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|Blue blanquillo, Malacanthus latovittatus|
Commercial fisheries exist for the largest species, making them important food fish. However, the US Food and Drug Administration warns pregnant or breastfeeding women against eating tilefish and some other fish due to mercury contamination.   The smaller, exceptionally colorful species of tilefish are enjoyed in the aquarium.
The two subfamilies appear to be morphologically different, with members of Branchiosteginae having deep bodies, large heads, and large, somewhat subterminal mouths. In contrast, members of Malacanthinae are slender with elongated bodies, smaller heads, and terminal mouths.
Both subfamilies have long dorsal and anal fins, the latter having one or two spines. The gill covers (opercula) have one spine which may be sharp or blunt; some species also have a cutaneous ridge atop the head. The tail fin may range in shape from truncated to forked. Most species are fairly low-key in colour, commonly shades of yellow, brown, and gray. Notable exceptions include three small, vibrant Hoplolatilus species: the purple sand tilefish (H. purpureus), Starck's tilefish (H. starcki) and the redback sand tilefish (H. marcosi).
Tilefish larvae are notable for their generous complement of spines and serrations on the head and scales. This feature also explains the family name Malacanthidae, from the Greek words mala meaning "many" and akantha meaning "thorn".
Habitat and diet
Generally shallow-water fish, tilefish are usually found at depths of 50–200 m in both temperate and tropical waters of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. All species seek shelter in self-made burrows, caves at the bases of reefs, or piles of rock, often in canyons or at the edges of steep slopes. Either gravelly or sandy substrate may be preferred, depending on the species.
Behaviour and reproduction
Active fish, tilefish keep to themselves and generally stay at or near the bottom. They rely heavily on their keen eyesight to catch their prey. If approached, the fish will quickly dive into their constructed retreats, often head-first. The chameleon sand tilefish (Hoplolatilus chlupatyi) relies on its remarkable ability to rapidly change colour (with a wide range) to evade predators.
Many species form monogamous pairs, while some are solitary in nature (e.g., ocean whitefish, Caulolatilus princeps), and others colonial. Some species, such as the rare pastel tilefish (Hoplolatilus fronticinctus) of the Indo-Pacific, actively builds large rubble mounds above which they school and in which they live. These mounds serve as both refuge and as a micro-ecosystem for other reef species.
The reproductive habits of tilefish are not well studied. Spawning occurs throughout the spring and summer; all species are presumed not to guard their broods. Eggs are small (<2 mm) and made buoyant by oil. The larvae are pelagic and drift until the fish have reached the juvenile stage.
In popular culture
Tilefish was the secret ingredient on the 27 December 2011 episode of Chopped Champions.
The 42 species are in five genera. The family is further divided into two subfamilies: Branchiosteginae or Latilinae and Malacanthinae. Some authors regard these subfamilies as two evolutionarily distinct families (in which case the former subfamily is recorded as Branchiostegidae).
- Subfamily Malacanthinae
- Genus Branchiostegus
- Branchiostegus albus Dooley, 1978.
- Branchiostegus argentatus (Cuvier, 1830).
- Branchiostegus auratus (Kishinouye, 1907).
- Australia spotted handfish, Branchiostegus australiensis Dooley & Kailola, 1988.
- Ribbed tilefish, Branchiostegus doliatus (Cuvier, 1830).
- Branchiostegus gloerfelti Dooley & Kailola, 1988.
- Branchiostegus hedlandensis Dooley & Kailola, 1988.
- Branchiostegus ilocanus Herre, 1928.
- Red tilefish, Branchiostegus japonicus (Houttuyn, 1782).
- Branchiostegus paxtoni Dooley & Kailola, 1988.
- Branchiostegus saitoi Dooley & Iwatsuki, 2012
- Freckled tilefish, Branchiostegus sawakinensis Amirthalingam, 1969.
- Zebra tilefish, Branchiostegus semifasciatus (Norman, 1931).
- Branchiostegus serratus Dooley & Paxton, 1975.
- Branchiostegus vittatus Herre, 1926.
- Branchiostegus wardi Whitley, 1932.
- Genus Hoplolatilus
- Chameleon sand tilefish, Hoplolatilus chlupatyi Klausewitz, McCosker, Randall & Zetzsche, 1978.
- Dusky tilefish, Hoplolatilus cuniculus Randall & Dooley, 1974.
- Yellow-spotted tilefish, Hoplolatilus fourmanoiri Smith, 1964.
- Pastel tilefish, Hoplolatilus fronticinctus (Günther, 1887).
- Hoplolatilus geo Fricke & Kacher, 1982.
- Yellow tilefish, Hoplolatilus luteus Allen & Kuiter, 1989.
- Redback sand tilefish, Hoplolatilus marcosi Burgess, 1978.
- Hoplolatilus oreni (Clark & Ben-Tuvia, 1973).
- Hoplolatilus pohle Earle & Pyle, 1997.
- Purple sand tilefish, Hoplolatilus purpureus Burgess, 1978.
- Starck's tilefish, Hoplolatilus starcki Randall & Dooley, 1974.
- Genus Malacanthus
- Genus Branchiostegus
- Subfamily Latilinae
- Genus Caulolatilus
- Pacific golden-eyed tilefish, Caulolatilus affinis Gill, 1865.
- Bermuda tilefish, Caulolatilus bermudensis Dooley, 1981.
- Atlantic goldeye tilefish, Caulolatilus chrysops (Valenciennes, 1833).
- Blackline tilefish, Caulolatilus cyanops Poey, 1866.
- Bankslope tilefish, Caulolatilus dooleyi Berry, 1978.
- Reticulated tilefish, Caulolatilus guppyi Beebe & Tee-Van, 1937.
- Enigmatic tilefish, Caulolatilus hubbsi Dooley, 1978.
- Anchor tilefish, Caulolatilus intermedius Howell Rivero, 1936.
- Blueline tilefish, Caulolatilus microps Goode & Bean, 1878.
- Ocean whitefish, Caulolatilus princeps (Jenyns, 1840).
- Yellowbar tilefish, Caulolatilus williamsi Dooley & Berry, 1977.
- Genus Lopholatilus
- Genus Caulolatilus
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- FDA (1990-2010). "Mercury Levels in Commercial Fish and Shellfish". Retrieved 2011-09-14.
- Melody Joy Kramer (October 17, 2006). "Fish FAQ: What You Need to Know About Mercury". Retrieved 2011-09-14.
- Dooley, J.K. & Iwatsuki, Y. (2012). "A new species of deepwater tilefish (Percoidea: Branchiostegidae) from the Philippines, with a brief description of the status of tilefish systematics." Zootaxa 3249: 31-38.
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- Dooley, J.K., (1978)., Systematics and biology of the tilefishes (Perciformes: Branchiostegidae and Malacanthidae), with descriptions of two new species., U.S. Nat. Ocean. Atmos. \.