Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery
Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery (1974) is a book by the economists Robert William Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman. Asserting that slavery was an economically viable institution that had some benefits for African Americans, the book was reprinted in 1995 at its twentieth anniversary. First published a decade after the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964, the book contradicted contemporary assessments of the effects of slavery on African Americans in the American South before the Civil War. It attracted widespread attention in the media and generated heated controversy and criticism for its methodology and conclusions.
The scholar Thomas Haskell wrote in 1975 that Time on the Cross had two main themes: to revise the history of slavery and to support the use of the scientific method in history.
The book directly challenged the long-held conclusions that American slavery was unprofitable, a moribund institution, inefficient, and extremely harsh for the typical slave. The authors proposed that slavery before the Civil War was economically efficient, especially in the case of the South, which grew commodity crops such as cotton, sugar, and coffee. These types of crops were usually grown on plantations that employed a gang system of labor, which was closely monitored and considered more efficient than task-based work by smaller groups.
Fogel wrote that small farms were just as productive as free farms. He said that the large plantation-style slave farms (16+ slaves) were the most efficient, having a Total Factor Productivity ratio (Ai/Aj) to be around 1.33. Fogel also wrote that if slaves had a day of rest, they tended to be more efficient because of the extra day of rest. They would be able to regain their energy and thus have more energy to produce more. "In their revised view slaves were hard working; slave labor was of superior quality. Indeed, this helps explain why large slave plantations were much more efficient than free southern farms." In addition, since different crops were grown in the South and the North, he noted that although slavery was efficient in the South, it would not have been so in the North due to different weather and other conditions.
The authors predicted that if slavery had not been abolished, the price of slaves would have continued to rise rapidly in the late 19th century as more land was put into production for cotton. The book compares conditions and economics in the "Old South" (Atlantic Coastal states) with the "New South" (areas further west, commonly called the Deep South). It evaluates available statistics to shed light on slave life. The authors point out that following emancipation and the end of the Civil War, the life expectancy of freedmen declined by ten percent, and their illnesses increased by twenty percent, over slavery times. (At the same time, there was considerable social dislocation across the South following the widespread destruction of the war and loss of life among a generation of men. White militias directly attacked and intimidated freedmen, and the agricultural economy was in the doldrums, causing widespread problems and suffering among the entire population.
The authors evaluated oral interviews conducted by the Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration, United States Census information, and other statistical data to assert that many slaves were encouraged to marry and maintain households, they were given garden plots, the dehumanizing practice of "slave breeding" was virtually non-existent, the quality of their daily diets and medical care were comparable to the white population, and many trusted slaves were given great responsibility in managing plantations. This was in contrast to other accounts of the dehumanizing effects of slavery.
Fogel and Engerman asserted that slavery had a reciprocal economic benefit for slave owners and slaves. They wrote, "[S]lave owners expropriated far less than generally presumed, and over the course of a lifetime a slave field hand received approximately ninety percent of the income produced."(p. 5-6) They were estimating the value of housing, clothing, food and other benefits received by the slaves and argued that they lived as well in material terms as did free urban laborers; life was difficult for both classes.
The book received unusually broad mainstream media attention for a work of economic history; its revisionism in the decade following some achievements by the civil rights movement caused controversy. It was a seminal work in generating debate within the fields of economics and history. As Thomas Weiss noted in 2001,
"It is a rare monograph in economic history that gets reviewed in magazines and newspapers such as Newsweek, Time, The Atlantic Monthly, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post among others; or whose authors appear on television talk shows. Robert Fogel and Stanley Engerman's 'Time on the Cross' was one such book -- perhaps the only one."
Many in the historical community were impressed with the authors' application of cliometrics. Many in the civil rights movement were outraged by the conclusions that suggested slavery was beneficial for African Americans (some called the book a rallying cry for racism). In general many historians and economists criticized the authors' findings and methodology.
Criticism and praise
In 1975, the historian Herbert Gutman criticized the authors' reliance on evidence from a single, unrepresentative plantation. He also noted the authors were extremely careless in their maths, and often used the wrong measurement to estimate the harshness of slavery (for example, estimating the number of slaves whipped rather than how often each slave was whipped). In Slavery and the Numbers Game (1975), Gutman argued that Fogel and Engerman also routinely ignored better, readily available data. He criticized Fogel and Engerman on a host of other issues as well, including the lack of evidence for systematic and regular rewards, and a failure to consider the effect public whipping would have on other slaves. He argued that Fogel and Engerman had mistakenly assumed that slaves had assimilated the Protestant work ethic. If they had such an ethic, then the system of punishments and rewards outlined in Time on the Cross would support Fogel and Engerman's thesis. Gutman's thesis was that most slaves had not adopted this ethic at all, and that slavery's carrot-and-stick approach to work was not part of the slave worldview.
In American Slavery, the historian Peter Kolchin suggests that the economists did not fully consider the costs of the forced migration of more than one million slaves from the Upper South to the Deep South, where they were sold to cotton plantations. He wrote that the book was a "flash in the pan, a bold but now discredited work."
Weiss believes that their role in writing the book was "more that of making such [quantitative] results more widely known among the general public and integrating that information into their bold, new vision of the way the slave system functioned." Debate and controversy continue over the conclusions of Time on the Cross. The book's reissue in 1995 at its twentieth anniversary prompted new symposia and roundtables to discuss the material. New scholarly articles and books have been published that use similar methods to evaluate such factors as the physical stature of slaves (related to their health and material well-being) and their standard of living.
- Haskell, Thomas L. "The True and Tragical History of 'Time on the Cross'", New York Review of Books, 22:15 (October 2, 1975), accessed 8 January 2012
- Fogel, Robert William and Engerman, Stanley L. (1995). Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery.. New York: W.W. Norton and Company. ISBN 978-0-393-31218-8. Reissue edition; first published in 1974, p. 226
- Thomas Weiss, Review: Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery, Project 2001: Significant Works in Economic History, EH.net (Economic History.net), 15 November 2012, accessed 8 January 2012
- Peter Kolchin, American Slavery, 1619-1865, New York: 1992, p. 97
- Kolchin (1992), p. 492
- Fogel, Robert William and Engerman, Stanley L. (1995). Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery.. New York: W.W. Norton and Company. ISBN 978-0-393-31218-8. Reissue edition; first published in 1974.
- Fogel, Robert William and Engerman, Stanley L. Time On The Cross: Evidence and Methods - A Supplement. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1974. ISBN 0-316-28700-8
- Gutman, Herbert G. Slavery and the Numbers Game: A Critique of 'Time on the Cross'. Champaign, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 2003. ISBN 0-252-07151-4; reprint, first published 1975
- Haskell, Thomas L. "The True and Tragical History of 'Time on the Cross'", New York Review of Books, 22:15 (October 2, 1975).
- Weiss, Thomas. "Review: 'Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery'", Project 2001: Significant Works in Economic History, EH.net (Economic History.net), September 2001