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Tibolone is a synthetic steroid hormone drug, which is fairly non-selective in its binding profile, acting as an agonist mainly at estrogen receptors, with a preference for ER alpha. It is used mainly for treatment of endometriosis, as well as hormone replacement therapy in post-menopausal women. Tibolone has similar or greater efficacy compared to older hormone replacement drugs, but shares a similar side effect profile. It has also been investigated as a possible treatment for female sexual dysfunction.
A report in September 2009 from Health and Human Services' Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality suggests that tamoxifen, raloxifene, and tibolone used to treat breast cancer significantly reduce invasive breast cancer in midlife and older women, but also increase the risk of adverse side effects.
- Escande A, Servant N, Rabenoelina F, Auzou G, Kloosterboer H, Cavaillès V, Balaguer P, Maudelonde T (August 2009). "Regulation of activities of steroid hormone receptors by tibolone and its primary metabolites". The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 116 (1–2): 8–14. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2009.03.008. PMID 19464167.
- Al Kadri H, Hassan S, Al-Fozan HM, Hajeer A (2009). Al Kadri, Hanan, ed. "Hormone therapy for endometriosis and surgical menopause". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online) (1): CD005997. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005997.pub2. PMID 19160262.
- Lazovic G, Radivojevic U, Marinkovic J (April 2008). "Tibolone: the way to beat many a postmenopausal ailments". Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 9 (6): 1039–47. doi:10.1517/146565184.108.40.2069. PMID 18377345.
- Garefalakis M, Hickey M (2008). "Role of androgens, progestins and tibolone in the treatment of menopausal symptoms: a review of the clinical evidence". Clinical Interventions in Aging 3 (1): 1–8. PMC 2544356. PMID 18488873.
- Vavilis D, Zafrakas M, Goulis DG, Pantazis K, Agorastos T, Bontis JN (2009). "Hormone therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer survivors: a survey among obstetrician-gynaecologists". European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology 30 (1): 82–4. PMID 19317264.
- Ziaei, S; Moghasemi, M; Faghihzadeh, S (2010). "Comparative effects of conventional hormone replacement therapy and tibolone on climacteric symptoms and sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women". Climacteric : the journal of the International Menopause Society 13 (2): 147–56. doi:10.1080/13697130903009195. PMID 19731119.
- "Medications Effective in Reducing Risk of Breast Cancer But Increase Risk of Adverse Effects, New Report Says". U.S. Department of Health & Human Services - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. September 2009. Retrieved 2 June 2014.