The tight end (TE) is a position in American football, Arena football, and formerly Canadian football, on the offense. The tight end is often seen as a hybrid position with the characteristics and roles of both an offensive lineman and a wide receiver. Like offensive linemen, they are usually lined up on the offensive line and are large enough to be effective blockers. On the other hand, they are eligible receivers adept enough to warrant a defense's attention when running pass patterns.
Because of the hybrid nature of the position, the tight end's role in any given offense depends on the tactical preferences and philosophy of the head coach. In some systems, the tight end will merely act as a sixth offensive lineman rarely going out for passes. Other systems utilize the tight end primarily as a receiver, frequently taking advantage of the tight end's size to create mismatches in the defensive secondary. Many coaches will often have one tight end who specializes in blocking in running situations while utilizing a better pass catching tight end in obvious passing situations.
Offensive formations may have between zero and three tight ends at one time. If a wide receiver is present in a formation, but outside the tight end, the wide receiver must be positioned behind the line of scrimmage (see figure to right). If two tight ends are on the same side of the line of scrimmage, one must be behind the line of scrimmage.
History of the tight end position
The advent of the tight end position is closely tied to the decline of the one-platoon system which happened in the 1940s and '50s. At one time, the game allowed limited substitutions- a rule derived from its evolution in other codes of football. Players had to be adept at playing on both sides of the ball and most offensive linemen were also defensive linemen or linebackers, while receivers tended to double as defensive backs. At that time, the receivers were known as either ends or flankers with the end lining up wide at the line of scrimmage and the flanker lining up slightly behind the line usually on the opposite side of the field. As the transition from one-platooning took place, it became possible for players who did not fit the mold of the traditional position to fill a niche. Players who were both good pass catchers and blockers, but were mediocre on defense were now seen as an asset instead of a liability; many of these players were too big to be receivers, yet too small to be offensive linemen, but there were those who saw the potential of having a larger receiver lined up inside. One of those was Paul Brown, the coach of the Cleveland Browns. Among Brown's innovations were blocking techniques and passing schemes that utilized the unique attributes of the tight end position.
Greater use of the tight end as a receiver started in the '60s with the emergence of two players in particular, Mike Ditka and John Mackey. Until these two players, most teams considered the tight end position as almost a sixth offensive lineman, only rarely utilizing them as receivers.  In a 12-year career, Ditka caught 427 passes for over 5800 yards and 43 touchdowns. Mackey added an entirely new dimension to the position as he had the breakaway speed of a wide receiver. In one season, six of his nine touchdown catches were over 50 yards.
The Coryell offense introduced the concept of a tight end that ran wide receiver-type routes with Kellen Winslow in 1980. Tight ends prior to Winslow were primarily blockers lined up next to an offensive lineman and ran short to medium drag routes. Winslow was put in motion so he would not be jammed at the line, or he was lined up wide or in the slot against a smaller cornerback. Former Chargers assistant coach Al Saunders said Winslow was "a wide receiver in an offensive lineman's body." Back then, defenses would cover Winslow with a strong safety or a linebacker, as zone defenses were not as popular. Strong safeties in those times were almost like another linebacker, a run defender who could not cover a tight end as fast as Winslow. Providing another defender to help the strong safety opened up other holes. He could line up unpredictably in any formation from a three-point stance as a blocker to a two-point stance or being in motion as a receiver. Former head coach Jon Gruden referred to such multi-dimensional tight ends as "jokers", calling Winslow the first joker in the NFL. Head coach Bill Belichick notes that the pass-catching tight ends that get paid the most money are "all direct descendants of Kellen Winslow" and there are fewer tight ends now that can block on the line.
In the 90s, Shannon Sharpe helped the position evolve to the point where the tight end was integral to a team's success and changed the way tight ends were utilized by teams, evidenced by him becoming the first tight end in NFL history with over 10,000 career receiving yards. Tony Gonzalez and Antonio Gates started a new era of tight ends with wide receiver speed and power forward basketball skills. In 2011, Rob Gronkowski set single-season tight end records with 17 touchdowns—breaking Gates' and Vernon Davis' record of 13—and 1,327 receiving yards, surpassing Winslow's record of 1,290. Jimmy Graham that season also passed Winslow with 1,310 yards. Six of the NFL's 15 players with the most receptions that year were tight ends, the most in NFL history. Previous seasons usually had at most one or two ranked in the top.
In the Arena Football League the tight end serves as the 3rd offensive lineman (along with the center and guard). Although they are eligible receivers they rarely go out for passes and are usually only used for screen passes when they do.
Some plays are planned to take advantage of a tight end's eligibility (i.e. that they may lawfully catch a forward-passed football). At times, the tight end will not be covered by the defense, a situation that rarely occurs with the regular receivers. The tight end is therefore considered another option for the quarterback to pass to when the wide receivers are covered. The tight end is usually faster than the linebackers who cover him and often stronger than the cornerbacks and safeties who try to tackle him. However, tight ends are typically chosen for their speed and catching ability and therefore tend to have less blocking ability. Size does not affect catching ability. There could be tight ends on both sides of the line.
At the extreme end of this spectrum are 'hybrid' tight ends that are drafted primarily for their pass-catching abilities. Often, these players are talented athletes with near-receiver-like speed, coupled with the imposing physical size and strength of a traditional tight end. Offensive schemes often seek to take advantage of this type of player by placing him in space, often treating him as an extra receiver. Sometimes in a two-tight-end set, one tight end could be motioned out or audibled out to the slot.
In the National Football League (NFL), tight ends are usually larger and slower than a wide receiver, and therefore able to block more effectively. It is the job of the tight end, along with the fullback, to open up a hole in the defense for the tailback to run through. Tight ends can also be used along with the offensive linemen to protect the quarterback during passing plays. Often, tight ends are employed in a fullback position called "H-back" in which he is still beside the tackle, however off the line of scrimmage, and may even deploy a 3-tight-end sets or 4-tight-end sets, with one or two of them in H-back position, with only one wide receiver, even none to make the formations legal. Tight ends may also pass block like other offensive linemen. Some teams employ tight ends solely to block, however this position is sometimes filled by an offensive lineman who has reported to the referee that his number is now an eligible receiving number; this makes him "Tackle Eligible".
Most old offenses (due to the introduction of the West Coast Offense) now use tight ends more as receivers than blockers. Traditionally tight ends were just blockers eligible to catch passes; however, now tight ends are more like bigger and slower receivers who can also block more effectively than most wide receivers. Most tight ends are generally large in size with an average height of 6'3" and a weight exceeding 240 lbs. The origin of the two tight end set is unclear. The Detroit Lions and the Washington Redskins have been credited with being the first teams to utilize two tight ends as part of their base offense.
With the fullback position phasing out, tight ends may also cover rushing duties, or even as a reverse-play option in the slot.
Tight ends are, on average, usually among the taller members of the team. Their large size has an effect on their speed, as tight ends are often not as fast as wide receivers or running backs; this is not always the case, though, with tight ends nowadays able to run a 4.38 forty yard dash time (Vernon Davis). Position wise, they are usually among the heaviest players on the team on average, with only defensive and offensive linemen weighing more.
Specific skill positions typically are issued jersey numbers in a restricted range. In collegiate and high school football (in most states), tight ends are restricted to numbers 1–49 and 80–99. In the NFL, numbering regulations state that tight ends must wear numbers 80–89 or, when those are unavailable, 41–49.
- "Mike Ditka". Pro Football Hall of Fame. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- "John Mackey". Pro Football Hall of Fame. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
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- Jaworski 2010, p.93
- Jaworski 2010, pp.93–94
- Jaworski 2010, p.112
- George, Thomas (September 29, 2002). "The Indispensable Tight End Is Making His Presence Felt". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 28, 2012.
- Battista, Judy (January 17, 2012). "New Breed of Tight End Is Unchecked So Far". The New York Times. p. B9. Archived from the original on January 20, 2012.
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- Flori, Mike (January 1, 2012). "Graham, Gronkowski go back and forth with tight end yardage mark". NBC Sports. Archived from the original on January 20, 2012.
- Darlington, Jeff (February 2, 2012). "Ever-evolving tight end position truly changing the game". NFL.com. Archived from the original on February 3, 2012.
- Football 101: Tight Ends and Quarterbacks by Mark Lawrence. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
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- Too Deep Zone: Running with Multiple Tight Ends by Mike Tanier, 20 Oct. 2006. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
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- Colston, Chris (April 7, 2006). "Davis latest to break TE mold". USA Today.
- Aaseng, Nathan (1981). Football’s Toughest Tight Ends. Lerner Publications Company. ISBN 9780822510703.
|Positions in American football and Canadian football|
|Linemen||Guard, Tackle, Center||Linemen||Tackle, End, Nose tackle||Kicking players||Placekicker, Punter, Kickoff specialist|
|Quarterback||Linebackers||Snapping||Long snapper, Holder|
|Backs||Halfback (Tailback), Fullback, H-back||Backs||Cornerback, Safety, Halfback||Returning||Punt returner, Kick returner|
|Receivers||Wide receiver, Tight end, Slotback||Nickelback, Dimeback||Tackling||Gunner|
|Formations (List) — Nomenclature|