The tie is a symbol in the shape of an arc similar to a large breve, used in Ancient Greek, phonetic alphabets, and Z notation. It can be used between two characters with spacing as punctuation, or non-spacing as a diacritic. It can be above or below, and reversed. Its forms are called tie, double breve, enotikon, ligature tie, papyrological hyphen, and undertie.
The enotikon ("uniter"), is used as a word non-divider, similar to hyphen, as opposed to the hypodiastole used as a word divider. The enotikon can be both spacing and non-spacing. On computers both characters U+203F ‿ undertie and U+035C ͜ combining double breve below can be used
Enotikon was also used in Ancient Greek music notation, as a slur under two notes. When a syllable was sung with three notes, this slur was used in combination with a double point and a diseme over the notes.
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet uses two type of ties : the ligature tie (IPA #433), above or below two symbols ; and the undertie (IPA #509) between two symbols.
The ligature tie, also called double inverted breve, is used to represent double articulation (e.g. [k͡p]), affricates (e.g. [t͡ʃ]) or prenasalized consonant (e.g. [m͡b]) in the IPA. It is mostly found above but can also be found below when more suitable (e.g. [k͜p]).
On computers, it is encoded with characters U+0361 ͡ combining double inverted breve and, as an alternative when raisers might be interfering with the bow, U+035C ͜ combining double breve below.
On computers, the character used is U+203F ‿ undertie, a spacing character, which is not to be confused with a͜b U+035C ͜ combining double breve below, a combining diacritic, used as an alternative to the ligature tie ab͡ U+0361 ͡ combining double inverted breve.
Uralic Phonetic Alphabet
- The triple inverted breve or triple breve below indicates a triphthong
- The double inverted breve, also known as the ligature tie, marks a diphthong
- The double inverted breve below indicates a syllable boundary between vowels
- The undertie is used for prosody
- The inverted undertie is used for prosody.
The character tie is used for sequence concatenation in Z notation. It is encoded with U+2040 ⁀ character tie in Unicode. For example "s⁀t" represents the concatenation sequence of sequences called s and t; and the notation "⁀/q" is the distributed concatenation of the sequence of sequences called q.
|name||character||HTML code||Unicode||Unicode name||sample|
|double breve||͝||͝||U+035D||combining double breve||o͝o|
|ligature tie||͡||͡||U+0361||combining double inverted breve||/k͡p/|
|ligature tie below,
|͜||͜||U+035C||combining double breve below||/k͜p/|
|inverted undertie||⁔||⁔||U+2054||inverted undertie||o⁔o|
The diacritic signs triple inverted breve, triple breve, and double inverted breve have not yet been encoded for computers.
Unicode has characters similar to the tie:
- U+23DC ⏜ top parenthesis and U+23DD ⏝ bottom parenthesis
- U+2322 ⌢ frown and U+2323 ⌣ smile
- Greek /h/, by Nick Nicholas.
- Punctuation, by Nick Nicholas.
- Ancient Greek music, Martin Litchfield West, 1994, p. 267.
- SC2/WG2 N2594 - Proposal to encode combining double breve below
- Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS, 2002-03-20.
- Proposal to encode additional characters for the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet, Klaas Ruppel, Tero Aalto, Michael Everson, 2009-01-27.
- Proposal for 3 Additional Double Diacritics, 2002-05-10.
- Proposal to encode a combining diacritical mark for Low German dialect writing, Karl Pentzlin, 2008-10-25
- The Z Notation: a reference manual, J. M. Spivey.