Tijuana

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This article is about the city in Baja California. For the metropolitan area, see Tijuana metropolitan area.
Tijuana
City
Ciudad de Tijuana
City of Tijuana
Zona Río, the main business district
Zona Río, the main business district
Coat of arms of Tijuana
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): T.J.
Gateway to Mexico
A Heart Between Two Seas
Motto: Aquí empieza la patria (The fatherland begins here)
Tijuana is located in Mexico
Tijuana
Tijuana
Location of Tijuana within Mexico
Coordinates: 32°31′30″N 117°02′0″W / 32.52500°N 117.03333°W / 32.52500; -117.03333
Country Mexico Mexico
State Baja California Baja California
Municipality Tijuana
Founded July 11, 1889
Government
 • Type Ayuntamiento
 • Municipal President Jorge Astiazarán Orcí
Area
 • City 637 km2 (246 sq mi)
 • Metro 1,392.5 km2 (537.9 sq mi)
Elevation 20 m (65 ft)
Population (2010 Census)
 • City 1,300,983
 • Density 2,000/km2 (5,300/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,650,351
 • Metro density 1,200/km2 (3,100/sq mi)
  [1]
Demonym Tijuanan
Time zone PST (UTC−8)
 • Summer (DST) PDT (UTC−7)
Postal code 22000-22699
Area code(s) 664
Website http://www.tijuana.gob.mx

Tijuana (/təˈwɑːnə/ tee-HWAH-nə; Spanish: [tiˈxwana]) is the largest city on the Baja California Peninsula and center of the Tijuana metropolitan area, part of the international San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. An industrial and financial center of Mexico,[2] Tijuana exerts a strong influence on economics, education, culture, art, and politics. As the city has become a leading center in the country, so has the surrounding metropolitan area, a major industrial and paramount metropolis in northwestern Mexico. Currently one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in Mexico,[2] Tijuana maintains global city status.[3] As of 2010, the city of Tijuana had a population of 1,300,983.[4]

On the Gold Coast of Baja California, Tijuana is the municipal seat, cultural, and commercial center of Tijuana Municipality, covering 23.5% of the municipality. A dominant manufacturing center of the North American continent, the city maintains facilities of numerous multinational conglomerate companies. The 2000s (decade) saw Tijuana become the medical device manufacturing capital of North America. Also a growing cultural center, Tijuana has been recognized as a most important new cultural mecca.[5] The city is the most visited border city in the globe; sharing an approximate 24-kilometre-long border (15 mi) with its sister city San Diego, over fifty million people annually cross the border between these two cities. This metropolitan crossing makes the San Ysidro Port of Entry the busiest land-border crossing in the world.[6] It is estimated that the two border crossing stations between the cities proper of San Diego and Tijuana account for 300,000 daily border crossings alone.

Tijuana is the 29th largest city in the Americas and is the westernmost city in Mexico. According to the 2010 census, the Tijuana metropolitan area was the fifth-largest in Mexico, with a population of 1,784,034. The international metropolitan region was estimated to be just over five million in 2009 and approximately 5,105,769 in 2010,[7] making it the third largest metropolitan area in the Californias, 19th largest metropolitan area in the Americas,[8] and the largest bi-national conurbation that is shared between US and Mexico. Tijuana is becoming more suburbanized like San Diego; during the 2000s the drug violence had residents moving out of the congested urban core into isolated communities within the municipality and beyond, as evidenced by 2010 Census figures and growth patterns.

Tijuana traces its modern history to the arrival of Spanish explorers in the 16th century who were mapping the coast of the Californias. As the American conquest of northern Mexico ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Tijuana's new international position on the border gave rise to a new economic and political structure. The city was founded in July 11, 1889 as urban development began. Often known by its initials, "T.J.", and nicknamed Gateway to Mexico, the city has historically served as a tourist center dating back to the 1880s.

Etymology[edit]

In early historic mission documents — primarily baptism, marriage, and death records — there are mentions of the city with the names: La Tía Juana, Tiguana, Tiuana, Teguana, Tiwana, Tijuan, Ticuan, and the present day name, Tijuana. The commonly accepted theory held among historians is that the modern-day Tijuana is derived from a word of the Kumeyaay language - the original aboriginal inhabitants of the San Diego-Tijuana region. Tijuana derives from the Kumeyaay word Tiwan, meaning by-the-sea. Common in regional folklore, a myth exists purporting that the name is a conjunction of Tia Juana, the Spanish-language version of Aunt Jane. Tia Juana would provide food and a resting place to travelers on their journeys. The story has become a popular myth with residents of the city and has particular resonance among those who like to imagine the city as a place of hospitality.

In Spanish, the name is pronounced /tiˈxwana/ - with three syllables, and a velar fricative as represented by the sound written as j. In English, the name is often mispronounced as having four syllables: /tiːəˈwɑːnə/ ("Tia-wana"); other times it is pronounced truer to Spanish, with three /tiːˈwɑːnə/. In California, and particularly in Southern California, it is often referred to as T.J.. Baja Californians have adopted this pronunciation as Tiyei. In Spanish the demonym for someone from Tijuana is Tijuanense, while in English demonym is Tijuanan. A very common slang term used for a person from Tijuana is Tijuanero.

The nickname Tijuas is increasingly popular among residents and visitors alike. Due to a recent increase in violence in the city, a new term is developing. The phrase Yo Tijuaneo, ¿y tú? translates to I Tijuanate, and you?. This term comes from a new popular local verb Tijuanear meaning to Tijuana, describing the cosmopolitan aspects of living in the city and frequently crossing the border.

History[edit]

Early explorers
Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo.jpg Junípero Serra.jpg
Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo. Fray Junípero Serra.

The land where the city of Tijuana would be built was originally inhabited by the Kumeyaay, a tribe of Yuman-speaking hunter-gatherers. Europeans arrived in 1542, when the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo toured the coastline of the area, which was later mapped in 1602 by Sebastián Vizcaíno. In 1769, Juan Crespí documented more detailed information about the area that would be called the Valley of Tijuana. Junípero Serra founded the first mission of Alta California in nearby San Diego.

More settlement of the area took place near the end of the mission era when José María de Echeandía, governor of the Baja California and Alta California, awarded a large land grant to Santiago Argüello in 1829. This large cattle ranch, Rancho Tía Juana ("Aunt Jane Ranch"), covered 100 km2 (40 sq mi).

In 1848, as a result of the Mexican-American War with the United States, Mexico lost all of Alta California. The majority of the 1,000 Hispanic families living in Alta California stayed there, though some moved south to remain inside Mexico.

Because of this Tijuana gained a different purpose on the international border. The area had been populated by ranchers, but Tijuana developed a new social economic structure. These were farming and livestock grazing, plus as a transit area for prospectors.[9]

Urban settlement began in 1889, when descendants of Santiago Argüello and Augustín Olvera entered an agreement to begin developing the city of Tijuana. The date of the agreement, July 11, 1889, is recognized as the founding of the city.[10]

Tijuana saw its future in tourism from the beginning. From the late 19th century to the first few decades of the 20th century, the city attracted large numbers of Californians coming for trade and entertainment. The California land boom of the 1880s led to the first big wave of tourists, who were called "excursionists" and came looking for echoes of the famous novel "Ramona" by Helen Hunt Jackson.

In 1911, during the Mexican Revolution, revolutionaries claiming loyalty to Ricardo Flores Magón took over the city for shortly over a month. Federal troops then arrived. Assisted by local loyal militia known as the "defensores de Tijuana", they routed the rebels, who fled north and were promptly arrested by the United States Army. This event is a source of local controversy, and the "rebels" are almost universally reviled in Tijuana as "filibusteros" (mercenaries).

The Panama-California Exposition of 1915 brought many visitors to the nearby California city of San Diego. Tijuana attracted these tourists with a Feria Típica Mexicana - Typical Mexican Fair. This included curio shops, regional food, thermal baths, horse racing and boxing.

Established maquiladoras in Tijuana and the border towns with the U.S. in the mid-1960s.[11]

The first professional race track opened in January 1916, just south of the border gate. It was almost immediately destroyed by the great "Hatfield rainmaker" flood of 1916. Rebuilt in the general area, it ran horse races until the new Agua Caliente track opened in 1929, several miles south and across the river on higher ground.

Legal drinking and gambling attracted U.S nationals in the 1920s during Prohibition. The Avenida Revolución area became the city's tourist center, with casinos and the Hotel Caesar's, birthplace of the Caesar salad.

In 1928, the Agua Caliente Touristic Complex was opened, including hotel, spa, dog-track, private airport, golf course and gambling casino. A year later, the new Agua Caliente Racetrack joined the complex. During the eight years it operated, the Agua Caliente hotel, casino and spa achieved a near mythical status, with Hollywood stars and gangsters flying in and playing. Rita Hayworth was discovered there. Musical nightclub productions were broadcast over the radio. A singer known as "la Faraona" got shot in a love-triangle and gave birth to the myth of a beautiful lady ghost.

Remnants of the Agua Caliente casino can be seen in the outdoor swimming pool and the "minarete" (actually a former incinerator chimney) nearby the southern end of Avenida Sanchez Taboada, on the grounds of what is now the Lazaro Cardenas educational complex.

In 1935, President Cárdenas decreed an end to gambling and casinos in Baja California, and the Agua Caliente complex faltered, then closed. In 1939, it was reopened as a Junior High School (now, Preparatoria Lázaro Cárdenas). The buildings themselves were torn down in the 1970s and replaced by modern scholastic architecture.

In 1925, the city attempted to shed its negative image of hedonism and lawlessness created by American mob empresarios by renaming itself Zaragoza, but its name soon reverted to Tijuana.

With increased tourism and the large number of Mexican citizens relocating to Tijuana, the city's population grew from 21,971 to 65,364 between 1940 and 1950.

With the decline of nightlife and tourism in the 1950s, the city restructured its tourist industry, by promoting a more family-oriented scene. Tijuana developed a greater variety of attractions and activities to offer its visitors.

In 1994, PRI presidential candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio was assassinated in Tijuana while making an appearance in the plaza of Lomas Taurinas, a neighborhood nestled in a valley near Centro. The shooter was caught and imprisoned, but doubts remain about who the mastermind might have been.

Geography[edit]

Colorado Hill, the highest elevation of Tijuana.

Tijuana is the western-most city in Mexico, and consequently in Latin America, and the 2nd largest city of northern Mexico. Located approximately 210 kilometres (130 mi) west of the state-capital, Mexicali, the city is bordered to the north by the cities of Imperial Beach, and the San Diego neighborhoods of San Ysidro and Otay Mesa, California. To the southwest of the city is Rosarito Beach, while to the south is unincorporated territory of Tijuana Municipality. The city is nestled among hills, canyons, and gullies. The central part of the city lies in a valley through which flows the channeled Tijuana River.

Housing development in the Tijuana Hills has led to eradication of many seasonal mountain streams. This lack of natural drainage makes places within the city vulnerable to landslides during the rainy season. The varied terrain of Tijuana gives the city elevation extremes that range from 0 metres (0 ft) to 790 metres (2,590 ft).

Tijuana is noted for its rough terrain, which includes many canyons, steep hills, and mesas. Among noted canyons in Tijuana are Canyon K and Canyon Johnson. Large Tijuana hills include Red Hill (Cerro Colorado) and Hill of the Bees (Cerro de las Abejas) in the eastern part of the city.

The city is located near the terminus of the Tijuana River and within the Tijuana River Basin. The Tijuana River is an intermittent river, 195 km (121 mi) long, on the Pacific coast of northern Baja California in Mexico and Southern California in the United States. It drains an arid area along the California–Baja California border, flowing through Mexico for most of its course and then crossing the border for the last 8 km (5 mi) of its course where it forms an estuary that empties into the ocean. The river's lower reaches harbor the last undeveloped coastal wetlands in San Diego County, and some of the last in Southern California, amidst a highly urbanized environment at the southern city limits of Imperial Beach.

As Downtown Tijuana was built at the bottom of the river valley, the district is subject to seasonal flooding created by drain-off from the Tijuana Hills. During this time, east-bound portions of the Via Rapida (east-west highway) may be blocked off by the Tijuana Police due to hazardous conditions.

Cityscape[edit]

Zona Río, the main business district

The city's skyscraper history is relatively recent.[12] Some of the first highrise building complexes constructed in the city were the twin towers of Grand Hotel Tijuana.[12] Tijuana experienced a building boom that was brought to a halt by the Great Recession. Among buildings that succumbed to the time period was the Trump Ocean Resort Baja Mexico that would have been located in Playas and reached 98 metres (322 ft).[13] Currently the tallest building, and soon to be the largest complex in footage, New City Residential reaches 102 metres (335 ft). Overall, the city maintains 33 completed structures with other proposed and under-construction skyscrapers.[14]

The Tijuana skyline is the third largest skyline in Mexico and is located in the Zona Rio and to a smaller extent, Playas de Tijuana. In the Zona Rio the buildings are concentrated on the Tijuana River, lined parallel to the river ; and on the edges of the Tijuana Country Club. In Playas the highrises are currently focused on the coast. Recent construction on highrises has begun in the aforementioned areas, as buildings such as New City Residential and Grand Hotel Tijuana have been developed and taken prominent places in the skyline as the tallest buildings. From Tijuana's skyline the San Diego skyline can also be seen.

Boroughs and neighborhoods[edit]

The municipality of Tijuana is divided into eight administrative boroughs, or Delegaciones. The Tijuana metropolitan area occupies all of borough seats. The boroughs are in turn divided into colonias or ejidos. These boroughs offer administrative services such as urban planning, civil registry, inspection, verification, public works and community development and are served by a delegado.

Climate[edit]

Tijuana River Estuary with Tijuana Hills in the back

Tijuana's climate is semi-arid (Köppen climate classification BSh),[18] with about 231 mm (9.09 in) of annual precipitation. It shows characteristics of the Mediterranean climate (Csa) found to the immediate north, with most of the annual precipitation falling in the winter (between November and March).[19]

During the rainy season, November through March, storms originate from fronts entering off of the Pacific Ocean. January is the wettest month of the year for the city and during this time a periodic event, similar to June Gloom, is observed created by marine layer. January is the coolest month, during which temperatures average 13.6 °C (56.5 °F). In the city April signifies the end of winter and the start of Santa Ana winds - observed in Southern California as well. Though the days are predominantly cool with cold nights, heat waves can reach up to 33 °C (91 °F). The hottest months in the city, also the dry season, are August and September, during which temperatures average 22.0 °C (71.6 °F). Summers are warm and dry since influences from the California Current and the North Pacific High suppresses the formation of rainfall caused by the North American Monsoon.[20]

Frost and snow are rare phenomena in the city as temperatures are usually warm. Yet, in December 1967, snow fell in the city and in January 2007 feather light snow fell in the east of the city. However, excessive amounts of snow fall have never been recorded in the city. On February 14, 2008 a winter storm caused an unusual snowfall in the upper reaches of the hills of the city. During this time heavy snowfall was also observed in the Cuyamaca Mountains of San Diego County.

The record low temperature recorded in the city was −6 °C (21 °F), while the highest was 49 °C (120 °F).

Climate data for Tijuana
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 34.5
(94.1)
39.0
(102.2)
34.0
(93.2)
36.0
(96.8)
38.5
(101.3)
41.8
(107.2)
39.0
(102.2)
41.0
(105.8)
49.0
(120.2)
47.0
(116.6)
42.0
(107.6)
37.0
(98.6)
49.0
(120.2)
Average high °C (°F) 20.3
(68.5)
20.8
(69.4)
20.8
(69.4)
22.1
(71.8)
23.5
(74.3)
25.2
(77.4)
27.8
(82)
28.1
(82.6)
27.8
(82)
26.0
(78.8)
23.5
(74.3)
21.1
(70)
23.9
(75)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.6
(56.5)
14.3
(57.7)
14.8
(58.6)
16.1
(61)
18.0
(64.4)
19.8
(67.6)
22.2
(72)
22.8
(73)
22.0
(71.6)
19.5
(67.1)
16.6
(61.9)
14.0
(57.2)
17.8
(64)
Average low °C (°F) 6.9
(44.4)
7.8
(46)
8.8
(47.8)
10.2
(50.4)
12.4
(54.3)
14.3
(57.7)
16.5
(61.7)
17.5
(63.5)
16.1
(61)
13.0
(55.4)
9.8
(49.6)
6.9
(44.4)
11.7
(53.1)
Record low °C (°F) −3.0
(26.6)
0.0
(32)
0.5
(32.9)
1.0
(33.8)
5.5
(41.9)
5.0
(41)
7.5
(45.5)
10.5
(50.9)
0.0
(32)
5.0
(41)
1.0
(33.8)
−5.0
(23)
−5.0
(23)
Rainfall mm (inches) 43.8
(1.724)
36.5
(1.437)
42.7
(1.681)
17.6
(0.693)
4.4
(0.173)
0.7
(0.028)
0.7
(0.028)
0.9
(0.035)
5.0
(0.197)
7.8
(0.307)
33.8
(1.331)
37.0
(1.457)
230.9
(9.091)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 5.9 4.7 5.9 3.1 1.4 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.7 1.7 3.9 4.3 32.7
 % humidity 70 74 73 75 77 79 80 80 79 76 69 69 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 217 226 248 240 248 240 310 279 270 248 240 248 3,014
Source #1: Servicio Meteorologico Nacional[21]
Source #2: BBC weather (sun and humidity).[22]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1980 461,267 —    
1990 698,752 +51.5%
1995 966,097 +38.3%
2000 1,148,681 +18.9%
2005 1,286,187 +12.0%
2010 1,300,983 +1.2%
sources:[23][24][25]
A decorative minaret in Tijuana

Tijuana has a diverse cosmopolitan population which includes migrants from other parts of Mexico, as well as immigrants from all over the globe. Home to a global populace, Tijuana holds one of Mexico's largest Asian populations, predominantly consisting of Chinese immigrants, and to a lesser extent, Koreans and Japanese. Tijuana is also home to a large and rapidly growing population of United States citizens, mostly from Southern California, who have moved to the city to avoid the higher cost of living in the region, while still being able to work in Southern California. Many Latin Americans, notable Argentines, Cubans, and Guatemalans, have made Tijuana their home, especially people from Central America and Andean nations. The city is also called home by many Italian, French, Spanish and Lebanese citizens. A large transitory population exists in Tijuana due to border aspirations or deportations.

Tijuana's traffic near the international borderline.

The majority of Tijuana's migrant Mexican population hail from Sinaloa, Michoacán, Jalisco, Oaxaca, and the Federal District. Because of the diversity of Mexico and the influx of immigrants from almost every region in the country, there are no accurate estimates on ethnicity or race of the current population. The heavy influx of immigrants to the city and municipality of Tijuana has led to job creation in the form of over 700 twin-plant (maquiladora) factories, which serve as the basis of employment for the majority of the working-class people in northern Mexico. The high poverty level in Tijuana is attributed to the city's "magnet status" for people who have come from the poorer south of the nation and citizens from other nations seeking to escape from extreme poverty. Tijuana holds a status that provides the possibility of employment as well as higher education and the dream of crossing the border. Tijuana and Baja California in general have much stronger economies and higher incomes than other Mexican cities along the United States border, as well as more moderated weather.

Tijuana today is one of the fastest growing cities in Mexico with an average of 80,000 people moving to Tijuana yearly. In terms of area, the city grows by approximately three hectares a day, mostly east and south as the city is mostly built out to the beach already with the exception of some canyons. Along with settlements, big business moves in providing supermarkets and retail to marginal areas, along with paved roads. The city experiences the construction of 26,000 new settlements a year that has led to the unregulated, illegal squatter homes that takes place in the hills and valleys of ever expanding Tijuana, most of these areas are yet to be served by city services, including the addition of sidewalks, paving, streetlights, public transit and other services. However, as older and existing squatters are brought into the city services, more marginal areas become occupied by squatters. Mexican cultural attitudes towards the poor are more about tolerance and reluctant acceptance of the problems rather than forcing them into situation where they cannot fend for themselves and/or incarceration.

Squatter areas are home to displaced and uprooted people, among them the indigenous and poverty stricken, deported from USA migrants, considerable numbers of them without Mexican citizenship (from other countries). In recent years, working class suburban housing estates have sprung up in the fringes to provide safe homes and a sense of land ownership, to escape and isolate their families and young ones from the violence of the drug war and squatter areas. Some even more remote areas are drug lords plantations for narcotics, which periodically come to light in the newspapers.

National Population Council (CONAPO) data has estimated that by 2030, growth rates maintaining, the city will become the second largest in Mexico and anchor to the fourth largest metropolitan area in Mexico. The suburban sprawl observed in Tijuana leaves the downtown and beach areas relatively affluent.

Border fence between Tijuana (right) and San Diego's border patrol offices (left)

While the INEGI Census 2010 counted the population of Tijuana to be 1.3 million, only two percent more than in 2005 Census, Tijuana City Council estimates from 2010 have placed the population closer to two million, at 1.6 million.[26] As funding for cities is based on the populace of the city, the Council worries about receiving adequate funds to provide for the needs of the city. The population discrepancies may be explained by a few factors. Shanty towns which have not been rasterized and an undercount, people having left Tijuana for United States, and people leaving Tijuana for the interior of Mexico due to the intensification of the drug war, and suburbanization outside city limits but not outside the municipality. Tijuana, because of the dreams of border crossers, and its relatively higher wages compared to the rest of Mexico, naturally attracts immigrants. Since 2010, the population of Tijuana as counted by the census is expected to return to its normal growth curve as deportees settle in the city, as well as the great reduction in violence make the city an attractive option again.

According to the Second Census of Population and Housing of the year 2010 conducted by the INEGI (National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics) the municipality of Tijuana has 1,559,683 inhabitants. While the metropolitan area of Tijuana, composed of Tijuana Municipality and Rosarito Beach Municipality, has 1,751,302 inhabitants. Tecate Municipality, adjacent to Tijuana Municipality, has not yet been considered by the government as part of the metropolitan area. However, there is great economic and cultural exchange between the cities regions though there are still expanses of rural land. As Tijuana grows, many of its suburbs have been built increasingly inland, and in the direction of Tecate; Valley of the Palms is a large planned city between the two.

As of 2005 the large majority of the city's population, 96%, adhere to the beliefs of Christianity. The denominations are further divided into followers of Catholicism - 61% - and of Protestantism - 35%. While other beliefs occupying a 4% margin in the city include Taoism (among other Asian and European religions), atheism and agnosticism is also found.

Crime[edit]

Tijuana is well known for being the birthplace and base of the Tijuana Cartel.[27] From 2007 through 2010, Tijuana experienced an unusually high level of violent crime related to gang violence, in part derived from the Mexican drug war and human trafficking. Homicides peaked in 2010, when 844 people were killed,[28] compared to 355 in 2004[29] and 349 in the first eight months of 2011.[28] Reportedly, the wave of violence resulted from a turf war as the administration of President Felipe Calderón weakened the local Arellano Félix cartel; violence slowed when the larger Sinaloa cartel took control.[28]

During peak years of violent crime in the city, gun battles between rival cartels, and between cartels and the police, erupted in public. In April 2008, police found 1,500 shell casings on various streets after one battle left 13 suspected drug traffickers dead.[30] In 2009 and depending on the source, Tijuana Municipality experienced either 556 or 1,118 murders, mostly as a result of the drug war.[31][32]

In 2011, the crime wave appeared to be subsiding, with levels returning to those prior to 2007. "While other parts of Mexico are hit by an increase in drugs violence, the beheadings and massacres familiar a few years ago are now rare in Tijuana, a key battleground on one of the most lucrative drug smuggling corridors to the United States."[28] As of 2011, "organized crime continues, not only drug trafficking but extortion, kidnapping, human smuggling and gun running." These crimes are consolidated under the Sinaloa Cartel.[28]

Government[edit]

Palacio de Gobierno de Tijuana (Tijuana City Hall)

Regional[edit]

At present the parties with greater presence in Tijuana are the National Action Party (PAN), Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), and Ecologist Green Party of Mexico (PVEM). The PAN has been the dominant party in the city for 20 years. Historically the PRI has been the dominant party in regional politics, until 1989 when the PAN began to dominate the city, until yet again, in 2004, PRI began regaining prominence and won the Mayor's Office.

Less prominent parties also maintain relations with the dominant parties. These other parties, with less presence include the New Alliance Party (PANAL), Social Encounter Party (PES), and Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). Allied with the PAN at the state and local level under the Alliance for Baja California are the Social Encounter Party (PES) and New Alliance Party (PANAL). Allied with the PRI at the state and local level under the "Alliance for Better Living" are the Ecologist Green Party of Mexico (PVEM) and Baja California State Party (PEBC).

International[edit]

Tijuana's importance and rise to a global city has led to its recognition among countries worldwide. In addition to international cultural recognition, Tijuana has received political recognition and is a developing a political center currently host to eight consulates from European, Asian, and North American countries.[33]

Economy[edit]

Building at Playas de Tijuana
Slums in Tijuana

Tijuana is a large manufacturing center, and in addition to tourism, it serves as a cornerstone of the city economy. In the past decade alone, Tijuana became the medical device manufacture capital of the North American continent, surpassing previous leader Minneapolis - Saint Paul.[34]

The city's proximity to Southern California and its large, skilled, diverse, and relatively inexpensive workforce, makes it an attractive city for foreign companies looking to establish extensive industrial parks composed of assembly plants that are called maquiladoras, even more so than other cities in the US-Mexican border zone, taking advantage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) to export products. At its peak, in 2001 Tijuana had roughly 820 of these 'maquiladoras' (today the number is closer to 550).[35] Foreign and domestic companies employ thousands of employees in these plants, usually in assembly-related labor. Such jobs are not demanding but typically offer above average (although not high paying) salaries for Mexico, with most maqiladoras jobs beginning at Mex$100 per day (about $7.94 in US dollars), significantly above the Mexican minimum wage of Mex$57.46 (about 4.56 US dollars). Companies that have set up maquiladoras in Tijuana include Lanix, Hyundai, Sony,[36] Vortec, BMW, Vizio, Toyota, Dell, Samsung, Kodak, Matsushita/Panasonic, Bimbo, GE, Nabisco, Ford, Microsoft, Cemex, Zonda, Philips, Pioneer, Airbus, Plantronics, Siemens Mexico, Jaguar, Pall Medical, Tara, Sanyo, Volkswagen and vimay. Many of the maquiladoras are located in the Otay Mesa and Florido sections of Tijuana.

In addition, there are also some high-tech firms and telemarketing companies making their way into the city drawing skilled people with technical trades and college degrees to Tijuana. One example is Telvista, a Texas-based telemarketing company which maintains three call centers along Blvd. Agua Caliente. This makes Tijuana a popular city for migrant workers as well as college graduates from other parts of Mexico as well as other countries to the south.

Tijuana also relies on tourism for a major part of its revenue. About 300,000 visitors cross by foot or car from the San Ysidro point of entry in the United States every day. To lessen the strain on the border crossing, the Otay Mesa Crossing has been boosted to support more traffic and 6-lane highway 905 built in 2012, as well as rapid bus transit coming in the future. The city's tourist centers include Avenida Revolucion and Agua Caliente. Restaurants and taco stands, pharmacies, bars and dance clubs are part of the draw for the city's tourists. Many shops and stalls selling Mexican crafts and souvenirs are also located in walking distance from the border. Mexico's drinking age of 18 (vs. 21 in the United States) make it a common weekend destination for many high school and college aged Southern Californians who tend to stay within the Avenida Revolución. Tijuana is also home to several pharmacies marketed toward visitors from the United States. These pharmacies sell some pharmaceutical drugs without prescriptions, and at much lower costs than pharmacies in the US. Many medications still require a Mexican doctor's prescription though several accessible doctor offices are located near the border as well. In addition, Tijuana has a legal "red-light" district known as the Zona Norte which also adds significant revenue to its economy. Tijuana is also home to many businesses selling products and services at a much cheaper rate than in the United States. Such businesses as auto detailing, medical services, dentistry and plastic surgery are heavily marketed and located near the city's border with the US.

Economic development has its central business district at Zona Río, which with the corridor along Blvd. Agua Caliente (the extension of Avenida Revolución) contains the majority of the higher-end office space in the city. Binational economic development along the US-Mexico border is key to the development of Tijuana going forward. Multiple regional (San Diego-US/Tijuana-MX) think-tanks exist on both sides of the border that promote such regional collaboration and innovation.

Education[edit]

CITEC - Unidad Valle de las Palmas - Campus Tijuana
UABC Community Center

Tijuana is home to many private Primary Schools, Secondary Schools and High Schools as well as nationally high ranked colleges and universities. Notable primary and secondary schools include Metropolitan, Instituto México, Instituto Cumbres, President Lázaro Cárdenas School, Agua Caliente School Center High, José Fimbres Moreno School and the State High School, and Ignacio Ramírez School located in Cerro Colorado. These schools maintain recognition for their demands and high standards.

Tijuana maintains multiple higher education institutions. These include the Autonomous University of Baja California, Tijuana (UABC), Instituto Tecnológico de Tijuana (ITT), Universidad Iberoamericana (UIA-Tijuana), CETYS Universidad, Universidad Xochicalco, and University of the Californias. Other colleges include Tijuana University Center, Tijuana University of Technology, Graduate Center of the Northwest, and the University of Professional Development. The city is the seat of the Colegio de la Frontera Norte (COLEF), an institution of scientific research and higher education, specializing in the study of the problems in the border region between Mexico and the United States. In August 2009, Metropolitan UABC opened in Valle de Las Palmas, in the Tijuana metropolitan area.

Culture and contemporary life[edit]

Many foreigners travel to Tijuana to drink and dance, buy prescription drugs, purchase bootleg brand-name clothing, timepieces, and other personal accessories found globally, as well as manufactured and hand-crafted local curiosities. Locals and regular tourists avoid hassles by visiting the clubs at Plaza Fiesta or other areas of the Zona Río without the crowds, heavy marketing, and occasional tourist misbehavior or outright lawbreaking common on the Revolución strip. However, Avenida Revolución has been known for its proliferation of nightclub shows, primarily catering to casual tourists. While still an entertaining town with an enjoyable atmosphere, locals and tourists alike would agree that it has lost its "anything goes" mentality which it had once acquired, a mindset that was dangerous to tourists, locals, and the tourism industry as a whole.

Tijuana is also known as the birthplace of the "Tijuana Special," which is a classic Tex-Mex dish consisting of enchiladas, rice and refried beans. This dish was popularized by Tippy's, an American Tex-Mex restaurant.[citation needed]

Entertainment and performing arts[edit]

Although poverty is widespread throughout the city, a very affluent and prominent society has developed in Tijuana. Gentrification is evident throughout certain districts. The Tijuana Cultural Center (CECUT) opened on October 20, 1982 with the goals of strengthening Tijuana's image, and to advertise cultural tourism from the US. The building was constructed by the architects Pedro Ramírez Vázquez and Manuel Rosen Morrison. The CECUT first opened as part of the National Fund for Social Activities then in 1983 it was part of the Ministry of Tourism. Later that year CECUT was joined into the Ministry of Public Education. Finally, in 1986 the CECUT gained its own independence, and was able to plan its own budget. In 1988 they changed their actions guiding themselves towards a comprehensive national cultural policy.[37]

It is composed of lecture rooms, video rooms, a library, an exhibition hall, the Museum of the Californias, a futuristic planetary movie theater that displays IMAX films, and a restaurant. Since 1992, the CECUT has hosted the Orchestra of Baja California (OBC), it headquarters the Center of Scenic Arts of the Northwest (CAEN) and the Hispanic-American Center for Guitar (CHG). Since 2001, the CECUT receives about a million visitors per year, making it Baja California's most important cultural center. Another important culture center is La Casa de la Cultura, which comprises a school, a theater, and a public library. Dance, painting, music, plastic arts, photography and languages are taught there. The city also has the Instituto Municipal de Arte y Cultura (Municipal Institute of Art and Culture), the Tijuana Wax Museum, and the Museo El Trompo (The Trompo Museum).

The Tijuana Country Club (Club Campestre de Tijuana) has many affluent members and a famous golf course. A large sized Rotary Club is also located in Tijuana. The Grand Hotel Tijuana and many luxurious restaurants have been developed along Bulevar Agua Caliente (often called "El Bulevar" by locals) and in the Zona Rio. Around the country club and Agua Caliente, many developments of wealthy and luxurious gated communities have filled the hillsides, most of which have views similar to Mount Soledad in San Diego or areas of Orange County. Tijuana's most prestigious entertainment center is the Tijuana Country Club golf club, but the Agua Caliente Racetrack would be the most notable that is open to the general public. Parque Morelos has a small zoo and park space; Parque de la Amistad has a small pond, and a running and dirt-bike track. Parque Teniente Guerrero is a park located downtown with a public library and weekend entertainment by clowns. All public libraries in Tijuana have Internet access; unfortunately, many of the available computers are not in service. Plus a library card is needed to use the computers. To get a library card one must have a government issued id card plus one has to provide two special size photographs. This of course leaves much of the huge immigrant population of Tijuana out of luck, as many of them don't have identification cards. El Foro was an attraction for being a jai alai venue, but now is commonly used as a concert venue.

Art[edit]

Monument to Hope in Otay Mesa

Tijuana also has a very active and independent artist community whose internationally recognized work has earned Tijuana the title of "one of the most important new cultural meccas", according to Newsweek.,[5] an exhibition of Tijuana's current art scene, is being curated by the Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego and is traveling across the USA in 2006 and 2007.[38] Art collectives like Bulbo and film production like Palenque Filmaciones explore the use of film like the award winning Tijuana Makes Me Happy, media like television bulbo TV and print "bulbo PRESS", to show different realities of Tijuana out of Mexico. In 2004, Tijuana earned international acclaim for an art exhibition displayed on the cement banks of the Tijuana River and along the Mexico/U.S. border fence in Otay Mesa.

Graffiti are widespread in Tijuana. They can range from free-hand writing in spray can and marker form, often carrying social or sexual commentary in English or Spanish, pictures in wheatpaste and stencils, consisting of stenciled renderings of personalities crucial to Hispanic culture from past and present eras, such as television news announcers or stars, but also extending to images of artists like Salvador Dalí. Graffiti in Tijuana may seem at first to consist largely of simplistic tags and thus not as technically evolved, colorful, or accepted in the mainstream as the "pieces" of graffiti scenes of the United States, Europe, or Japan, but large, colorful graffiti murals adorn walls from both native Tijuanan artists as well as visiting graffiti writers, especially from California. The Tijuanan art pieces show as much prowess and skill as those made by their more renowned U.S. counterparts, although illicit graffiti are strongly discouraged by the Tijuana government, as in other major metropolitan areas.

Music[edit]

Among other things, Tijuana was the inspiration source of Tijuana Brass, main name reference of Los Tucanes de Tijuana, and lately, the birthplace of Nortec music style, resulting in a very large and active electonic music scene where groups and artists like Panoptica Orchestra, Sonidero Travesura, Sotelum and Dj Chucuchu emerged. Tijuana also enjoys a large base of support in many other musical scenes such as mexican hip hop, reggae, hardcore, punk, black metal and house music. Famous musicians from Tijuana include the world known singer Julieta Venegas fussion rock projects like Tijuana No and international indie punk bands like Delux & Los Kung-Fu Monkeys.

Musical clubs along the Avenida Revolución area and others often cater to a diverse range of tastes by offering nightly variations on musical fare, such as new wave music one night, and punk rock bands on the next. Interestingly, some metal bands from Europe whose members cannot perform in the United States due to prior felony convictions in their own countries will play music festivals in Tijuana so as to attract fans from both Mexico and the United States.

Shopping[edit]

A street at Tijuana in 1996

Tijuana possesses a diversity of shopping malls including Plaza Río, Plaza Mundo Divertido, Plaza Monarca, Plaza Carrousel, Centro Comercial Playas/Plaza Coronado,and Galerias Hipodromo. Plaza Río is the largest mall and is located just a few minutes away from the U.S. border between Paseo de los Heroes and the Tijuana River. The mall hosts a Cinépolis and a Cinépolis VIP movie theater, a Sanborns restaurant and a variety of shops, including the large department store Sears. Plaza Mundo Divertido is off of Tijuana's main east-west highway with arcades and rides for the whole family. Plaza Monarca is on a north-south artery known as "Gato Bronco" and is anchored by the movie theater Cinépolis and grocery store chain Soriana (formerly a Gigante Supermarket). Plaza Carrousel, so named because the mall contains a children's merry-go-round, is minutes from the Cinco y Diez retail hub centered around a former five and dime store. The beach community of Playas de Tijuana saw a burst of construction in 2004, which yielded the Plaza Coronado complex next to the existing Comercial Mexicana-anchored Centro Comercial Playas.

Tijuana is also known for its red-light district Zona Norte (also referred to as La Coahuila after one of the main streets in it) which features legal prostitution in strip clubs and on the street. The strip clubs are typically full-contact, meaning the dancers will allow patrons to fondle them. Many dancers also sell their sexual services, which are pricier ($US 72 in early-2007)[citation needed] than those of the street prostitutes.

People filling up prescriptions for drugs classified in the US as Schedule II or Schedule III have found it more difficult to locate such medications, and the purchase of pseudoephedrine also has become restricted by Tijuana pharmacies, as it is in the United States. For a prescription to be filled in Tijuana and brought legally to the United States, any drug covered by the US Controlled Substances Act would require a prescription from the United States for re-import. Americans are allowed to import up to a 90-day supply of non-controlled medications for personal use back to the USA from Mexico and other countries.

Sports[edit]

Club Sport Founded League Venue
Club Tijuana Association Football 2006 Liga MX Estadio Caliente
Toros de Tijuana Baseball 2013 Liga Norte de Mexico Estadio Gasmart
Tijuana Zonkeys Basketball 2010 Circuito de Baloncesto de La Costa Del Pacifico Auditorio Municipal (Tijuana)
Toros Mexico Indoor Soccer 2010 Professional Arena Soccer League Unisantos Park

The city is home to the Tijuana Zonkeys professional basketball team of the CIBACOPA basketball league. The team is composed mostly of players from Mexico and plays from February to July in the Municipal Auditorium.

The city has a strong tradition of association football, Club Tijuana began playing on the Mexican first division on the 2011/12 season, winning the 2012 apertura title. They play their matches at the Estadio Caliente, a new 33,000 seat stadium. The team`s mascot is the Xoloitzcuintle, a famous Mexican hairless dog.

Stadiums

Estadio Caliente

External view of the sunken Estadio Caliente. The stadium is the Estadio Caliente Club Tijuana, Mexican professional football club currently participates in the First Division. It is located in the Agua Caliente Racetrack in Tijuana, Baja California ( Mexico ) . Caliente Homes Stadium, is a multi-purpose center in Tijuana. It is mainly used for football matches, has a capacity of 21,000 spectators.

Opened in June 2008, according to the work schedule . Thanks to that, the Tijuana Club was able to be promoted to the First Division of Mexico, because the FEMEXFUT requires teams participating in the First Division should have a stadium with a capacity of over 15,000 spectators. It is at this stage the U17 FIBA Americas Championship 2009 was held bound for Nigeria 2009 . Was released in First Division during the Apertura 2011 tournament of the Mexican Football Federation.

Gasmart stadium

Internal view of the stadium. The Gasmart Stadium is a baseball stadium located in the city of Tijuana. It is the home of the Bulls of Tijuana, the Northern League Mexico .

It was opened in 1977 and housed the Colts missing Tijuana Mexican Pacific League. Subsequently, the stadium was used for football matches . For 2004, professional baseball returned, now with a franchise LMB under the name of " Toros de Tijuana", the following year would change its name to " Colts " as they were known in its earlier stage.

At first it was called Cerro Colorado Stadium due to its location at the foot of this hill . With the return of baseball, chain supermarkets " Calimax " bought the naming rights to the stadium.

In 2004, the first season of " Toros ", the fans had a great response filling the stadium in most matches managing to be the square of further assistance in the league that season, so the expansion of 14,000 was raised seats up to 19,500 with the current account. The team's results in recent seasons have not been able to go back to the fans in the stadium so much, however, remains among one of the most frequented places in the league.

In 2008, the Colts team Tijuana, could not sustain the costly travel the rest of the teams (who had to cover ticketing tickets ), was born again into Nuevo Laredo. Insitentemente mentioned the viable possibility of the return of a team, although it would be a Pacific League, together with a ninth of Jalisco, who would use the Pan de Moreno Lagos State .

On April 4, 2013, the stadium was re opened and remodeled, which marks the beginning of a new era of Toros de Tijuana.

Infrastructure[edit]

Excel Medical Center

Utilities[edit]

The Tijuana State Commission of Public Services (CESPT) supplies the city with its water, while the city receives its electricity from La Comisión Federal de Electricidad (CFE).

The International Boundary Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP) developed, as a joint project of the USA and Mexico in the mid-1980s following substantial environmental studies,[39] treats 25 million gallons of water per day (mgd) from the Tijuana River; directly pumped across the border from the central collection point in Mexico. When the river is flowing, the diversion system of the plant begins operating and diverts up to about 12-13mgd to the IWTP. The total amount of water being diverted must not exceed 25 mgd, based on a monthly average decided upon by permit conditions, although the IWTP can treat sustained flows up to 45mgd daily and peaks of 70mgd for a short period. The diversion system regular sends approximately six to eight million gallons of water daily to the IWTP. The plant is currently being upgraded to include a secondary treatment facility.

The city also four to five decentralize units that are part of the Tijuana/Rosarito Potable Water and Wastewater Master Plan. This plan was required as part of Public Law 106-457, put into order November 7, 2000, which was written to allow the Bajagua project to move forward. The master plan was a binational collaborative effort by EPA and CESPT and addressed San Diego-Tijuana's needs for the next 20 years. The plants are intended to treat approximately 5mgd each, to tertiary levels and provide the reclaimed water to the surrounding areas for agriculture, industry etc. There are several issues that they are facing: no infrastructure to convey the reclaimed water to customers and inadequate groundwater recharge infrastructure.

Tijuana's telephonic system operates under area code 664. Telephonic land lines in Tijuana are provided by the company Telnor; other companies include Axtel and Alestra. Popular cell phone carriers in the city-region include Movistar, Telcel, Iusacell, Unefon, Nextel, in conjunction with Nextel USA, provides coverage in the city and all of Baja California for American Nextel users.[40] Nextel is popular among businessmen, students, and professionals. Cell phones also have historic usage in Tijuana as the first cellular call in Mexico was made in Tijuana in 1989.

Transportation[edit]

Fed. 1 towards San Diego and the Rio Zone

The city maintains a variety of transportation methods to assist in dealing with its ever-increasing population. These include predominantly air, car, and rail transportation methods as the city lacks a port. All means of transportation within the city accept both Mexican Peso and U.S. dollar as payment currencies, but no other foreign currencies. Local public transportation in Tijuana is run by semiprivate companies, and has one of the most complex, or perhaps unorganized networks. Two important Mexican federal highways end in Tijuana, one of them is Federal Highway 1, which runs south through the Baja California peninsula through Rosarito Beach, Baja Mar, and Ensenada before ending in Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur. From Tijuana to Ensenada, most travelers take Highway 1-D (scenic road), a four-lane, limited access toll road that runs by the coast starting at Playas de Tijuana. Mexican Federal Highway 2 runs east for 1,000 kilometers near the international border, currently as far as Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua.

The Tijuana International Airport (General Abelardo L. Rodríguez IA) is the city's main airport and serves eleven airlines with destinations across Mexico and a few into Asia. Tijuana International is also one of the busiest airports in Mexico. Aeroméxico introduced intercontinental air travel between Tijuana and two major cities in Asia: Tokyo in 2007 and Shanghai in 2008. With several private road lines, U.S. and selected Canadian destinations can be reached via the San Diego International Airport, located about 35 kilometers (22 mi) north of the international border.

Tijuana Lighthouse

The city's main bus station is in its eastern borough. There is a small terminal downtown which serves a few Mexican bus lines and U.S.-based Greyhound Lines and Crucero USA. Another bus station is located near the border with frequent services to Ensenada, and other major cities including Mazatlán, Culiacán, Hermosillo, and Guadalajara. Major bus lines operating in Tijuana include Azul y Blanco de Magallanes (Blue & White) and Transporte Efectivo Express de Tijuana - TEEXTI; modernizing system originally intended to phase out the other lines that partially introduced but ceased and merged with Azul y Blanco.

In 2006, Tijuana underwent a major overhaul of its existing system of guayines, or shared fixed-route station wagons, forcing the replacement of the guayines with new models of vans, serving as fixed-route taxis. Major transit hubs include Centro (Downtown Tijuana), Otay, Soler, and the Cinco y Diez avenues. Taxi lines operating in the city include Free Taxis, those that do not maintain a specific route; Economic Taxis; Diamond Taxis - black or yellow cabs; and regular taxis maintaining a set route. There are as many bus lines and routes as fixed-route taxi ones or calafias, and new routes for buses, taxis or calafias are frequently created, due to high demand of public transportation. Public transportation service is inexpensive, with bus tickets at maximum, USD $0.75. Fixed-route taxis are somewhat more expensive, depending on the taxi route, reaching USD $2.00. Bus, taxi and calafia lines and routes are distinguished from one another by their vehicles colors.

From the U.S. side, San Ysidro is the southern terminus of San Diego's municipal bus and light rail (San Diego Trolley) systems, providing public transportation to and from the Mexican border with Tijuana. The newly rebuilt San Ysidro trolley station is located directly next to the U.S. Customs and Border Protection facility. Tijuana is home to the world's busiest border crossing with about 300,000 people crossing the border between San Diego and Tijuana every day. Queues take anywhere from a few minutes to an hour or more to cross to the United States, on non-US holidays, with wait of a few hours on US national holidays or some Mexican holidays. Expect street vendors during the wait. However, after clearing customs and immigration formalities, Interstate 5 is a major 8-10 lane freeway from San Ysidro to downtown San Diego, Los Angeles, and north to the Canadian border. Interstate 805 branches off from I-5 just north of the border, and takes a more easterly route which bypasses downtown San Diego, rejoining with I-5 in the northern part of the city. From the Otay Mesa border crossing, Otay Mesa Road takes drivers west to connect with both I-805 and I-5.

Planned light rail and BRT system[edit]

In January 2009, the City Council and the Ministry of Communications and Transportation announced a new light rail system for Tijuana,[41] something which had been envisioned since the 1990s during the time of mayor Osuna Jaime. Despite spending millions of pesos on studies, the project never gained traction until the late 2000s (decade).

Currently the project proposes to build the first light rail line along the Tijuana River (which is actually a canal) - Route 01: San Ysidro-El Refugio. Route 02 would run from Santa Fe to Downtown Tijuana, a bus rapid transit line running along Blvd. Cuauhtemoc Sur. Up to 6 other routes have been proposed.[41]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Tijuana has multiple sister cities and twin towns. These relations have been formalized by a variety of organizations as well as municipal governments. Currently twinned with the City of Tijuana are:

City Nation Since
Busan South Korea South Korea 1995
San Diego[42] United States United States
La Paz Mexico Mexico
León Mexico Mexico
Mazatlán Mexico Mexico
Panjin China Peoples Republic of China
Havana Cuba Cuba
Cincinnati United States United States
Zaragoza Spain Spain
Laredo United States United States
Słubice Poland Poland
Frankfurt (Oder) Germany Germany

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Link to 2010 Mexican Census Info INEGI: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática.
  2. ^ a b Walker, Margath (January 2011). "Knowledge production and border nationalism in northern Mexico". Nations and Nationalism 17 (1): 168–187. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8129.2010.00461.x. 
  3. ^ GaWC. "The World According to GaWC". Retrieved 2011-02-26. 
  4. ^ "Tijuana". Catálogo de Localidades. Secretaría de Desarrollo Social (SEDESOL). Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  5. ^ a b Piore, Adam (September 2, 2002). "How to Build a Creative City". Newsweek International 
  6. ^ Massive traffic cripples Tijuana border crossing.
  7. ^ "World Gazetteer – San Diego-Tijuana". Archived from the original on 2007-10-01. 
  8. ^ "World Gazetteer – Metropolitan Areas of America". Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. 
  9. ^ Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas http://www.tijuana.gob.mx/ciudad/CiudadHistoriaMinima.asp
  10. ^ As determined at the second Symposium of History, 1975.
  11. ^ Carruthers (2000), page 212
  12. ^ a b "Tijuana Timeline Diagram". Skyscraper Source Media. Retrieved June 5, 2011. 
  13. ^ Spagat, Elliot (March 6). Trump venture folds, leaving buyers strapped. Brietbart. Retrieved June 5, 2011 
  14. ^ "Tijuana Timeline Diagram". Skyscraper Source Media. Retrieved June 5, 2011. 
  15. ^ Map website of the Tijuana City Government
  16. ^ "Doble responsabilidad desde el 1 de enero", Frontera, 2014-01-15
  17. ^ "Bourough of Playas de Tijuana". City of Tijuana. Retrieved July 21, 2011. 
  18. ^ M. Kottek; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved April 22, 2009. 
  19. ^ http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/redalyc/pdf/568/56842328.pdf
  20. ^ Adams, David; Comrie, Andrew (1997). The North American Monsoon 78 (10). American Meteorological Society. pp. 2197–2213. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<2197:TNAM>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved May 24, 2013. 
  21. ^ "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1951-2010" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Retrieved March 18, 2013. 
  22. ^ "Average Conditions; Tijuana International Airport". BBC. Retrieved March 18, 2013. 
  23. ^ "MEXICO: Baja California". Citypopulation.de. 2012-01-08. Retrieved June 1, 2012. 
  24. ^ http://www.inegi.org.mx/sistemas/TabuladosBasicos/LeerArchivo.aspx?ct=993&c=16762&s=est&f=1
  25. ^ Note for 2010, much of the 5-year growth has occurred in the municipality of Tijuana (suburbs) rather than the city itself as the urban fringe expands as people escape into isolated suburban subdivisions due to drug violence.
  26. ^ "Tijuana Striving for Better Days". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved May 9, 2011. 
  27. ^ "Tijuana Cartel". Violence across the border. Retrieved 25 September 2011. 
  28. ^ a b c d e Diaz, Lizbeth (September 5, 2011). "Tijuana violence slows as one cartel takes control". Thomson Reuters. 
  29. ^ Cearley, Anna (May 24, 2005). "Days are grueling and grisly for Tijuana's homicide cop". San Diego Union-Tribune. 
  30. ^ 13 dead in Tijuana shootouts. CNN 
  31. ^ "Denuncias Registradas Ante Agencias del Ministerio Publico del Fuero Comun" (PDF) (in Spanish). Portal de Transparencia del Gobierno del Estado de Baja California. Retrieved 2011-02-20. 
  32. ^ "Estadísticas de Mortalidad" (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. Retrieved 2011-09-14. 
  33. ^ "Foreign Embassies and Consulates in Mexico". GoAbroad.com. Retrieved August 14, 2011. 
  34. ^ "Analysis by Crossborder Group Finds Tijuana #1 City in North America for Medical Device Manufacturing Employment". Tijuana Economic Development Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2011. 
  35. ^ Algunos datos de la industria maquiladora de exportación
  36. ^ Alberts, Hana R., "Sony Hives Off Major Factory", Forbes, 09.01.2009
  37. ^ Historia http://www.cecut.gob.mx/acerca.php
  38. ^ Pagel, David Pagel (2007-01-30). "ART REVIEW Tijuana's scrappy, do-it-yourself spirit Ingenuity seizes the day as a traveling exhibition brings a vibrant creative scene across the border.". Los Angeles Times. p. E–1. 
  39. ^ C.Michael Hogan, Marc Papineau et al., {1985} Preliminary Assessment of Environmental Effects of Sewage on San Diego Beaches (EIS). Prepared by Earth Metrics Inc. for the U.S. EPA, Region IX.
  40. ^ Sprint Baja Services on Sprint.com
  41. ^ a b "Jorge Ramos manages support light rail project". El Sol de Tijuana. January 14, 2009. 
  42. ^ "Sister Cities - Interactive City Directory - Tijuana, Mexico". Sister Cities International. Retrieved Nov 12, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Kun, Josh, and Fiamma Montezemolo, eds. Tijuana Dreaming: Life and Art at the Global Border (Duke University Press; 2012) 387 pages; scholarly and popular essays including material translated from Spanish for the first time; topics include the city's image in fiction as a Prohibition-era "city of sin" for American visitors
Official

Coordinates: 32°31′30″N 117°02′0″W / 32.52500°N 117.03333°W / 32.52500; -117.03333