|Classification and external resources|
Tick-borne diseases are diseases or illnesses transmitted by ticks. As the incidence of tick-borne illnesses increases and the geographic areas in which they are found expand, it becomes increasingly important that health workers be able to distinguish the diverse, and often overlapping, clinical presentations of these diseases.
Tick-borne illnesses are caused by infection with a variety of pathogens, including rickettsia and other types of bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Because ticks can harbor more than one disease-causing agent, patients can be infected with more than one pathogen at the same time, compounding the difficulty in diagnosis and treatment.
Diagnosis and treatment
In general, specific laboratory tests are not available to rapidly diagnose tick-borne diseases. Due to their seriousness, antibiotic treatment is often justified based on clinical presentation alone.
Ticks tend to be more active during warmer months, though this varies by geographic region and climate. Areas with woods, bushes, high grass, or leaf litter are likely to have more ticks. Those bitten commonly experience symptoms such as body aches, fever, fatigue, joint pain, or rashes. People can limit their exposure to tick bites by wearing light-colored clothing (including pants and long sleeves), using insect repellent with 20%–30% DEET, tucking their pant legs into their socks, checking for ticks frequently, and washing and drying their clothing (in a hot dryer). Another natural form of control for ticks is the guineafowl, a bird species which consumes mass quantities of ticks. So good animal husbandry can reduce tick prevalence in a high tick prevalence area.
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Major tick-borne diseases include:
- Lyme disease or Borreliosis
- Organism: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (bacterium)
- Vector: deer tick (Ixodes scapularis (=I. dammini), I. pacificus, I. ricinus (Europe), I. persulcatus (Asia))
- Endemic to: North America and Eurasia
- Symptoms: Fever, arthritis, neuroborreliosis, erythema migrans, cranial nerve palsy, carditis, fatigue, and influenza-like illness.
- Treatment: Antibiotics
- Relapsing fever (Tick-borne relapsing fever, different from Lyme disease due to different Borrelia species and ticks)
- Organisms: Borrelia species Such as Borrelia hermsii, Borrelia parkeri, Borrelia duttoni, Borrelia miyamotoi
- Vector: Ornithodoros species
- Regions : Primarily in Africa, Spain, Saudi Arabia, Asia in and certain areas of Canada and the western United States
- Symptoms: Relapsing fever typically presents as recurring high fevers, headaches, and muscular pain, with less common symptoms including rigors, joint pain, altered mentation, cough, painful urination, and rash.
- Treatment: antibiotics are the treatment for relapsing fever, with doxycycline, tetracycline, or erythromycin being the treatment of choice.
- Typhus Several diseases caused by Rickettsia bacteria (below).
- Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
- Organism: Rickettsia rickettsii
- Vector: wood tick (Dermacentor variabilis), D. andersoni
- Region (US): East, South West
- Vector: Amblyomma cajennense
- Region (Brazil): São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais.
- Symptoms:Fever, headache, altered mental status, myalgia, and rash.
- Treatment: Antibiotic therapy, typically consisting of doxycycline or tetracycline.
- Helvetica Spotted fever
- Organism: Rickettsia helvetica
- Region(R Helvetica): Confirmed common in ticks in Sweden, Switzerland, France and in Laos
- Vector/Region(s)#1 : Ixodes ricinus is the main European vector
- Vector/Region(s)#2: Please add if more vectors are found.
- Symptoms:Most often small red spots, other symptoms are fever, muscle pain, headache and respiratory problems
- Treatment: Broad band Antibiotic therapy are needed, it is likely that phenoxymethylpenicillin is sufficient.
- Ehrlichiosis anaplasmosis (formerly human granulocytic ehrlichiosis or HGE)
- Tick-borne meningoencephalitis
- Colorado tick fever
- Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
- Severe Febrile Illness
- Organism: Babesia microti, B. equi
- Vector: I. scapularis, I. pacificus
- Region (US): Northeast West Coast
- Organism: C. felis
- Vector: D. variabilis (American Dog Tick)
- Region (US): South, Southeast
- Tick paralysis
- "Tick-Borne Diseases". cdc.gov. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved May 21, 2009.
- Mayo Clinic Staff. "Lyme disease: Symptoms". MayoClinic.com. Diseases and Conditions. Mayo Clinic.
- Mayo Clinic Staff. "Lyme disease: Treatments and drugs". MayoClinic.com. Diseases and Conditions. Mayo Clinic.
- Relapsing fever at eMedicine.
- Relapsing fever~treatment at eMedicine.
- Lindblom, A; Wallménius, K; Nordberg, M; Forsberg, P et al. (2012). "Seroreactivity for spotted fever rickettsiae and co-infections with other tick-borne agents among habitants in central and southern Sweden". European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 32 (3): 317–23. doi:10.1007/s10096-012-1742-3. PMC 3569577. PMID 22961007.
- Pastula, DM; Turabelidze, G; Yates, KF; Jones, TF et al. (March 2014). "Notes from the field: Heartland virus disease - United States, 2012-2013". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 63 (12): 270–1. PMID 24670929.
- "Ticks". medent.usyd.edu.au. Department of Entomology, University of Sydney and Westmead Hospital. November 7, 2003.
- Tick-Borne Diseases: Recommendations for Workers and Employers - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
- Tickborne Diseases - National Center for Infectious Diseases (CDC)
- Tickborne Disease Website - Massachusetts Department of Public Health
- Tick bite fever - Health 24
- Ixodes Scapularis - 3D animation of Deer or Blacklegged Tick from US Army site