrity and sovereignty, thereby weakening China's position in the world. The PRC also points to what it calls the autocratic and theocratic policies of the government of Tibet before 1959, as well as its renunciation of South Tibet, claimed by China as a part of historical Tibet occupied by India, as well as the Dalai Lama's association with India, and as such claims the CTA has no moral legitimacy to govern Tibet.

Positions on Tibet after 1950[edit]

Tibetan exiles generally say that the number that have died in the Great Leap Forward, violence, or other unnatural causes since 1950 is approximately 1.2 million.[17] However, this number is controversial, and the government does not agree to it. According to Patrick French, a supporter of the Tibetan cause who was able to view the data and calculations, the estimate is not reliable because the Tibetans were not able to process the data well enough to produce a credible total, with many persons double or triple counted. There were, however, many casualties, perhaps as many as 400,000.[18] This figure is extrapolated from a calculation Warren W. Smith made from census reports of Tibet which show 200,000 "missing" from Tibet.[19] Even anti-Communist resources such as the Black Book of Communism expresses doubt at the 1.2 million figure, but does note that according to the Chinese census, the total population of ethnic Tibetans in the PRC was 2.8 million in 1953, but only 2.5 million in 1964. It puts forward a figure of 800,000 deaths and alleges that as many as 10% of Tibetans were interned, with few survivors.[20] Chinese demographers have estimated that 90,000 of the 300,000 "missing" Tibetans fled the region.[21]

The Central Tibetan Administration also says that millions of Chinese immigrants to the TAR are diluting the Tibetans both culturally and through intermarriage. Exile groups say that despite recent attempts to restore the appearance of original Tibetan culture to attract tourism, the traditional Tibetan way of life is now irrevocably changed. It is also reported that when Hu Yaobang, the general secretary of the Communist Party of China, visited Lhasa in 1980 he was unhappy when he found out the region was behind neighbouring provinces. Reforms were instituted, and since then the central government's policy in Tibet has granted most religious freedoms. But monks and nuns are still sometimes imprisoned,[22] and many Tibetans (mostly monks and nuns) continue to flee Tibet yearly. At the same time, many Tibetans believe projects that the PRC implement to benefit Tibet, such as the China Western Development economic plan or the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, are politically motivated actions to consolidate central control over Tibet by facilitating militarization and Han Chinese migration while benefiting few Tibetans; they also believe the money funneled into cultural restoration projects as being aimed at attracting foreign tourists. They also say that there is still preferential treatment awarded to Han Chinese in the labor market as opposed to Tibetans.

The government of the PRC claims that the population of Tibet in 1737 was about 8 million. It claims that due to the 'backward' rule of the local theocracy, there was rapid decrease in the next two hundred years and the population in 1959 was only about one million.[23] Today, the population of Greater Tibet is 7.3 million, of which 5 million is ethnic Tibetan, according to the 2000 census. According to the PRC the increase is viewed as the result of the abolishment of the theocracy and introduction of a modern, higher standard of living. Based on the census numbers, the PRC also rejects claims that the Tibetans are being swamped by Han Chinese; instead the PRC says that the border for Greater Tibet drawn by the government of Tibet in Exile is so large that it incorporates regions such as Xining that are not traditionally Tibetan in the first place, hence exaggerating the number of non-Tibetans.[citation needed]

The government of the PRC also rejects claims that the lives of Tibetans have deteriorated, pointing to rights enjoyed by the Tibetan language in education and in courts and says that the lives of Tibetans have been improved immensely compared to the Dalai Lama's rule before 1950. Benefits that are commonly quoted include: the GDP of Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) today is 30 times that before 1950; it has 22,500 km of highways, all built since 1950; all secular education in the region was created after integration into the PRC; there are 25 scientific research institutes, all built by the PRC; infant mortality has dropped from 43% in 1950 to 0.661% in 2000; life expectancy has risen from 35.5 years in 1950 to 67 in 2000; the collection and publishing of the traditional Epic of King Gesar, which is the longest epic poem in the world and had only been handed down orally before; allocation of 300 million Renminbi since the 1980s to the maintenance and protection of Tibetan monasteries.[24] The Cultural Revolution and the cultural damage it wrought upon the entire PRC is generally condemned as a nationwide catastrophe, whose main instigators (in the PRC's view, the Gang of Four) have been brought to justice and whose recurrence is unthinkable in an increasingly modernized China. The China Western Development plan is viewed by the PRC as a massive, benevolent, and patriotic undertaking by the eastern coast to help the western parts of China, including Tibet, catch up in prosperity and living standards.

Development and influence[edit]

"Free Tibet" LED Banner at Bird's Nest, Beijing, August 19, 2008.

Organisations which support the Tibetan independence movement include:

However, Tenzin Gyatso, the current Dalai Lama, the spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhists, is no longer calling for independence. He has spoken in many international venues, including the United States Congress, and the European Parliament. In 1987, he has also started campaigning for a peaceful resolution to the issue of the status of Tibet, and has since then advocated that Tibet should not become independent, but that it should be given meaningful autonomy within the People's Republic of China. This approach is known as the "Middle Way".[2] As such India has always been very supportive to the cause of Tibetans though silently and has never placed any obstacles on Tibetan migration to India by any means and their financial transactions have also been kept unchecked. This has always helped Tibetans to mingle with the world. Off late Tibetans have been given voting rights in India too.

Some organisations either support the "Middle Way" or do not adopt a definitive stance on whether they support independence or greater autonomy. Such organisations include:

Celebrity support and Freedom Concerts[edit]

The Tibetan independence movement receives considerable publicity from celebrities in the United States and Europe, although much of their support comes under a non-specific banner of "Free Tibet", without specifying whether they support independence for Tibet, or the kind of greater autonomy within China advocated by the Dalai Lama.

The "Free Tibet" movement is fashionable among members of the Hollywood set, such as Richard Gere and Paris Hilton.[27]

British comedian Russell Brand also occasionally mentions his support for the movement on his BBC Radio 2 show. Richard Gere is one of the most outspoken supporters of the movement and is chairman of the Board of Directors for the International Campaign for Tibet. Actress Sharon Stone caused significant controversy when she suggested that the 2008 Sichuan earthquake may have been the result of "bad karma," because the Chinese "are not being nice to the Dalai Lama, who is a good friend of mine."[28]

Steven Seagal has been an active supporter of Tibetan independence for several decades and makes regular donations to various Tibetan charities around the world.[29] He has been recognized by Tibetan Lama Penor Rinpoche as the reincarnation of tulku Chungdrag Dorje, the treasure revealer of Palyul Monastery. He also claims to have the special ability of clairvoyance; in a November 2006 interview, he stated: "I was born very different, clairvoyant and a healer".[30]

The Milerepa Fund is an organisation which organises concerts to give publicity to the Tibetan independence movement. The fund was named after Milarepa, the revered 11th-century Tibetan yogi, who used music to enlighten people. It was originally established to disburse royalties from the Beastie Boys album Ill Communication in 1994, to benefit Tibetan monks who were sampled on two songs. The Milarepa Fund organizers also jointed the Beastie Boys as they headlined the 1994 Lollapalooza Tour. Inspired by this tour, they began to organise a concert to promote Tibetan independence, in the style of Live Aid.

Organized in June 1996, the first concert (in San Francisco) opened with Icelandic singer Björk and featured acts such as Radiohead, The Smashing Pumpkins, Cibo Matto, Rage Against the Machine, Red Hot Chili Peppers, and De La Soul.[31][32][33] The concerts continued for three more years, which helped to generate publicity for the Tibetan independence movement. It also reportedly led to the growth of Tibetan independence organisations such as Students for a Free Tibet and Free Tibet Campaign worldwide.[34]

Gorillaz, the virtual pop band have shown support through a TV spot showing animated frontman, 2D, meditating with fellow supporters outside of the Chinese embassy, followed by a brief message encouraging people to join the Free Tibet Campaign. In addition, during the holographic performances of "Clint Eastwood", 2D is wearing a shirt saying "FREE TIBET."[35]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Smith, Warren W. (2008). China's Tibet?: Autonomy or Assimilation. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-7425-3989-1. 
  2. ^ a b McDonald, Hamish. "Tibet part of China: Dalai Lama". The Age. Fairfax. Retrieved 12 March 2012. 
  3. ^ Reasonable Demands Needed From Dalai Lama
  4. ^ Smith, Tibet, p. 162
  5. ^ Goldstein, History, p. 830
  6. ^ Smith, Tibet, p. 175
  7. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 167. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  8. ^ The CIA's Secret War in Tibet, Kenneth Conboy, James Morrison, The University Press of Kansas, 2002.
  9. ^ "CIA Gave Aid to Tibetan Exiles in '60s, Files Show". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 8 September 2013. "In his 1990 autobiography, "Freedom in Exile," the Dalai Lama explained that his two brothers made contact with the CIA during a trip to India in 1956. The CIA agreed to help, "not because they cared about Tibetan independence, but as part of their worldwide efforts to destabilize all Communist governments," the Dalai Lama wrote." 
  10. ^ Wignall, Sydney. Spy on the roof of the world. New York, NY : Lyons & Burford, 1996. ISBN 1-55821-558-1
  11. ^ Shakya, Tsering, The dragon in the land of snows : a history of modern Tibet since 1947, London : Pimlico, 1999. ISBN 0-7126-6533-1. Cf. pg. 177
  12. ^ Conboy, Kenneth; Morrison, James, The CIA’s secret war in Tibet, Lawrence : University Press of Kansas, 2002. ISBN 0-7006-1159-2
  13. ^ Dalai Lama Group Says It Got Money From C.I.A., The New York Times, October 2, 1998. Retrieved on March 29, 2008
  14. ^ Grunfeld, A. Tom, "Reassessing Tibet Policy" (Washington, DC: Foreign Policy In Focus, October 12, 2005)
  15. ^ a b c d "CIA Gave Aid to Tibetan Exiles in '60s, Files Show". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 8 September 2013. "The budget figures for the CIA's Tibetan program are contained in a memo dated Jan. 9, 1964. It was evidently written to help justify continued funding for the clandestine intelligence operation. "Support of 2,100 Tibetan guerrillas based in Nepal: $500,000," the document says. "Subsidy to the Dalai Lama: $180,000." After listing several other costs, it concludes: "Total: $1,735,000." The files show that this budget request was approved soon afterward." 
  16. ^ "西藏在辛亥革命后变成一个独立国家吗" (in Simplified Chinese). the Embassy of the PRC in the ROK. Retrieved 2009-02-08. [dead link]
  17. ^ "Human rights". Central Tibetan Administration. 1996-02-02. Archived from the original on April 26, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  18. ^ French, Tibet, pp. 278–82
  19. ^ Smith, Tibetan, p. 600
  20. ^ Internment Est:page 545, cites Kewly, Tibet p. 255; Tibet Death Est: page 546, Black Book, ISBN 978-0-674-07608-2
  21. ^ Hao, Yan (March 2000). "Tibetan Population in China: Myths and Facts Re-Examined" (PDF). Asia Ethnicity 1 (1): 24. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  22. ^ "Who Are the Drapchi 14?". Amnesty International USA Group 133. April 4, 2004. Archived from the original on 2004-06-04. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  23. ^ "A breach of constitution under pretext of religion". Tibet.cn. 2008-12-05. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  24. ^ "Govt. White Papers: Tibet's Modernization Achievements". China.org.cn. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  25. ^ Wax, Emily (23 November 2008). "Exiled Tibetans weigh freedom struggle". Washington Post. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  26. ^ "Ball State University Professor Leads Independence Movement". WIBC. 4/06/2008. 
  27. ^ Perloff, James. "Tibet Marks 50th Anniversary of Lhasa Uprising". The New American. Retrieved 2011-03-03.  (posted on The Buddhist Channel).
  28. ^ "Sharon Stone quake karma remarks spark anger in China". AFP. 2008-05-27. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  29. ^ Carreon, Charles. "Steven Seagal comes out of the buddhist closet". Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  30. ^ Rinpoche, Penor. "Steven Seagal - "The Action Lama"". Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  31. ^ "Bjork Tibet Cry: Blacklisting May Follow". Sky News. 2008-03-07. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  32. ^ Browne, David (1997-10-31). "INCITE AND SOUND". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  33. ^ "Why Just a Free Tibet? How About a Free China?". Pop Matters. 2004-07-21. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  34. ^ George, Matthew. "Tibetan Freedom Concert". Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  35. ^ See Phase One: Celebrity Take Down, Phase One: Celebrity Takedown

Bibliography[edit]

  • Allen, Charles (2004). Duel in the Snows: The True Story of the Younghusband Mission to Lhasa. London: John Murray, 2004. ISBN 978-0-7195-5427-8.
  • Bell, Charles (1924). Tibet: Past & Present. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Courtois, Stéphane; Mark Kramer et al. (1999). The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, terror, repression. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-07608-2. 
  • French, Patrick (2002). Tibet, Tibet: a personal history. New York: Knopf. ISBN 1-4000-4100-7. 
  • McKay, Alex (1997). Tibet and the British Raj: The Frontier Cadre 1904-1947. London: Curzon. ISBN 978-0-7007-0627-3.
  • Shakya, Tsering (1999). The Dragon in the Land of Snows: A History of Modern Tibet Since 1947. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11814-9.
  • Smith, Warren W. (Jr.) (1996). Tibetan Nation: A History of Tibetan Nationalism and Sino-Tibetan Relations. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-3155-3.

Further reading[edit]

  • Dowman, Keith (1988). The Power-Places of Central Tibet: The Pilgrim's Guide. Routledge & Kegan Paul. London, ISBN 978-0-7102-1370-9. New York, ISBN 978-0-14-019118-9.
  • Dunham, Mikel (2004). Buddha's Warriors: The Story of the CIA-Backed Freedom Fighters, the Chinese Communist Invasion, and the Ultimate Fall of Tibet. Penguin Group, ISBN 978-1-58542-348-4.
  • Goldstein, Melvyn C.; with the help of Gelek Rimpche. A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers (1993), ISBN 978-81-215-0582-6. University of California (1991), ISBN 978-0-520-07590-0.
  • Grunfield, Tom (1996). The Making of Modern Tibet. ISBN 978-1-56324-713-2.
  • Norbu, Thubten Jigme; Turnbull, Colin (1968). Tibet: Its History, Religion and People. Reprint: Penguin Books (1987).
  • Pachen, Ani; Donnely, Adelaide (2000). Sorrow Mountain: The Journey of a Tibetan Warrior Nun. Kodansha America, Inc. ISBN 978-1-56836-294-6.
  • Powers, John (2000). The Free Tibet Movement: A Selective Narrative. Journal of Buddhist Ethics 7
  • Samuel, Geoffrey (1993). Civilized Shamans: Buddhism in Tibetan Societies. Smithsonian ISBN 978-1-56098-231-9.
  • Schell, Orville (2000). Virtual Tibet: Searching for Shangri-La from the Himalayas to Hollywood. Henry Holt. ISBN 978-0-8050-4381-5.
  • Stein, R. A. (1962). Tibetan Civilization. First published in French; English translation by J. E. Stapelton Driver. Reprint: Stanford University Press (with minor revisions from 1977 Faber & Faber edition), 1995. ISBN 978-0-8047-0806-7.
  • Tamm, Eric Enno. "The Horse That Leaps Through Clouds: A Tale of Espionage, the Silk Road and the Rise of Modern China." Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 2010, Chapter 17 & 18. ISBN 978-1-55365-269-4. See http://horsethatleaps.com
  • Thurman, Robert (2002). Robert Thurman on Tibet. DVD. ASIN B00005Y722.
  • Wilby, Sorrel (1988). Journey Across Tibet: A Young Woman's 1900-Mile Trek Across the Rooftop of the World. Contemporary Books. ISBN 978-0-8092-4608-3.
  • Wilson, Brandon (2005). Yak Butter Blues: A Tibetan Trek of Faith. Pilgrim's Tales. ISBN 978-0-9770536-6-7, ISBN 978-0-9770536-7-4.

External links[edit]