Tiflis Governorate

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Tiflis Governorate (English)
Тифлисская губерния (Modern Russian)
Тифлисская губернiя (Pre-1918 Russian)
Gubernias del Caucaso - Gubernia de Tiflis - Imperio Ruso.png
Coat of Arms
Тифлисская губ МВД Бенке.jpg
Coat of arms of Tiflis Governorate
Established 1846
Abolished 1917
Political status
Region
Governorate
Caucasus
Area
Area
- Rank
39,197 verst²
n/a
Population (1897 census)
Population
- Rank
- Density
- Urban
- Rural
1,051,032 inhabitants
n/a
26.8 inhab. / verst²
19.72%
80.28%
Government
First Head
Last Head
n/a
n/a

Tiflis Governorate (Old Russian: Тифлисская губернiя; Georgian: ტფილისის გუბერნია) was one of the guberniyas of the Russian Empire with its centre in Tiflis (present-day Tbilisi, capital of Georgia). In 1897 it constituted 44,607 sq. kilometres in area and had a population of 1,051,032 inhabitants.[1] The governorate used to border Elisabethpol Governorate, Erivan Governorate, Kutaisi Governorate, Zakatali okrug, Dagestan Oblast, Terek Oblast, and Kars Oblast. It covered present southeastern Georgia, northern Armenia and northwestern Azerbaijan.

Tiflis Governorate was established in 1846 along with the Kutaisi Governorate, after the dissolution of the Georgia-Imeretia Governorate. It was initially formed from uzeyds of Tiflis, Gori, Telavi, Signakh, Yelizavetpol, Erivan, Nakhichevan and Alexandropol and okrugs of Zakataly, Ossetian and Tushino-pshaw-Khevsurian. In 1849, uzeyds of Erivan, Nakhichevan and Alexandropol were attached to Erivan Governorate. In 1859 Ossetian okrug became part of Gori district and Tushino-pshaw-Khevsurian okrug was renamed as Tionets. In 1867, the northern part of Tiflis uzeyd was separated as Dusheti one and Akhaltsikhe uzeyd (It was created after ceding from Ottoman Empire to Russian Empire in 1829) was detached from Kutaisi Governorate and part of Tiflis one. In 1868 Yelizavetpol uzeyd (in the same decree, Kazakh uzeyd was formed from northwestern part of Yelizavetpol one and was attached to Elisabethpol Governorate) was part of Elisabethpol Governorate. In 1874, the southern part of Akhaltsikhe uzeyds was to become Akhalkalaki one and Tionets okrug was elevated as uyezd. Finally southern part of Tiflis Uyezd was to become Borchali Uyezd. The governorate lasted in these boundaries for 50 years, until the Democratic Republic of Georgia was founded.[2]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Tiflis Governorate consisted of the following uyezds:[1]

  • Tiflis
  • Akhalkalaki
  • Akhaltsikhe
  • Borchali
  • Elisabethpol (attached to Elisabethpol Governorate in 1868)
  • Gori
  • Dusheti
  • Signakhi
  • Telavi
  • Tianeti

Demographics[edit]

As of 1897, 1,051,032 lived in the governorate, with around 20% of them being urban. Ethnic Georgians constituted 44.3% of the population, followed by Armenians (18.7%), Azeris (10.2%), Russians (including Ukrainians and Old Believers, 9.7%), Ossetians (6.4%), Avars (3.2%), Greeks (2.6%), Turks (2.4%), etc. More than half of the population adhered to Eastern Orthodox Christianity with significant Muslim, Catholic and Jewish minorities.[1]

Ethnic groups in 1897[3][edit]

Uyezd Georgians Armenians Azerbaijanis[4] Russians Ossetians Avars Greeks Turks Ukrainians Poles Germans Jews Kurds Chechens Dargins Lezgins
TOTAL 44.3% 18.7% 10.2% 7.5% 6.4% 3.2% 2.6% 2.4% ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Akhalkalaki 8.9% 72.3% 9.0% 7.1% ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1.1% ... ... ...
Akhaltsikhe 17.7% 22.0% 18.0% 2.5% ... ... ... 35.1% ... ... ... ... 2.0% ... ... ...
Borchali 6.1% 36.9% 29.4% 6.3% ... ... 16.6% ... ... ... 1.9% ... ... ... ... ...
Gori 65.0% 4.0% ... 2.8% 26.2% ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Dusheti 73.4% 2.5% ... 1.4% 21.4% ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Zakatala 14.7% 2.5% 34.4% ... ... 37.6% ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 8.8% 1.2%
Signakhi 82.9% 6.2% 5.2% 4.3% ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Telavi 85.9% 7.1% 2.8% 1.0% ... 2.6% ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Tianeti 88.7% 1.6% ... 1.9% ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 6.2% ... ...
Tiflis 34.2% 24.7% 5.9% 22.1% ... ... 1.9% ... 1.5% 2.1% 2.3% 1.4% ... ... ... ...

Governors[edit]

The administration tasks in the governorate were executed by a governor. Sometimes, a military governor was appointed as well. The governors of Tiflis Governorate were[5]

  • 1847–1849 Sergei Nikolayevich Yermolov, governor;
  • 1849–1855 Ivan Malkhazovich Andronnikov (Andronikashvili), military governor;
  • 1855–1857 Nikolay Yevgenyevich Lukash, military governor;
  • 1858–1860 Alexander Khristianovich Kapger, military governor;
  • 1860–1876 Konstantin Ivanovich Orlovsky, governor;
  • 1876–1878 Maxim Alexandrovich Osten-Saken, governor;
  • 1878–1883 Konstantin Dmitriyevich Gagarin, governor;
  • 1883–1887 Alexander Ignatyevich Grossman, governor;
  • 1887–1889 Karl Lvovich Zisserman, governor;
  • 1889–1897 Georgy Dmitriyevich Shervashidze (Giorgi Shervashidze), governor;
  • 1897–1899 Fyodor Alexandrovich Bykov, governor;
  • 1899–1905 Ivan Nikolayevich Svechin, governor;
  • 1905–1907 Pavel Alexandrovich Riush fon Traubenberg (Paulus Rausch von Traubenberg), governor;
  • 1907–1911 Mikhail Alexandrovich Lyubich-Yarmolovich-Lozina-Lozinsky, governor;
  • 1911–1914 Andrei Gavrilovich Chernyavsky, governor;
  • 1914–1916 Ivan Mikhaylovich Strakhovsky, governor;
  • 1916–1917 Alexander Nikolayevich Mandrika, acting governor.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopaedia: Tiflis Governorate (Russian)
  2. ^ Coats of Arms of the Cities of the Georgia-Imeretia Governorate of the Russian Empire
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Denoted as Tatars in the source.
  5. ^ Н. Ф. Самохвалов, ed. (2003). Губернии Российской Империи. История и руководители. 1708-1917.. Moscow: Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russian Federation. p. 372-376, 467-468.