Cyperus esculentus

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chufa sedge
Chufa.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Cyperaceae
Genus: Cyperus
Species: C. esculentus
Binomial name
Cyperus esculentus
L.
Synonyms[1]
  • Chlorocyperus aureus (K.Richt.) Palla ex Kneuck.
  • Chlorocyperus phymatodes (Muhl.) Palla
  • Cyperus aureus Ten
  • Cyperus aureus (L.) Nyman
  • Cyperus bahiensis Steud.
  • Cyperus buchananii Boeckeler
  • Cyperus callistus Ridl.
  • Cyperus chrysostachys Boeckeler
  • Cyperus cubensis Steud.
  • Cyperus damiettensis A.Dietr.
  • Cyperus esculentus var. angustispicatus Britton
  • Cyperus esculentus f. angustispicatus (Britton) Fernald
  • Cyperus esculentus subsp. aureus K.Richt.
  • Cyperus esculentus var. cyclolepis Boeckeler ex Kük.
  • Cyperus esculentus f. evolutus C.B.Clarke
  • Cyperus esculentus var. heermannii (Buckley) Britton
  • Cyperus esculentus var. helodes (Schrad. ex Nees) C.B.Clarke
  • Cyperus esculentus var. leptostachyus Boeckeler
  • Cyperus esculentus var. lutescens (Torr. & Hook.) Kük. ex Osten
  • Cyperus esculentus var. lutescens (Torr. & Hook.) Kük.
  • Cyperus esculentus var. macrostachyus Boeckeler
  • Cyperus esculentus f. macrostachyus (Boeckeler) Fernald
  • Cyperus esculentus var. phymatodes (Muhl.) Kük.
  • Cyperus esculentus f. princeps C.B.Clarke
  • Cyperus esculentus var. sativus Boeckeler
  • Cyperus esculentus var. sprucei C.B.Clarke
  • Cyperus fresenii Steud.
  • Cyperus fulvescens Liebm.
  • Cyperus gracilescens Schult.
  • Cyperus gracilis Link
  • Cyperus heermannii Buckley
  • Cyperus helodes Schrad. ex Nees
  • Cyperus hydra Kunth
  • Cyperus lutescens Torr. & Hook.
  • Cyperus melanorhizus Delile
  • Cyperus nervosus Bertol.
  • Cyperus officinalis T.Nees
  • Cyperus pallidus Savi
  • Cyperus phymatodes Muhl.
  • Cyperus phymatodes var. heermannii (Buckley) S.Watson
  • Cyperus repens Elliott
  • Cyperus ruficomus Buckley
  • Cyperus scirpoides R.Br.
  • Cyperus sieberianus Link
  • Cyperus tenoreanus Schult.
  • Cyperus tenorei C.Presl
  • Cyperus tenorianus Roem. & Schult.
  • Cyperus tuberosus Pursh
  • Cyperus variabilis Salzm. ex Steud.
  • Pterocyperus esculentus (L.) Opiz
  • Pycreus esculentus (L.) Hayek

Cyperus esculentus (also called chufa sedge, nut grass, yellow nutsedge, tiger nut sedge, or earth almond) is a crop of the sedge family widespread across much of the world. It is native to most of the Western Hemisphere as well as southern Europe, Africa, Madagascar, the Middle East and the Indian Subcontinent. It has become naturalized in many other regions, including Ukraine, China, Hawaii, Indochina, New Guinea, Java, New South Wales and various oceanic islands.[2][3][4][5]

Cyperus esculentus can be found wild, as a weed, or as a crop. There is evidence for its cultivation in Egypt since the fourth millennium BC, and for several centuries in Southern Europe. In Spain, C. esculentus is cultivated for its edible tubers, called earth almonds or tiger nuts, for the preparation of "horchata de chufa", a sweet, milk-like beverage. However, in most other countries, C. esculentus is considered a weed.[6]

History[edit]

It has been suggested that the extinct hominin Paranthropus boisei, the "Nutcracker Man," subsisted on tiger nuts.[7]

Prehistoric tools with traces of C. esculentus tuber starch granules have been recovered from the early Archaic period in North America, from about 9,000 years ago, at the Sandy Hill excavation site at the Mashantucket Pequot Reservation in Mashantucket, Connecticut. The tubers are believed to have been a source of food for those Paleo-Indians.[8]

Zohary and Hopf estimate that C. esculentus "ranks among the oldest cultivated plants in Ancient Egypt." Although noting that "Chufa was no doubt an important food element in ancient Egypt during dynastic times, its cultivation in ancient times seems to have remained (totally or almost totally) an Egyptian specialty."[9] Its dry tubers have been found in tombs from predynastic times about 6000 years ago. In those times, C. esculentus tubers were consumed either boiled in beer, roasted, or as sweets made of ground tubers with honey.[10] The tubers were also used medicinally, taken orally, as an ointment, or as an enema, and used in fumigants to sweeten the smell of homes or clothing.[11] There are almost no contemporary records of this plant in other parts of the old World.

Besides Egypt, at present C. esculentus is cultivated mainly in Spain, where it is extended for common commercial purposes in mild climate areas. The plant was introduced by the Arabs, first in the Valencia region. They are found extensively too in California and were grown by the Paiute in Owens Valley. C. esculentus is also cultivated in countries like Guatemala, Mexico, Chile, Brasil, USA, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, India, Yemen, Morocco, Ivory Coast, Sudan, South Sudan, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Togo, Benin, Northern Cameroon and Mali, where they are used primarily as animal feed or uncooked as a side dish, but in Hispanic countries they are used mainly to make horchata, a sweet, milk-like beverage.

Biology[edit]

C. esculentus is an annual or perennial plant, growing to 90 cm (3 feet) tall, with solitary stems growing from a tuber. The plant is reproduced by seeds, creeping rhizomes and tubers. The stems are triangular in section and bear slender leaves 3–10 mm (1/8 to 1/2 inches) wide. The spikelets of the plant are distinctive, with a cluster of flat, oval seeds surrounded by four hanging, leaf-like bracts positioned 90 degrees from each other. They are 5 to 30 mm (about 3/8 to 1 1/8 inches) long and linear to narrowly elliptic with pointed tips and 8 to 35 florets. The color varies between straw – colored to gold – brown. They can produce up to 2420 seeds per plant. The plant foliage is very tough and fibrous and is often mistaken for a grass. The roots are an extensive and complex system of fine, fibrous roots and scaly rhizomes with small hard, spherical tubers and basal bulbs attached. The tubers are between 0.3 – 1.9 cm (1/8 to 1/2 inches) in diameter and the colors varies between yellow, brown and black.[12] One plant can produce several hundred to several thousand tubers during a single growing season. With cool temperatures foliage, roots, rhizomes and basal bulbs die. But the tubers survive and resprout the following spring when soil temperatures remain above 6°C (42.8F). They can resprout up to several years later. When the tubers germinate, many rhizomes are initiated and end in a basal bulb near the soil surface. These basal bulbs initiate the stems and leaves above ground, and fibrous roots underground. C. esculentus is wind pollinated and requires cross pollination as it is self–incompatible.

Cultivation[edit]

Climate requirements[edit]

C. esculentus cultivation requires a mild climate. Low temperature, shadow, and light intensity can inhibit flowering.[12] Tuber initiation is inhibited by high levels of nitrogen, long photoperiods, and high levels of gibberellic acid. Flower initiation occurs under photoperiods of 12 – 14 hours per day.

Soil requirements[edit]

Tubers can develop in soil depths of around 30 cm (1 foot), but most occur in the top or upper part. They tolerate many soil conditions including periods of drought and flooding and survive soil temperatures around -5°C (23F). They grow best on sandy, moist soils which contents and a pH between 5.0 – 7.5. They do not tolerate salinity.[12]

Agronomy[edit]

Cultivation[edit]

Planting is normally done on flat soils where ridges to favour the coming irrigations have previously been done. The separation between ridges is approximately 60 cm (2 feet) and seeds are planted manually. Distances between seeds may vary from 15 to 20 cm (6 to 8 inches) and seeding depth is around 8 cm (3 1/2 inches). The normal ratio of tiger nuts used as seeds for planting is around 200/300 kg (45 to 67 pounds) tubers/ha.[13] They are planted between April and May and must have to be irrigated every week until they are harvested in November and December. Tubers develop about 6 – 8 weeks after seedling emergence and grow quickly during July and August. The maturing is around 90 – 110 days. The average yield can approach between 10 and 19 t/ha.[14][15]

Harvest and drying process[edit]

Harvest usually occurs in November or December and the leaves are scorched during the harvest. With a combine harvester, the tiger nut is pulled out of the ground. Immediately after harvesting, the tiger nuts are washed with water in order to remove sand and small stones. The drying occurs usually in the sun and can take up to three months.[16] The temperatures and humidity levels have to be monitored very carefully during this period. The tiger nuts have to be turned every day to ensure uniform drying. The drying process ensures a longer shelf life. This prevents rot or other bacterial infections, securing quality and high nutrition levels. Disadvantages in the drying process are shrinkage, skin wrinkles and hard nut texture.[17]

Storage[edit]

Tiger nut loses a considerable amount of water during drying and storage. The starch content of the tiger nut tubers decreases and the reducing sugar (invert sugar) content increases during storage.[18] Tiger nut can be stored dry and rehydrated by soaking without losing the crisp texture. Soaking is often done overnight. Dried tiger nuts have a hard texture and soaking is indispensable to render them edible with ease and to ensure acceptable sensory quality.[12]

Nutritional value[edit]

Despite its name, tiger nut is a tuber. However, its chemical composition shares characteristics with tubers and with nuts. It has been reported to be a “health” food, since its consumption can help prevent heart disease and thrombosis and is said to activate blood circulation and reduce the risk of colon cancer.[19] This tuber is rich in energy content (starch, fat, sugar, and protein), minerals (mainly phosphorus and potassium), and vitamins E and C thus making this tuber also suitable for diabetics. Tiger nut tubers contain almost twice the quantity of starch as potato or sweet potato tubers. The oil of the tuber was found to contain 18% saturated (palmitic acid and stearic acid) and 82% unsaturated (oleic acid and linoleic acid) fatty acids.[20] The moderately high content of phytosterols further enriches the quality and value of tiger nut oil as a food source.

According to the Consejo Regulador de Chufa de Valencia (Regulating Council for Valencia's Tiger Nuts),[21] the nutritional composition/100 ml of the Spanish beverage horchata de chufas is as follows: energy content around 66 kcal, proteins around 0.5 g, carbohydrates over 10 g with starch at least 1.9 g, fats at least 2 g.

Uses[edit]

Dried tiger nut has a smooth tender, sweet and nutty taste. It can be consumed raw, roasted, dried, baked or as tiger nut milk or oil.

Use as food[edit]

Dried tubers sold at the market of Banfora, Burkina Faso.

The tubers are edible, with a slightly sweet, nutty flavour, compared to the more bitter-tasting tuber of the related Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge). They are quite hard and are generally soaked in water before they can be eaten, thus making them much softer and giving them a better texture. They are a popular snack in West Africa, where they are known as ncɔkɔn in the languages Bamanankan or Dyula.

They have various uses; in particular, they are used in Spain to make horchata. “Horchata” is a nonalcoholic beverage of milky appearance derived from the tubers of the tiger nut plant mixed with sugar and water. It has a great economic impact in the Valencian region of Spain.

Flour of roasted tiger nut is sometimes added to biscuits and other bakery products as well as in making oil, soap, and starch extracts. It is also used for the production of nougat, jam, beer, and as a flavoring agent in ice cream and in the preparation of kunnu (a local beverage in Nigeria).[22] Kunnu is a nonalcoholic beverage prepared mainly from cereals (such as millet or sorghum) by heating and mixing with spices (dandelion, alligator pepper, ginger, licorice) and sugar. To make up for the poor nutritional value of kunnu prepared from cereals, tiger nut was found to be a good substitute for cereal grains. Tiger nut oil can be used naturally with salads or for deep frying. It is considered to be a high quality oil. Tiger nut “milk” has been tried as an alternative source of milk in fermented products, such as yogurt production, and other fermented products common in some African countries and can thus be useful replacing milk in the diet of people intolerant to lactose to a certain extent.[6]

Use as oil[edit]

There is a global search for alternative sources of fuel which could be cheaper, safer and more importantly, environmentally friendly in comparison with widely used burning fuels. Since the tubers of C. esculentus contain 20-36% oil, it has been suggested as potential oil crop for the production of biodiesel.[20]

Use in medicine and cosmetic industry[edit]

As a source of oils, the tubers were used in pharmacy under the Latin name bulbuli thrasi beginning no later than the end of 18th century.[23] In ayurvedic medicine tiger nuts are used in the treatment of flatulence, diarrhoea, dysentery, debility and indigestion.[17] Tiger nut oil can be used in the cosmetic industry. As it is antidioxide (because of its high content in vitamin E) it helps slow down the ageing of the body cells. It favours the elasticity of the skin and reduces skin wrinkles.[16]

Use as fishing bait[edit]

The boiled nuts are used in the UK as a bait for carp, and have a reputation for success. The nuts have to be prepared in a prescribed manner to prevent harm to the fish. The nuts are soaked in water for 24 hours and then boiled for 20 minutes or longer until fully expanded. Some anglers then leave the boiled nuts to ferment for 24–48 hours, which can enhance their effectiveness. If the nuts are not properly prepared, however, they can be extremely toxic to the carp. This was originally thought to have been the cause of death of Benson, a very large and very famous carp. The 54-lb. fish was found floating dead in a fishing lake, with a bag of unprepared tiger nuts lying nearby, empty, on the shore. An examination of the fish by a taxidermist concluded tiger nut poisoning was not, in the end, the cause of death.[24]

Appearance as an invasive weed[edit]

C.esculentus is known as one of the world’s worst weeds. It is a weed for over 21 crops in more than 30 countries around the world.[11] The plant is extremely difficult to remove completely from lawns and gardens, where it is considered an intrusive weed. This is due to the plant having a stratified and layered root system, with tubers and roots being interconnected to a depth of 36 cm or more.[12] The tubers are connected by fragile roots that are prone to snapping when pulled, making the root system difficult to remove intact. Intermediate rhizomes can potentially reach a length of 60 cm. The plant can quickly regenerate if a single tuber is left in place. In its competition for light, water and nutrients it can reduce crop yields and compromise quality. It can develop into a dense colony of around 3 diameters. Patch boundaries can increase by more than one meter per year. Tubers and seed disperse with agricultural activities, soil movement or by water and wind. They are often known as a contaminant in crop seeds. When plants are small they are hard to distinguish from other weeds such as Dactylis glomerata and Elytrigia repens. Thus it is hard to discover in an early stage and therefore hard to counteract. Once it is detected, many options for combating this weed, such as mechanical, by hand, grazing, damping and herbicides were used.

Similar native or non-native species that can confuse identification[edit]

  • Sedges (Cyperus) have grass-like leaves and resemble each other in the appearance. They can mainly be distinguished from grasses by their triangular stems.
  • Purple nutsedge (C. rotundus) is another weedy sedge that is similar to the yellow nutsedge (C. esculentus). These two sedges are difficult to distinguish from each other and can be found growing on the same site. Some differences are the purple spikelets and the tubers formed by C.rotondus are often multiple instead of just one at the tip. In addition the tubers have a bitter taste instead of the mild almond - like flavour of C.esculentus.[12]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Plant List
  2. ^ Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  3. ^ Biota of North America Program, 2013 county distribution map
  4. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, Zigolo dolce, Yellow Nutsedge, Cyperus esculentus L. includes photographs plus distribution maps for Europe and North America
  5. ^ Flora of China, Vol. 23 Page 232 油莎草 you suo cao Cyperus esculentus Linnaeus var. sativus Boeckeler, Linnaea. 36: 290. 1870.
  6. ^ a b Sánchez-Zapata E, Fernández-López J, Angel Pérez-Alvarez J, 2012. Tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus) Commercialization: Health Aspects, Composition, Properties, and Food Applications. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 11, 366-77.
  7. ^ Macho, G. A. (2014). Hardy, Karen, ed. "Baboon Feeding Ecology Informs the Dietary Niche of Paranthropus boisei". PLoS ONE 9: e84942. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084942.  edit
  8. ^ "HART, Thomas C.; IVES, Timothy H.. ''Preliminary Starch Grain Evidence of Ancient Stone Tool Use at the Early Archaic (9,000 B.P.) Site of Sandy Hill, Mashantucket, Connecticut'' Ethnobiology Letters, [S.l.], v. 4, p. 87-95, Sep. 2013.". Dx.doi.org. Retrieved 2014-01-29. 
  9. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of plants in the Old World, third edition (Oxford: University Press, 2000), p. 198
  10. ^ Moshe N, 1992. A Sweetmeat Plant, a Perfume Plant and their Weedy Relatives: A Chapter in the History of C.Esculentus L. and C. Rotundus L. Economic Botany 46, 64 - 71.
  11. ^ a b Defelice MS, 2002. Yellow Nutsedge Cyperus esculentus L.—Snack Food of the Gods1. Weed Technology 16, 901-7.
  12. ^ a b c d e f ^ USGS Weeds in the West project: Status of introduced Plants in Southern Arizona Parks, Factsheets for Cyperus esculentus L., 2003, Tucson, Arizona
  13. ^ Tigernuts Traders, S.L., Bio Tiger Nuts, 2012, http://www.biotigernuts.com/organic-tigernuts-bio-tigernuts-bio-tiger-nut.php
  14. ^ Pascual-Seva, N., San Bautista, A., López Galarza, S., Maroto , J.V. and Pascual, B. 2012. Yield and Irrigation Water Use Efficiency for Ridge - and Bed - cultivated Chufa (Cyperus Esculentus L. var. Sativus Boeck). Acta Hort. (ISHS) 936:125-132
  15. ^ Reid WS, Hergert GB, Fagan WE, 1972. Development of a Prototype mechanical Harvester for Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var sativus Boek). Canadian Agricultural Engineering 14.
  16. ^ a b Tigernuts Traders, S.L., Tigernuts Oil, 2012, http://www.tigernut.com
  17. ^ a b Abano, E.E. and K.K. Amoah, 2011. Effect of moisture content on the physical properties of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus). Asian Journal of Agricultural Research 5, 56-66
  18. ^ "Coşkuner, Y., Ercan, R., Karababa, E. and Nazlıcan, A. N. (2002). '' Physical and chemical properties of chufa (Cyperus esculentus L) tubers grown in the Çukurova region of Turkey'' J. Sci. Food Agric, 82: 625–631.". Dx.doi.org. Retrieved 2014-01-30. 
  19. ^ Arafat S, Gaafar A, Basuny A, Nassef L, 2009. Chufa Tubers (Cyperus esculentus L.): As a New Source of Food. World Applied Sciences Journal 7, 151 - 6.
  20. ^ a b "Zhang et al ''Yellow nut-sedge tuber oil as a fuel''". Dx.doi.org. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  21. ^ "''Consejo Regulador de Chufa de Valencia''". Chufadevalencia.org. 2002-12-31. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  22. ^ Belewu MA, Abodunrin OA, 2008. Preparation of Kunnu from Unexploited Rich Food Source: Tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 7, 109 - 11.
  23. ^ Pharmacopoea Batava. Ed. J. F. Niemann, Mediolani 1824
  24. ^ Macdonald, Alistair (2009-08-18). "Benson, the Giant Carp, Likely Died From Reproductive Complications - WSJ.com". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 

External links[edit]