Tiglath-Pileser I

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Tiglath-Pileser I
King of Assyria
TiglathPileserI.png
Rock relief of Tiglath-Pileser
Reign 1114–1076 BC
Akkadian Tukultī-apil-Ešarra
Died 1076 BC
Predecessor Ashur-resh-ishi I
Successor Asharid-apal-Ekur

Tiglath-Pileser I (/ˈtɪɡləθ pˈlzər/;[1] from the Hebraic form[2] of Akkadian: Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the son of Esharra") was a king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian period (1114–1076 BC). According to Georges Roux, Tiglath-Pileser was "one of the two or three great Assyrian monarchs since the days of Shamshi-Adad I".[3] Under him, Assyria became the leading power of the Middle East, a position the kingdom largely maintained for the next five hundred years. He expanded Assyrian control into Anatolia and Syria, and to the shores of the Mediterranean.[4] From his surviving inscriptions, he seems to have carefully cultivated a fear of himself in his subjects and in his enemies alike.

Campaigns[edit]

The son of Ashur-resh-ishi I, he ascended to the throne in 1115 BC, and became one of the greatest of Assyrian conquerors.[5]

His first campaign was against the Mushku in 1112 B.C. who had occupied certain Assyrian districts in the Upper Euphrates; then he overran Commagene and eastern Cappadocia, and drove the Hittites from the Assyrian province of Subartu, northeast of Malatia.

In a subsequent campaign, the Assyrian forces penetrated into the mountains south of Lake Van and then turned westward to receive the submission of Malatia. In his fifth year, Tiglath-Pileser attacked Comana in Cappadocia, and placed a record of his victories engraved on copper plates in a fortress he built to secure his Cilician conquests.

The Aramaeans of northern Syria were the next targets of the Assyrian king, who made his way as far as the sources of the Tigris.[6] It is said from an Assyrian relief that he campaigned against the Arameans 28 times during his reign from 1115 to 1077 BC. The control of the high road to the Mediterranean was secured by the possession of the Hittite town of Pitru[7] at the junction between the Euphrates and Sajur; thence he proceeded to Gubal (Byblos), Sidon, and finally to Arvad where he embarked onto a ship to sail the Mediterranean, on which he killed a nahiru or "sea-horse" (which A. Leo Oppenheim translates as a narwhal) in the sea.[8] He was passionately fond of the chase and was also a great builder. The general view is that the restoration of the temple of the gods Ashur and Hadad at Assyrian capital of Assur was one of his initiatives.[9]

The latter part of his reign seems to have been a period of retrenchment, as Aramaean tribesmen put pressure on his realm. He died in 1076 BC and was succeeded by his son Asharid-apal-Ekur. The later kings Ashur-bel-kala and Shamshi-Adad IV were also his sons.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ In English, any of the following four pronunciations are used: /ˈtɪɡləθ pˈlzər/ TIG-ləth py-LEE-zər, /ˈtɪɡləθ pɨˈlzər/ TIG-ləth pə-LEE-zər, /ˈtɪɡˌlæθ pˈlzər/ TIG-lath py-LEE-zər, or /ˈtɪɡˌlæθ pɨˈlzər/ TIG-lath pə-LEE-zər.
  2. ^ Spelled as "Tiglath-Pileser" in the Book of Kings (2Kings 15:29) or as "Tilgath-Pilneser" in the Book of Chronicles (2Chronicles 28:20).
  3. ^ Roux, Georges. Ancient Iraq. Third edition. Penguin Books, 1992 (paperback, ISBN 0-14-012523-X).
  4. ^ 'The Collins Encyclopedia of Military History', Dupuy & Dupuy, 1993, p. 9
  5. ^ The encyclopædia britannica:a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, Volume 26, Edited by Hugh Chrisholm, 1911, p. 968
  6. ^ The encyclopædia britannica:a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, Volume 26, Edited by Hugh Chrisholm, 1911, p. 968
  7. ^ Bryce, Trevor. The Routledge Handbook of The People and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the fall of the Persians Empire, p.563
  8. ^ The encyclopædia britannica:a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, Volume 26, Edited by Hugh Chrisholm, 1911, p. 968
  9. ^ The encyclopædia britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, volume 26, edited by Hugh Chrisholm, 1911, p. 968.

External links[edit]


Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 


Preceded by
Ashur-resh-ishi I
King of Assyria
1115–1077 BCE
Succeeded by
Asharid-apal-Ekur