Tillamook language

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Tillamook
Native to United States
Region Northwestern Oregon
Ethnicity Tillamook, Siletz
Extinct c. 1970
Dialects
Tillamook
Siletz
Language codes
ISO 639-3 til
Glottolog till1254[1]
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Tillamook is an extinct Salishan language, formerly spoken by the Tillamook people in northwestern Oregon, United States. The last fluent speaker is believed to have died in the 1970s; between 1965 and 1972, in an effort to prevent the language from being lost, a group of researchers from the University of Hawaii interviewed the few remaining Tillamook-speakers and created a 120-page dictionary.[2]

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Front Back
High i ə
Low æ ɑ

Consonants[edit]

Alveolar Postalveolar
/ palatal
Velar Uvular Glottal
Central Lateral Unrounded Rounded* Unrnd. Rnd.*
Stop t k q ʔ
Ejective kʷʼ qʷʼ
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ
Ejective affricate t͡sʼ t͡ɬʼ t͡ʃʼ
Fricative s ɬ ʃ x χ χʷ h
Nasal n
Approximant l j w

Internal Rounding[edit]

The "rounded" consonants (marked by ʷ), including /w/, are not labialized—the effect is created entirely inside the mouth by cupping the tongue. Uvulars with this distinctive internal rounding have "a kind of ɔ timbre" while "rounded" front velars have ɯ coloring. These contrast and oppose otherwise very similar segments having ɛ or ɪ coloring—the "unrounded" consonants.

/w/ is also formed with this internal rounding instead of true labialization, making it akin to /ɰ/. So are vowel sounds formerly written as /o/ or /u/, which are best characterized as the diphthong /əw/ with increasing rounding.[3]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Tillamook". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Official site of Clatsop-Nehalem Confederated Tribes
  3. ^ Thompson & Thompson (1966), p. 316

Bibliography[edit]

  • Thompson, Lawrence C.; M. Terry Thompson (1966). "A Fresh Look at Tillamook Phonology". International Journal of American Linguistics 32 (4): 313–319. doi:10.1086/464920. 
  • Edel, May M (1939). The Tillamook language. New York: J.J. Augustin. Retrieved 2013-09-22. 
  • "May M. Edel papers". Special Collections, University of Washington Libraries. Retrieved 2013-09-22. 

External links[edit]