Tigranes V of Armenia

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Tigranes V, also known as Tigran V [1] (Greek: Τιγράνης, Armenian: Տիգրան, 16 BC-36) was a Herodian Prince who served as a Roman Client King of Armenia from the years 6 to 12.

Family & Life in the Herodian Court[edit]

Tigranes was the first-born son of Alexander and Glaphyra.[2] His younger brother was called Alexander[3] and he also had a younger unnamed sister.[4] His nephew Tigranes VI served as a Roman Client King of Armenia during the reign of the Roman Emperor Nero (reigned 54-68).[5] His father Alexander was a Judean Prince of Jewish, Nabataean and Edomite descent and was a son of King of Judea Herod the Great and his wife Mariamne. His mother Glaphyra was a Cappadocian Princess, who was of Greek, Armenian and Persian descent. She was the daughter of the King Archelaus of Cappadocia [6] and her mother was an unnamed Princess from Armenia,[7] possibly a relation of the Artaxiad Dynasty.

Tigranes was named in honor of his mother’s Armenian and Hellenic lineage. The name Tigranes was the most common royal name in the Artaxiad Dynasty and was among the most ancient names of the Armenian Kings.[8] Roman Emperor Augustus mentions Tigranes’ Armenian ancestry in his political testament:

When he was murdered I sent into that kingdom Tigranes [Tigrans V, ca. A.D. 6], who was sprung from the royal family of the Armenians.
[Res Gestae Divi Augusti, V. xxvi. pp.390/1]

Tigranes was born and raised in Herod’s court in Jerusalem. After the death of Tigranes' father in 7 BC Herod acted in an extreme and brutal manner by returning his mother to Cappadocia, forcing her to leave her children under the sole custody of Herod in Jerusalem. Tigranes and his brother remained under Herod’s guardianship so he could be able to control their fates.[9] Another son of Herod’s, Antipater, was concerned for Tigranes and his brother as he expected them to attain higher station than their own late fathers, because of the assistance Antipater considered likely from their maternal grandfather Archelaus.[10]

Herod died in 4 BC in Jericho.[11] After the death of Herod, Tigranes and his brother decided to leave Jerusalem and to live with their mother and her family in the Cappadocian Royal Court. After Tigranes and his brother arrived in Cappadocia, they disowned their Jewish descent, deserted their Jewish religion and embraced their Greek descent, including the religion.[12] However, the family connections with the Herodian Dynasty wasn’t wholly broken. After Tigranes and his brother disowned their Jewish descent, they were considered to be gentiles by fellow Jews.[13] Archelaus had sent Tigranes to live and be educated in Rome.[14]

King of Armenia[edit]

In the year 6, Artavasdes III who served as King of Armenia was murdered by his subjects, as he was an unpopular ruler with the Armenians. After the death of Artavasdes III, Augustus revised his foreign policy and appointed Tigranes as King of Armenia.[15] Tigranes was accompanied by Archelaus and Tiberius to Armenia, where he was installed as King at Artaxata.[16] Artaxata became Tigranes' capital. In the year 6, Tigranes ruled Armenia as a sole ruler. Sometime into his reign, the Armenian nobles were unsatisfied with his reign. They rebelled later that year and restored Erato back to the throne. From the years 6-12, Tigranes co-ruled with Erato. His co-rule with Erato is based on numismatic evidence.[17]

Little is known about his reign of Armenia although some coinage has survived from his reign.[18] The surviving coinage is a reflection from his Hellenic and Armenian descent and is evidence that he relinquished his Jewish connections.[19] His royal title is in Greek ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΤΙΓΡΑΝΟΥ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ which means of great King Tigranes. In 12, Erato and Tigranes were overthrown for unknown reasons. Augustus kept Armenia as a client kingdom and appointed Vonones I of Parthia as King of Armenia.[20]

Life after being King of Armenia[edit]

After his kingship, Tigranes may have remained in Armenia in contention to reclaim his throne in the first years of the reign of the Roman Emperor Tiberius.[21] Around about the year 18 Vonones I died. His maternal grandfather attempted to re-establish Tigranes as King of Armenia.[22] Tigranes may have called upon Archelaus to assist him in regaining his throne and Archelaus may have been charged for treason in Rome for helping a relative who for unknown reasons wasn’t now in favor with the Romans.[23] The Armenian kingship was given to Artaxias III. If Tigranes was successful in regaining his throne and succeeding Archelaus, he would have presided directly or indirectly over a virtual empire.[24]

After the year 18, little is known about the life of Tigranes. His wife was the unnamed daughter of Pheroras,[25] by whom he had no children.[26] Pheroras was his paternal great-uncle and a brother to Herod. Tacitus records that Tigranes as a victim of the reign of terror that marked the latter years of Tiberius.[27] The charges brought against him by Tiberius in year 36 are not stated but it is clear that he did not survive them. His death followed the Roman installation in year 35 of a new client king in Armenia, the Iberian Prince Mithridates, as a part of a broader campaign against Artabanus III of Parthia.[28]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.61
  2. ^ Kasher, King Herod: a persecuted persecutor: a case study in psychohistory and psychobiography, p.p.353-4
  3. ^ Kasher, King Herod: a persecuted persecutor: a case study in psychohistory and psychobiography, p.p.353-4
  4. ^ Eisenman's "New Testament Code", Chapter 4
  5. ^ Redgate, The Armenians, p.79
  6. ^ Dueck, Strabo’s cultural geography: the making of a kolossourgia, p.208
  7. ^ Syme, Anatolica: studies in Strabo, p.150
  8. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.48
  9. ^ Kasher, King Herod: a persecuted persecutor: a case study in psychohistory and psychobiography, p.349
  10. ^ Temporini, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im spiegel der neueren Forschung, p.315
  11. ^ Millar, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (175 B.C. - A.D. 135), p.327
  12. ^ Kasher, King Herod: a persecuted persecutor: a case study in psychohistory and psychobiography, p.298
  13. ^ Moen, Marriage and Divorce in the Herodian Family: A Case Study of Diversity in Late Second Temple Judaism, p.233
  14. ^ acsearch.info - ancient coin search engine: coinage information on Tigranes V & Tigranes VI
  15. ^ Temporini, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im spiegel der neueren Forschung, p.1164
  16. ^ Syme, Anatolica: studies in Strabo, p.323
  17. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.62
  18. ^ acsearch.info ancient coin search engine: Kings of Armenia
  19. ^ Josephus, Ant. 18:140
  20. ^ Temporini, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im spiegel der neueren Forschung, p.1160
  21. ^ Temporini, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im spiegel der neueren Forschung, p.1159
  22. ^ Temporini, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im spiegel der neueren Forschung, p.1159
  23. ^ Temporini, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im spiegel der neueren Forschung, p.1160
  24. ^ Temporini, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im spiegel der neueren Forschung, p.1159
  25. ^ Kasher, King Herod: a persecuted persecutor: a case study in psychohistory and psychobiography, p.349
  26. ^ Temporini, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im spiegel der neueren Forschung, p.1164
  27. ^ Tacitus, para. 40.
  28. ^ Tacitus, para. 32.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

Tigranes V of Armenia
Born: 16 BC Died: 36 AD
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Artavasdes III
King of Armenia
6 – 12 AD
Succeeded by
Vonones I