Tie-dye is a process of tying and dyeing a piece of fabric or cloth which is made from knit or woven fabric, usually cotton; typically using bright colors. It is a modern version of traditional dyeing methods used in many cultures throughout the world. "Tie-dye" can also describe the resulting pattern or an item which Tie-dyeing is accomplished by folding the material into a pattern, and binding it with string or rubber bands. Dye is then applied to only parts of the material. The ties prevent the entire material from being dyed. Designs are formed by applying different colors of dyes to different sections of the wet fabric. A wet t-shirt is much easier to dye than a dry t-shirt. Once complete, the material is rinsed, and the dye is set.
Although many different kinds of dyes may be used, most tie-dyers now dye with Procion MX fiber reactive dyes. This class of dyes works at warm room temperatures. The molecules permanently bind with cellulose based fibers (cotton, rayon, hemp, linen), as well as silk, when the pH is raised. Soda ash (sodium carbonate) is generally used to raise the pH and is either added directly to the dye, or in a solution of water in which garments are soaked before dyeing. They do not fade with washing, but sunlight will cause the colors to fade over time.
Designs and patterns 
With tie-dye it is possible to create a wide variety of designs and patterns, such as stripes, spirals, swirling designs, marbled patterns etc.
History of tie-dye 
The earliest surviving examples of pre-Columbian tie-dye in Peru date from 500 to 810 AD. Their designs include small circles and lines, with bright colors including red, yellow, blue, and green.
Shibori includes a form of tie-dye that originated in Japan and Indonesia. It has been practiced there since at least the 8th century. Shibori includes a number of labor-intensive resist techniques including stitching elaborate patterns and tightly gathering the stitching before dyeing, forming intricate designs for kimonos. Another shibori method is to wrap the fabric around a core of rope, wood or other material, and bind it tightly with string or thread. The areas of the fabric that are against the core or under the binding would remain undyed.
Plangi and tritik are Indonesian words, derived from Japanese words, for methods related to tie-dye, and 'bandhna' a term from India, giving rise to the Bandhani fabrics of Rajasthan. Ikat is a method of tie-dyeing the warp or weft before the cloth is woven.
Mudmee tie-dye originates in Thailand and neighboring part of Laos. It uses different shapes and colors from other types of tie-dye, and the colors are, in general, more subdued. Another difference is that the base color is black.
Tie-dye techniques have also been used for centuries in the Hausa region of West Africa, with renowned indigo dye pits located in and around Kano, Nigeria. The tie-dyed clothing is then richly embroidered in traditional patterns. It has been suggested that these African techniques were the inspiration for the tie-dyed garments identified with hippie fashion.
Tie-dye in the Western world 
Tie-dyeing was known in the US by 1909, when Professor Charles E. Pellow of Columbia University acquired some samples of tie-dyed muslin and subsequently gave a lecture and live demonstration of the technique.
Although shibori and batik techniques were used occasionally in Western fashion before the 1960s, modern psychedelic tie-dying did not become a fad until the late 1960s following the example set by rock stars such as Janis Joplin and John Sebastian (who did his own dyeing). Particularly after the introduction of affordable Rit dyes, it became popular as a cheap and accessible way to customise inexpensive T-shirts, singlets, dresses, jeans, army surplus clothing, and other garments into psychedelic creations. Some of the leading names in tie-dye at this time were Water Baby Dye Works (run by Ann Thomas and Maureen Mubeem), Bert Bliss, and Up Tied, the latter winning a Coty Award for "major creativity in fabrics" in 1970. Up Tied created tie-dyed velvets and silk chiffons which were used for exclusive one-of-a-kind garments by Halston, Donald Brooks, and Gayle Kirkpatrick, whilst another tie-dyer, Smooth Tooth Inc. dyed garments for Dior and Jonathan Logan. In late 1960s London, Gordon Deighton created tie-dyed shirts and trousers for young fashionable men which he sold through the Simpsons of Piccadilly department store in London.
See also 
- "Amarras Replication Research". World Shibori Network. Retrieved 2012-12-15.
- Hoffmann, Frank W.; William G. Bailey (1994). Fashion & merchandising fads. New York: Haworth Press. p. 257. ISBN 1560243767.
- Pellew, Charles E. (1909). "Tied and Dyed Work: An Oriental Process with American Variations". Craftsman 16: 695–701. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- "The Psychedelic Tie-Dye Look". TIME Magazine. 26 January 1970. Retrieved 14 December 2012.(subscription required)
- "Bill Blass Named to Hall of Fame". The News and Courier. 29 September 1970. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
- McDowell, Colin (1984). McDowell's Directory of Twentieth Century Fashion. Frederick Muller. pp. 299–301. ISBN 0-584-11070-7.
- "Trousers by Gordon Deighton in tie-dyed silk". V&A. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
Further reading 
- Weinger, Erin (2003-05-29). "Psychedelic Beginnings". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-12-15.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Tie-dye|
- Blanken, Rain. "How-To Tie Dye Instructions". About.com. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- "Tie-Dye Wiki". Tie-dye Wiki. Retrieved 2012-12-15.
- "How To Tie Dye". How To Tie Dye. Retrieved 2014-04-14.
- "Study Mudmee Tie Dye". Study Mudmee Tie Dye. Retrieved 2013-05-22.
- "Mudmee Tie Dye". Mudmee Tie Dye. Retrieved 2013-05-22.