The Nightmare Before Christmas

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This article is about the film. For other uses, see The Nightmare Before Christmas (disambiguation).
The Nightmare Before Christmas
The nightmare before christmas poster.jpg
Original theatrical release poster
Directed by Henry Selick
Produced by Tim Burton
Denise Di Novi
Screenplay by Caroline Thompson
Michael McDowell
Story by Tim Burton
Joe Ranft (storyboards)
Starring Danny Elfman
Chris Sarandon
Catherine O'Hara
William Hickey
Glenn Shadix
Ken Page
Music by Danny Elfman
Cinematography Pete Kozachik
Edited by Stan Webb
Production
company
Distributed by Buena Vista Pictures
Release dates
  • October 29, 1993 (1993-10-29)
Running time 76 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $18 million[1]
Box office $76,128,123[2]

The Nightmare Before Christmas, often promoted as Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas, is a 1993 American stop motion musical fantasy film directed by Henry Selick and produced/co-written by Tim Burton. It tells the story of Jack Skellington, a being from "Halloween Town" who opens a portal to "Christmas Town" and decides to celebrate the holiday, with some dastardly and comical consequences. Danny Elfman wrote the film score and provided the singing voice of Jack, as well as other minor characters. The remaining principal voice cast includes Chris Sarandon, Catherine O'Hara, William Hickey, Ken Page, Paul Reubens and Glenn Shadix.

The Nightmare Before Christmas originated in a poem written by Tim Burton in 1982, while he was working as an animator at Walt Disney Animation Studios. With the success of Vincent in the same year, the Walt Disney Studios started to consider developing The Nightmare Before Christmas as either a short film or 30-minute television special. Over the years, Burton's thoughts regularly returned to the project, and in 1990, he made a development deal with Disney. Production started in July 1991 in San Francisco. Disney decided to release the film under their Touchstone Pictures banner because they thought the movie would be "too dark, and scary for kids."[3]

The Nightmare Before Christmas was met with both critical and financial success. The film has since been reissued by Walt Disney Pictures and re-released annually in the Disney Digital 3-D format from 2006 until 2009, making it the first stop-motion animated feature to be entirely converted to 3-D.

Plot[edit]

Halloween Town is a fantasy world filled with citizens such as deformed monsters, ghosts, ghouls, goblins, vampires, werewolves and witches. Jack Skellington ("The Pumpkin King") leads them in organizing the annual Halloween holiday. However, in a monologue, Jack reveals he has grown tired of the same routine year after year ("Jack's Lament"). Wandering dejectedly in the forest outside the cemetery, he stumbles across the seven holiday doors and accidentally opens a portal to "Christmas Town", whose residents are charged with organizing the annual Christmas holiday, under the guidance of Santa Claus ("What's This"). Impressed by the feeling and style of Christmas, Jack presents his findings and his understanding of the festivities to the Halloween Town residents ("Town Meeting Song"). They fail to grasp his meaning and compare everything he says to their idea of Halloween. He reluctantly decides to play along, and announces that they will take over Christmas.

Jack's obsession with Christmas leads him to usurp the role of Santa ("Jack's Obsession"). Every resident is assigned a task ("Making Christmas"), while Sally, a rag doll woman who is created by the town's mad scientist, begins to feel a romantic attraction towards Jack. However, she alone fears that his plans will become disastrous ("Sally's Song"), but had no luck convincing him. Jack assigns Lock, Shock and Barrel, a trio of mischievous children, to abduct Santa and bring him back to Halloween Town. Against Jack's wishes and largely for their amusement ("Kidnap the Sandy Claws"), the trio deliver Santa to Oogie Boogie, a gambling-addict bogeyman who plots to play a game with Santa's life at stake ("Oogie Boogie's Song").

Christmas Eve arrives and Sally attempts to stop Jack with fog, but it fails to do so thanks to Jack's ghost dog Zero and his glowing nose and this allows Jack to embark into the sky on a coffin-like sleigh pulled by skeletal reindeer, guided by Zero. He begins to deliver presents to children around the world, but the gifts (shrunken heads, Christmas tree-eating snakes, pumpkin jack-in-the-boxes, vampire teddy bears, toy ducks with sharp teeth, living wreaths, etc.) only terrify the recipients. Jack is believed to be an imposter attempting to imitate Santa, and the military goes on alert to blast him out of the sky. The sleigh is shot down and he is presumed dead by Halloween Town's citizens, but in fact he has survived the crash, landing in a cemetery. Although he is depressed by the failure of his plan, he quickly regains his old spirit, having come up with new ideas for next Halloween ("Poor Jack"). He then rushes back home to rescue Santa and put things right.

Meanwhile, Sally attempts to free Santa, but is captured by Oogie. Jack slips into the lair and frees them, then angrily confronts Oogie. Almost immediately, Oogie springs a surprise trap on Jack (who he easily avoids) and is about to escape, when Jack pulls one of Oogie's loose threads, revealing him to be nothing more than a collection of snakes and insects, which are all incinerated, save for the last one, which Santa squashes with his boot. With Oogie gone, Santa admonishes Jack before leaving to deliver the right presents to the world's children.

After Jack returns and Christmas is over, Santa makes snow fall over Halloween Town in reconciliation between himself and Jack. The townspeople are confused by the snow at first, but soon begin to play happily in it, finally realizing what Christmas is about. Jack spies Sally heading to the graveyard and follows her. Atop the graveyard's big hill, Jack admits that he reciprocates Sally's romantic attraction to him and they kiss. ("Finale/Reprise")

Cast and characters[edit]

Upper body shot of man sitting behind desk with baseball cap speaking into a microphone
Chris Sarandon, the speaking voice of Jack Skellington.

The cast also features Kerry Katz, Carmen Twillie Randy Crenshaw, Debi Durst, Joe Ranft, Sherwood Ball, and Greg Proops voicing various characters. Patrick Stewart recorded narration for a prologue and epilogue. While not used in the final film, the narration is included on the soundtrack album.

Production[edit]

As director Tim Burton's upbringing in Burbank, California was associated with the feeling of solitude, the filmmaker was largely fascinated by holidays during his childhood. "Anytime there was Christmas or Halloween, [...] it was great. It gave you some sort of texture all of a sudden that wasn't there before", Burton would later recall.[4] After completing his short film Vincent in 1982,[4] then-Disney animator Burton wrote three-page poem titled The Nightmare Before Christmas, drawing inspiration from television specials of Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, How the Grinch Stole Christmas! and the poem A Visit from St. Nicholas.[5] Burton intended to adapt the poem into a television special with the narration spoken by his favorite actor, Vincent Price,[6] but also considered other options such as a children's book.[7] He created concept art and storyboards for the project in collaboration with Rick Heinrichs, who also sculpted character models;[8][9] Burton later showed his and Heinrichs' works-in-progress to Henry Selick, also a Disney animator at the time.[10] After the success of Vincent in 1982, Disney started to consider developing The Nightmare Before Christmas as either a short film or 30-minute holiday television special.[8] However, the project's development eventually stalled, as its tone seemed "too weird" to the company.[11] As Disney was unable to "offer his nocturnal loners enough scope", Burton left the studio in 1984,[6] and went on to produce the commercially successful films Beetlejuice and Batman.[11]

Director Henry Selick (left) and producer Tim Burton (right) on the Nightmare Before Christimas set.

Over the years, Burton has regularly thought about the project. In 1990, Burton found out that Disney still owned the film rights. He and Selick committed to produce a full-length film with the latter as director.[10] Disney was looking forward to Nightmare "to show capabilities of technical and storytelling achievements that were present in Who Framed Roger Rabbit."[12] Nightmare marked Burton's third film in a row to have a Christmas setting. Burton could not direct because of his commitment to Batman Returns and he did not want to be involved with "the painstakingly slow process of stop motion".[10] To adapt his poem into a screenplay, Burton approached Michael McDowell, his collaborator on Beetlejuice. McDowell and Burton experienced creative differences, which convinced Burton to make the film as a musical with lyrics and compositions by frequent collaborator Danny Elfman. Elfman and Burton created a rough storyline and two-thirds of the film's songs,[1] while Selick and his team of animators began production in July 1991 in San Francisco, California with a crew of over 120 workers, utilizing 20 sound stages for filming.[10][13] Joe Ranft worked as a storyboard artist, while Eric Leighton was hired as the animation supervisor.[14] In total there were 109,440 frames taken for the movie.

Elfman found writing Nightmare's 10 songs as "one of the easiest jobs I've ever had. I had a lot in common with Jack Skellington."[8] Caroline Thompson still had yet to be hired to write the screenplay.[1] With Thompson's screenplay, Selick stated, "there are very few lines of dialogue that are Caroline's. She became busy on other films and we were constantly rewriting, reconfiguring and developing the film visually."[15] The work of Ray Harryhausen, Ladislas Starevich, Edward Gorey, Charles Addams, Jan Lenica, Francis Bacon and Wassily Kandinsky influenced the filmmakers. Selick described the production design as akin to a pop-up book.[8][15] In addition, Selick stated, "When we reach Halloween Town, it's entirely German Expressionism. When Jack enters Christmas Town, it's an outrageous Dr. Seuss-esque setpiece. Finally, when Jack is delivering presents in the 'Real World', everything is plain, simple and perfectly aligned."[16]

On the direction of the film, Selick reflected, "It's as though he [Burton] laid the egg, and I sat on it and hatched it. He wasn't involved in a hands-on way, but his hand is in it. It was my job to make it look like "a Tim Burton film", which is not so different from my own films."[15] When asked on Burton's involvement, Selick claimed, "I don't want to take away from Tim, but he was not in San Francisco when we made it. He came up five times over two years, and spent no more than eight or ten days in total."[15] Walt Disney Feature Animation contributed with some use of second-layering traditional animation.[10] Burton found production somewhat difficult because he was directing Batman Returns and in pre-production of Ed Wood.[1]

Character design[edit]

The filmmakers constructed 227 puppets to represent the characters in the movie, with Jack Skellington having "around four hundred heads", allowing the expression of every possible emotion.[17] Sally's mouth movements "were animated through the replacement method. During the animation process, [...] only Sally's face 'mask' was removed in order to preserve the order of her long, red hair. Sally had ten types of faces, each made with a series of eleven expressions (e.g. eyes open and closed, and various facial poses) and synchronised mouth movements."[18]

The stop motion figurine of Jack Skellington was reused in James and the Giant Peach (also directed by Selick) as a dead pirate captain.

Marketing[edit]

The owners of the franchise have undertaken an extensive marketing campaign of these characters across many media. In addition to the Haunted Mansion Holiday at Disneyland featuring the film's characters,[19] Jack Skellington, Sally, Pajama Jack and the Mayor have been made into Bendies figures,[20] while Jack and Sally even appear in fine art.[21] Moreover, Sally has been made into an action figure and a Halloween costume.[22] A Jack Skellington figurine is available for the Disney Infinity video game, allowing the character to be playable in the game's "Toy Box Mode".[23] Jack is also the titular character in the short story "Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas: Jack's Story".[24]

Oddly enough, Jim Edwards actually contends that "Tim Burton's animated movie The Nightmare Before Christmas is really a movie about the marketing business. The movie's lead character, Jack Skellington, the chief marketing officer (CMO) for a successful company, decides that his success is boring and he wants the company to have a different business plan."[25]

Soundtracks[edit]

The film's soundtrack album was released in 1993 on Walt Disney Records. For the film's 2006 re-release in Disney Digital 3-D, a special edition of the soundtrack was released, featuring a bonus disc which contained covers of five of the film's songs by Fall Out Boy, Panic! at the Disco, Marilyn Manson, Fiona Apple, and She Wants Revenge. Four original demo tracks by Elfman were also included.[26] On September 30, 2008, Disney released the cover album Nightmare Revisited, featuring artists such as Amy Lee, Flyleaf, Korn, Rise Against, Plain White T's, The All-American Rejects, and many more.

American gothic rock band London After Midnight featured a cover of "Sally's Song" on their 1998 album Oddities.

LiLi Roquelin did a French cover of "Sally's Song" which was released on her album Will you hate the rest of the world or will you renew your life? in 2010.

Another soundtrack released in 2003 was the Disneyland Haunted Mansion Holiday CD. Although most were not original songs from the movie, one song provided on the CD is a medley of "Making Christmas", "What's This?", and "Kidnap the Sandy Claws". Other songs included are original holiday songs changed to incorporate the theme of the movie. The last song on the list, however, is the soundtrack for the Disneyland Haunted Mansion Holiday ride.

Release[edit]

Disney decided to release the film under their Touchstone Pictures banner because they thought the film would be "too dark and scary for kids", Selick remembered. "Their biggest fear, and why it was kind of a stepchild project, [was] they were afraid of their core audience hating the film and not coming."[27] To help market the film, "It was released as Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas," Burton explained. "But it turned more into more of a brand-name thing, it turned into something else, which I'm not quite sure about."[1] The film premiered at the New York Film Festival on October 9.[28]

Home media[edit]

With successful home video sales, Nightmare achieved the ranks of a cult film.[14] Touchstone Home Video first released the film on DVD in December 2, 1997. It contained no special features.[29] Nightmare was released a second time on October 3, 2000 as a special edition. The release included an audio commentary by Selick and cinematographer Pete Kozachik, a 28-minute making-of documentary, a gallery of concept art, storyboards, test footage and deleted scenes. Burton's Vincent and Frankenweenie were also included.[30] Both DVDs were non-anamorphic widescreen releases.

Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment released the film on DVD again (this time with an anamorphic transfer) and on Blu-ray Disc (for the first time) in August 2008 as a two-disc digitally remastered "collector's edition", but still containing the same special features.[31][32]

Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment released The Nightmare Before Christmas on Blu-ray 3D on August 30, 2011. The release is a 3-disc combo pack including a Blu-ray 3D disc, Blu-ray Disc and a DVD that includes both a DVD and digital copy of the film.[33]

Reception[edit]

Critical response[edit]

The film has gone on to receive widespread critical acclaim. Based on 88 reviews collected by Rotten Tomatoes, 94% of the critics enjoyed The Nightmare Before Christmas with the consensus of "a stunningly original and visually delightful work of stop-motion animation."[34] By comparison, Metacritic calculated an average score of 77/100, based on 16 reviews.[35] Roger Ebert gave a highly positive review for Nightmare. Ebert believed the film's visual effects were as revolutionary as Star Wars, taking into account that Nightmare was "filled with imagination that carries us into a new world".[36]

Peter Travers of Rolling Stone called it a restoration of "originality and daring to the Halloween genre. This dazzling mix of fun and fright also explodes the notion that animation is kid stuff. ... It's 74 minutes of timeless movie magic."[37] James Berardinelli stated "The Nightmare Before Christmas has something to offer just about everyone. For the kids, it's a fantasy celebrating two holidays. For the adults, it's an opportunity to experience some light entertainment while marveling at how adept Hollywood has become at these techniques. There are songs, laughs, and a little romance. In short, The Nightmare Before Christmas does what it intends to: entertain."[38] Desson Thomson of The Washington Post enjoyed stylistic features in common with Oscar Wilde, German Expressionism, the Brothers Grimm and The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari.[39]

Michael A. Morrison discusses the influence of Dr. Seuss' How the Grinch Stole Christmas! on the film, writing that Jack parallels the Grinch and Zero parallels Max, the Grinch's dog.[40] Philip Nel writes that the film "challenges the wisdom of adults through its trickster characters", contrasting Jack as a "good trickster" with Oogie Boogie, whom he also compares with Dr. Seuss' Dr. Terwilliker as a bad trickster.[41]Entertainment Weekly reports that fan reception of these characters borders on obsession, profiling Laurie and Myk Rudnick, a couple whose "degree of obsession with [the] film is so great that ... they named their son after the real-life person that a character in the film is based on."[42] This enthusiasm for the characters has also been profiled as having spread beyond North America to Japan.[43]

Yvonne Tasker notes "the complex characterization seen in The Nightmare Before Christmas".[44] Most recently, the film ranked #1 on Rotten Tomatoes' "Top 25 Best Christmas Movies" list.[45]

Danny Elfman was worried the characterization of Oogie Boogie would be considered racist by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).[46] Elfman's predictions came true; however, director Henry Selick stated the character was inspired by the Betty Boop cartoon The Old Man of the Mountain. "Cab Calloway would dance his inimitable jazz dance and sing 'Minnie the Moocher' or 'Old Man of the Mountain', and they would rotoscope him, trace him, turn him into a cartoon character, often transforming him into an animal, like a walrus," Selick continued. "I think those are some of the most inventive moments in cartoon history, in no way racist, even though he was sometimes a villain. We went with Ken Page, who is a black singer, and he had no problem with it".[15]

Nightmare has inspired video game spin-offs, including Oogie's Revenge and The Pumpkin King and is among the many Disney-owned franchises that contribute to the mythology of the Kingdom Hearts series. A trading card game is also available. Since 2001, Disneyland has held a Nightmare Before Christmas theme for its Haunted Mansion Holiday attraction.

Box office[edit]

Around the release of the film, Disney executive David Hoberman was quoted, "I hope Nightmare goes out and makes a fortune. If it does, great. If it doesn't, that doesn't negate the validity of the process. The budget was less than any Disney blockbuster so it doesn't have to earn Aladdin-sized grosses to satisfy us."[8] Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas was given a limited release on October 15, 1993, before being wide released on October 29. The film earned $50 million in the United States on its first theatrical run.[47]

On October 20, 2006, Walt Disney Pictures reissued Nightmare (no longer under Touchstone) with conversion to Disney Digital 3-D. Industrial Light & Magic assisted in the process.[14] It made a further $8.7 million in box office gross.[48] Subsequently, the 3-D version of Nightmare has been re-released annually in October.[47] The 2007 and 2008 reissues earned a $14.5 million and $1.1 million, respectively, increasing the film's total box office gross to $75 million.[47] The El Capitan Theatre in Hollywood, California showed the film in 4-D format from October 21–31, 2010.[49] The reissues have led to a reemergence of 3-D films and advances in RealD Cinema.[50][51]

Accolades[edit]

The film was nominated for both the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects and the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation.[52][53] Nightmare won the Saturn Award for Best Fantasy Film, while Elfman won Best Music. Selick and the animators were also nominated for their work.[54] Elfman was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score.[55]

The American Film Institute nominated The Nightmare Before Christmas for its Top 10 Animated Films list.[56]

Legacy[edit]

In 2001, Walt Disney Pictures began to consider producing a sequel, but rather than using stop motion, Disney wanted to use computer animation.[57] Burton convinced Disney to drop the idea. "I was always very protective of Nightmare not to do sequels or things of that kind," Burton explained. "You know, 'Jack visits Thanksgiving world' or other kinds of things just because I felt the movie had a purity to it and the people that like it... Because it's a mass-market kind of thing, it was important to kind of keep that purity of it."[51] The 2005 video game The Nightmare Before Christmas: Oogie's Revenge did continue the story of the film, with Capcom's crew of developers going after Tim Burton for advice,[58] and having the collaboration of the film's art director, Deane Taylor.[59] In 2009, Selick said he would do a film sequel if he and Burton could create a good story for it.[60]

Characters from The Nightmare Before Christmas have also had cameos in Disney and Square Enix's role-playing game series, Kingdom Hearts. In the majority of these games, Jack acts as a partner to the main character. In the first game, Jack attempts to liven up Halloween by giving a heart created by Dr. Finklestein to a Heartless, but the experiment goes wrong and the heart soon is taken by Oogie Boogie. In Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories, he tries to help the protagonist, Sora, regain his memories. In Kingdom Hearts II, Halloween Town and its inhabitants are seen, while Jack rekindles his notion of taking over Santa's job. In the prequel game Kingdom Hearts 358/2 Days, Jack seeks inspiration for livening up his Halloween by paying attention to the actions of the protagonist, Roxas.

Since 2001, Disneyland's Haunted Mansion attraction is redesigned in September with characters, decorations and music from the movie. This attraction is called the Haunted Mansion Holiday, and remains in operation through the Christmas season. It takes ride goers on a what-if adventure of if Jack, as "Sandy Claws," had visited the Haunted Mansion on Christmas Eve, leaving holiday chaos in his wake.

Related media[edit]

A video game developed by Capcom, The Nightmare Before Christmas: Oogie's Revenge, was released for PlayStation 2 and Xbox on October 21, 2004 in Japan, September 30, 2005 in Europe and October 10, 2005 in North America. Set after the events of the film, the player controls Jack as he fights against Oogie Boogie, who is revived and takes over Halloween Town and plots to take over all of the Holiday Worlds. Another game (a prequel this time), The Nightmare Before Christmas: The Pumpkin King, was developed by Tose Co., Ltd. and was released for the Game Boy Advance in 2005. Disney Infinity released a Jack Skellington figure in October 2013.

A collectible card game based on the film called The Nightmare Before Christmas TCG was released in 2005 by NECA. The game was designed by Andrew Parks and Kez Shlasnger. It consists of a Premiere set and 4 Starter Decks based on four characters, Jack Skellington, the Mayor, Oogie Boogie, and Doctor Finklestein. Each Starter contain a rule book, a Pumpkin King card, a Pumpkin Points card, and a 48-card deck. The game has four card types: Characters, Locales, Creations, and Surprises. The Cards' rarities are separated into four categories: Common, Uncommon, Rare, Ultra Rare.

A collector's edition The Nightmare Before Christmas-themed Jenga game was issued with orange, purple and black blocks with Jack Skellington heads on them. The set comes in a coffin-shaped box instead of the normal rectangular box.[61]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Since 2006, Disney has reissued The Nightmare Before Christmas as a Walt Disney Pictures release.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Mark Salisbury, Tim Burton (2006). Burton on Burton. London: Faber and Faber. pp. 121–127. ISBN 0-571-22926-3. 
  2. ^ "Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas (1993)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 23, 2014. 
  3. ^ Mendelson, Scott (October 15, 2013). "'Nightmare Before Christmas' Turns 20: From Shameful Spawn To Disney's Pride". Forbes. Retrieved December 14, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Simpson, Blaise (October 10, 1993). "The Concept: Jack-o'-Santa : Tim Burton's new movie for Disney isn't exactly a steal-Christmas-kind-of-thing. It's more like a borrow-it-and-give-it-a-weird-twist-kind-of-thing". Los Angeles Times. pp. 1–4. 
  5. ^ Tim Burton, Henry Selick, The Making of Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas, 2000, Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment
  6. ^ a b Carr, Jay (October 17, 1993). "Tim Burton's Big Adventure". The Boston Globe. 
  7. ^ Thompson, Frank T. (October 14, 1993). Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas: The Film, The Art, The Vision. p. 8. ISBN 9780786880669. OCLC 28294626. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Avins, Mimi (November 1993). "Ghoul World". Premiere: pp. 24–30. Retrieved on September 26, 2008.
  9. ^ Topel, Fred (August 25, 2008). "Director Henry Selick Interview – The Nightmare Before Christmas". About.com. Retrieved May 27, 2012. 
  10. ^ a b c d e Salisbury, Burton, p.115—120
  11. ^ a b Broeske, Pat H. (January 20, 1991). "Dusting Off Burton". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 26, 2012. 
  12. ^ "BV toons up down under". Variety. February 18, 1993. Retrieved September 26, 2008. 
  13. ^ Jones, Bill (October 22, 1993). "He Kept His Nightmare Alive". The Phoenix Gazette. 
  14. ^ a b c Scott Collura (October 20, 2006). "The Nightmare Before Christmas 3-D: 13 Years and Three Dimensions Later". IGN. Retrieved September 27, 2008. 
  15. ^ a b c d e David Helpern (December 1994). "Animated Dreams", Sight & Sound, pp. 33—37. Retrieved on September 26, 2008.
  16. ^ Henry Selick, Pete Kozachik, DVD audio commentary, 2000, Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment
  17. ^ Richard Rickitt, Special Effects: The History and Technique (Watson-Guptill, 2000), 159-160.
  18. ^ Maureen Furniss, Art in motion: animation aesthetics (1998), 168.
  19. ^ Ramin Setoodeh, "Haunted Parks", Newsweek 144.16 (October 18, 2004): 73.
  20. ^ Frederick J. Augustyn, Dictionary of Toys and Games in American Popular Culture (Haworth Press, 2004), 18.
  21. ^ "New Disney Fine Art: Tim Burton’s Nightmare Before Christmas Limited Edition by Artist Jim Salvati," TechWhack (November 3, 2008).
  22. ^ For an image of a Sally costume, see Bobwilson, "Halloween gives teens a chance to scare, be silly," Lubbock Avalanche-Journal (October 31, 2008).
  23. ^ "Disney Infinity: Jack Skellington". 
  24. ^ tk, "Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas: Jack's story", Disney Scary Storybook Collection (New York: Disney Press, 2003.), 5.
  25. ^ Jim Edwards, "Jack Skellington, Brand Manager", Brandweek 47.40 (October 30, 2006): 21.
  26. ^ James Montgomery (August 28, 2006). "Fall Out Boy, Panic, Marilyn Manson Add To New 'Nightmare Before Christmas' Soundtrack". MTV News. Retrieved November 29, 2008. 
  27. ^ Scott Collura (October 20, 2006). "The Nightmare Before Christmas 3-D: 13 Years and Three Dimensions Later". IGN. Retrieved September 2, 2012. 
  28. ^ John Evan Prook (August 18, 1993). "Christmas comes to N.Y. Film Fest". Variety. Retrieved September 26, 2008. 
  29. ^ "The Nightmare Before Christmas (1993)". Amazon.com. Retrieved September 26, 2008. 
  30. ^ "The Nightmare Before Christmas (Special Edition)". Amazon.com. Retrieved September 26, 2008. 
  31. ^ "The Nightmare Before Christmas (2-Disc Collector's Edition + Digital Copy)". Amazon.com. Retrieved September 26, 2008. 
  32. ^ "The Nightmare Before Christmas [Blu-ray] + Digital Copy (1993)". Amazon.com. Retrieved October 15, 2008. 
  33. ^ http://bluray.highdefdigest.com/news/show/DisneyBuena_Vista/Disc_Announcements/The_Nightmare_Before_Christmas_-_3D_Dated_and_Detailed_for_Blu-ray_3D/7022
  34. ^ "The Nightmare Before Christmas". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved September 13, 2014. 
  35. ^ "The Nightmare Before Christmas (1993): Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved September 28, 2008. 
  36. ^ "The Nightmare Before Christmas". Roger Ebert.com. October 22, 1993. Retrieved September 26, 2008. 
  37. ^ Peter Travers (April 11, 2001). "The Nightmare Before Christmas". Rolling Stone. Retrieved September 26, 2008. 
  38. ^ James Berardinelli. "The Nightmare Before Christmas". ReelViews. Retrieved September 26, 2008. 
  39. ^ Desson Thomson (October 22, 1993). "The Nightmare Before Christmas". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 26, 2008. 
  40. ^ Michael A. Morrison, Trajectories of the Fantastic: Selected Essays from the Fourteenth International Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1997), 154.
  41. ^ Philip Nel, Dr. Seuss: American Icon (Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004), 95.
  42. ^ "Obsessive Fans of the Week!" in Entertainment Weekly 909 (12/1/2006): 6.
  43. ^ Stephen Jones, The Mammoth Book of Best New Horror (Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2002), 75.
  44. ^ Yvonne Tasker, Fifty Contemporary Filmmakers (Routledge, 2002), 76.
  45. ^ "The Nightmare Before Christmas (1993): Rank 1". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 20, 2008. 
  46. ^ Ken Hanke (1999). "Burtonland". Tim Burton: An Unauthorized Biography of the Filmmaker. Renaissance Books. pp. 137–148. ISBN 1-58063-162-2. 
  47. ^ a b c "Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas", Releases, Box Office Mojo, Retrieved September 18, 2009
  48. ^ "Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas in 3-D (2006)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved September 26, 2008. 
  49. ^ "Tim Burton's 'The Nightmare Before Christmas' To Use 4D in Special Event". Geeksofdoom.com. Retrieved October 14, 2010. 
  50. ^ Cam Shea (April 27, 2007). "Real D: The Future of Cinema". IGN. Retrieved September 26, 2008. 
  51. ^ a b Shawn Adler; Larry Carroll (October 20, 2006). "How Burton's Fever Dream Spawned Nightmare Before Christmas". MTV. Retrieved September 27, 2008. 
  52. ^ "66th Academy Awards". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved September 26, 2008. 
  53. ^ "Hugo Awards: 1994". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved September 26, 2008. 
  54. ^ "Saturn Awards: 1994". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved September 26, 2008. 
  55. ^ "51st Golden Globe Awards". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved September 26, 2008. 
  56. ^ AFI's 10 Top 10 Ballot
  57. ^ Fred Topel (August 25, 2008). "Director Henry Selick Interview – The Nightmare Before Christmas". About.com. Retrieved September 27, 2008. 
  58. ^ "CYNAMATIC: EXCLUSIVE: Masato Yoshino Gets Oogie's Revenge". MovieWeb. October 7, 2005. Retrieved January 6, 2011. 
  59. ^ "Tim Burton’s The Nightmare Before Christmas: Oogie’s Revenge – Deane Taylor Interview". TeamXbox. September 19, 2005. Retrieved January 6, 2011. 
  60. ^ Otto, Jack (February 1, 2009). "How possible is a sequel to Nightmare Before Christmas?". Blastr. Retrieved January 6, 2011. 
  61. ^ http://craziestgadgets.com/2012/07/31/nightmare-before-christmas-jenga/

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]