Timeline of Arda

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This article includes several chronologies relating to J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium.

Events outside of time[edit]

Arda events[edit]

Before the making of the Sun dates are given in Valian Years and not all events can be precisely dated. In such cases events are given in chronological order between known dates. Although all dates prior to the first sunrise have been given in Valian years, these can be converted to Years of the Lamps by subtracting 1900, Years of the Trees by subtracting 3500, or Years of the Trees in the First Age by subtracting 4550. It is important to note also that a Valian year, prior to the rising of the Moon and the Sun, was equivalent to ten Years of the Sun. Thus, pre-Sun dates in Valian years should be multiplied by ten:

"Time indeed began with the beginning of Eä, and in that beginning the Valar came into the world. But the measurement which the Valar made of the ages of their labours is not known to any of the Children of Ilứvatar, until the first flowering of Telperion in Valinor. Thereafter the Valar counted time by the ages of Valinor, whereof each age contained one hundred of the Years of the Valar; but each such year was longer than are now nine years under the Sun."[1]

All entries are derived from The Annals of Aman (see references) unless otherwise noted.

Valian years[edit]

  • 1: After many ages completing labours in the halls of , including Varda's crafting of the stars, the Valar descended into Arda at the time of its origin.
  • First War: Melkor assaults his brethren and disrupts the ordered symmetry they seek to build within Arda.
  • 1500: Tulkas arrives, the last of the Valar to descend into Arda: Melkor runs from him and hides in the halls of Eä.
  • The Valar begin their labours anew and order the lands and seas to their liking.

Years of the Lamps[edit]

  • 1900: The Two Lamps, Illuin and Ormal, are set upon pillars to provide light for Arda.
  • Ordering of Arda by the Valar. They form the isle of Almaren to dwell upon.
  • Spring of Arda: first forests grow, and non-humanoid animals are awakened.
  • Melkor's spies and secret friends, chief among them a great craftsman of the folk of Aulë, later named Sauron, inform him that the Valar are weary from their labours.
  • 3400: Wedding of Tulkas and Nessa. Melkor returns in secret with followers from Eä and begins building Utumno.
  • Melkor begins to corrupt the lands and living things of Arda, turning them into sickly or monstrous shapes.
  • The Valar become aware of Melkor's return and begin seeking his stronghold.
  • 3450: Destruction of the Two Lamps and the isle of Almaren by Melkor and his followers; Spring of Arda ends.
  • Melkor retreats to Utumno while the Valar save what they can from the cataclysm.
  • The Valar establish a new home in Aman and raise the Pelóri to defend it.
  • 3500: Yavanna makes the Trees of the Valar.

Years of the Trees[edit]

In some cases, after V.Y. 4580, exact chronological order cannot be determined and the placement of undated entries is estimated.

  • 3501: A new tally of years is begun with Year of the Trees 1.
  • Aulë the Smith makes the Dwarves but is not allowed to awaken them; Yavanna thinks of the Ents in response.
  • 4500: The Valar hold council to discuss the concerns of Oromë and Yavanna regarding Middle-earth and the impending arrival of the Eruhíni, or Children of Ilúvatar.
  • Varda begins gathering light from the Trees of the Valar for the Great Stars.
  • Varda sets the Menelmacar and other constellations in the sky.
  • 4550: Varda finishes her work on the Great Stars, setting the Sickle of the Valar in the north as a challenge to Melkor.

First Age[edit]

During the Years of the Trees the First Age of the Children of Ilúvatar begins, at the Awakening of the Elves.

  • 4550: Eru Ilúvatar awakens the Elves in Cuiviénen.
  • Melian the Maia departs for Middle-earth.
  • 4580: Melkor discovers and begins capturing Elves in secret.
  • Melkor begins breeding the Orcs from captured Elves, and the Trolls
  • 4585: Oromë first learns of the Elves
  • 4586: Oromë returns to Valinor, informs the other Valar of the dangers faced by the Elves, and then returns immediately to Cuiviénen.
  • 4590: The Valar march to war against Melkor on behalf of the Elves: the War of the Powers.
  • 4592: The Valar lay siege to Utumno.
  • Melian begins dwelling in Nan Elmoth and caring for the living things that have been awakened in Beleriand.
  • 4599: Melkor is captured, and bound in the great chain Angainor; Utumno is destroyed. Sauron escapes capture and remains in Angband, breeding Orcs and Trolls for Melkor.
  • 4600: Melkor is taken to Valinor in chains and sentenced to serve a term in the Halls of Mandos for three Ages.
  • 4601: The Valar decide to summon the Elves to dwell with them in Aman.
  • 4602: Oromë brings three ambassadors of the Elves to Aman: Ingwë of the Vanyar, Finwë of the Noldor, and Elwë of the Teleri
  • 4604: The three ambassadors return and work to convince the Elves to accept the summons of the Valar. They accumulate many followers.
  • 4605: Great Journey of the Elves: The Elves depart towards Aman (not all answer the summon—see Sundering of the Elves)
  • 4615: The Elves reach the great river which would later be called Anduin.
  • A group of Teleri under Lenwë (or Dan), wary of crossing the Misty Mountains, abandon the March near the Anduin and become the Nandor
  • Fathers of the Dwarves and first Ents awakened by Eru Ilúvatar; Elves discover the Ents and begin teaching them language.
  • 4625: The Vanyar and Noldor arrive in Beleriand.
  • 4628: The Teleri arrive in Beleriand after tarrying in the great forests of Eriador.
  • 4630: Elwë meets Melian and is entranced.
  • 4632: Ulmo is unwilling to wait until Elwë is found, and the Vanyar and Noldor are ferried across on the island of Tol Eressëa, while the Teleri stay behind, looking for their lord.
  • 4633: The Vanyar and Noldor settle in Eldamar and begin building Tirion
  • 4640: Tirion is finished, Mindon Eldaliéva is built.
  • Ingwë and many of the Vanyar leave Tirion to dwell with Manwë in Valimar.
  • 4642: Yavanna gives the White Tree, Galathilion, to the Noldor.
  • 4649: Ulmo finally returns for the Teleri, but many stay behind because Elwë is not yet found, and become the Sindar. Another group remains behind at the request of Ossë, and together with those who came too late they become the Elves of the Falas under Círdan.
  • 4651: The majority of the Teleri are ferried across on Tol Eressëa, which is anchored in the Bay of Eldamar. They take Elwë's brother, Olwë, as lord.
  • 4652: Elwë awakes from slumber and reunites with the Sindar. He becomes known as Thingol, settling in Doriath.
  • 4661: The Teleri of Tol Eressëa learn the art of shipbuilding, and ferry across the bay of Eldamar to Aman, where they found the city of Alqualondë.
  • 4665: The last Vanyar abandon Tirion and settle in Valimar proper. The Noldor remain in Tirion under their lord, Finwë.
  • 4669: Birth of Fëanor. Rúmil invents writing.
  • Death of Míriel.
  • Nogrod and Belegost founded by Dwarves; Khazad-dûm founded by Durin the Deathless.
  • 4690: Fingolfin born
  • c. 4700: Lúthien born
  • 4730: Finarfin born
  • 4750: Dwarves of Nogrod and Belegost are met by the Sindar, establishing trade. Fëanor develops the Tengwar.
  • Daeron devises the Cirth.
  • c. 4780: Orcs begin to appear in Beleriand.
  • 4850: The Nandor, under Denethor, arrive in Beleriand, becoming known as the Green Elves of Ossiriand. The Halls of Menegroth finished.
  • 4863: Galadriel born.
  • 4900: Melkor, freed from his sentence, begins corrupting some of the Noldor.
  • 4950: Fëanor completes the forging of the Silmarils.
  • 4990: Fëanor, deceived by Melkor, draws arms against his brother and is banished from Tirion: his father, Finwë, and many of the Noldor follow him in exile to Formenos.
  • 4992: Fëanor argues with Melkor at Formenos. Melkor hides from capture by the Valar and joins forces with Ungoliant.
  • 4995: The Darkening of Valinor. Manwë tries to heal the feud of the Noldor, and summons Fëanor to a festival in Valimar. Melkor and Ungoliant destroy the Two Trees, kill Finwë and steal the Silmarils. Fëanor and his sons swear an oath to regain the Silmarils and the majority of the Noldor depart from Valinor; Noldor kill many Teleri and seize their ships in the First Kinslaying.
  • 4996: Prophecy of Mandos: the Noldor are banished from Valinor and face great doom.
  • 4997: Melkor returns to Angband, and tries to take Beleriand: First Battle of Beleriand is fought; Denethor of the Green-elves slain and the Havens of the Falas are besieged. The Noldor arrive at Helcaraxë; Fëanor and his host betray the sons of Indis and sail across, then burn the ships. Return of the Noldor to Middle-earth. Morgoth's army attacks Fëanor. Dagor-nuin-Giliath ("the Battle under Stars") is fought. Fëanor is slain by Balrogs in sight of Angband. Maedhros taken captive.
  • The Valar hide Valinor behind the Enchanted Isles and raise the Pelóri mountains to greater heights; they begin devising the Moon and Sun.
  • 5000: The remainder of the Noldor arrives in Middle-earth; the Moon arises.

Years of the Sun in the First Age[edit]

From this time on years are of normal length. Events from Valinor during the Years of the Sun cannot be accurately dated. All entries are derived from The Grey Annals (see references) unless otherwise noted. The dating begins anew at 1, although these years are still held to be part of the First Age.

  • 1: The Sun first sets sail, start of reckoning by 'Years of the Sun', Awakening of Men in Hildórien.
  • 5: Fingon rescues Maedhros. The feud between the Noldor is healed.
  • 7: Sons of Fëanor depart to Eastern Beleriand.
  • 20: The Mereth Aderthad (Feast of Reuniting) is held at Eithel Ivrin.
  • 50: Turgon and Finrod are told by Ulmo to establish a refuge.
  • 52: Finrod begins building Nargothrond.
  • 60: Dagor Aglareb: the Noldor defeat Morgoth's forces and start the Siege of Angband
  • 60–c. 200: Melkor is absent from Angband, after discovering Men. Persuaded by Melkor, Men stop worshipping Eru Ilúvatar and turn to evil, but some revolt: the Atanatári. These travel to the West in search for the Valar, aided by Avari Elves and Dwarves. According to legend, Men now lose the gift to die at will as the result of divine punishment, and are doomed to lead short life-spans at the end of which death takes them by force.[2]
  • 64: Turgon begins building Gondolin.
  • 65: The havens of Brithombar and Eglarest are fortified; the Tower of Barad Nimras is built.
  • 67: Quenya is prohibited by Thingol.
  • 102: Completion of Nargothrond: Finrod's folk depart from Hithlum.
  • 116: Completion of Gondolin. Turgon's people begin the migration from Nevrast in secret.
  • 150: The Dwarves renew their trade in Beleriand.
  • 155: An assault upon Hithlum from the Firth of Drengist is defeated by Fingolfin's forces.
  • 260: Glaurung ravages Ard-galen, but is driven back to Angband. The Long Peace begins.
  • 310: Bëor leads The First House of the Edain into Beleriand: they are discovered by Finrod. They move to Estolad, and after a few years the Second House enters Thargelion and the Third settles in Estolad.[3][4]
  • 316: Aredhel departs from Gondolin and comes to Eöl.
  • 320: The Edain begin migrating from Estolad to Dorthonion, Hithlum and Talath Dirnen.[3]
  • 369: Many of the Edain, led by Bereg, leave to Eriador.[3]
  • 375: An attack of orcs on Thargelion; many of the Second House of the Edain perish, but next year Haleth leads the remnants to Estolad.[3]
  • 390: Haleth lead her people from Eriador and in 391 they come to the lands south of Taeglin. The majority later enter the forest of Brethil.[3][5]
  • 400: Return of Aredhel and Maeglin to Gondolin; later, Eöl and Aredhel die.
  • 410: The province of Ladros is officially granted to Boromir of the House of Bëor.[3]
  • 416: Dor-lómin is granted to the House of Marach.[3]
  • 432: Birth of Beren Erchamion.[6]
  • 455: Morgoth breaks the Siege of Angband in Dagor Bragollach ("Battle of Sudden Flame"); Dorthonion is laid waste, people of Barahir become outlaws. Capture of Finrod's fortress of Minas Tirith by the forces of Sauron; Tol Sirion is renamed Tol-in-Gaurhoth, "Isle of Werewolves".[7]
  • 456: Fingolfin challenges Morgoth to single combat and is slain.
  • 458: Húrin and Huor are separated from the Folk of Brethil during a battle and are brought to Gondolin by Thorondor.
  • 459: Húrin and Huor return out of Gondolin to Dor-lómin.
  • 460: Barahir and companions are betrayed by Gorlim and killed, but Beren survives.
  • 462: Morgoth tries to assault Hithlum but is withstood by Fingon and Círdan.
  • 463: The first hosts of Easterlings appear in Beleriand.
  • 464: Birth of Túrin Turambar in Gwaeron (March).[8] Beren departs for Doriath and is enchanted by Lúthien.
  • 465: Beren sets on a Quest of the Silmaril, comes to Nargothrond and receives help of Finrod Felagund. They are imprisoned in Tol-in-Gaurhoth. Finrod is slain by a werewolf, but Beren is rescued by Lúthien. Celegorm and Curufin are exiled from Nargothrond and try attacking them.
  • 466: Birth of Lalaith in the beginning of spring.[8] Beren and Lúthien come to Angband and achieve the Quest of the Silmaril. They return to Doriath, but Carcharoth ravages the land. Beren dies, and Lúthien abandons life. She pleads with Mandos and Beren and Lúthien are restored to life as mortals; they take up bodies again in Ossiriand.
  • 468: The Union of Maedhros is begun.
  • 469: Death of Lalaith in autumn.[8]
  • 472: Nírnaeth Arnoediad, "The Battle of Unnumbered Tears", is fought at midsummer. Morgoth utterly defeats the Elves and Edain. Fingon and Huor are slain, but Gwindor and Húrin are captured. Easterlings invade Hithlum, in autumn Morwen sends Túrin to Doriath. Birth of Tuor, son of Huor.
  • 473: Birth of Nienor in the beginning of year; Túrin reaches Doriath. Siege and capture of the Havens of the Falas.
  • 481: Dor-lómin is cut off; Túrin goes to the marches of Dimbar.[9]
  • 484: In summer he slays Saeros, flees from Doriath and joins the outlaws.
  • 485: In spring Túrin becomes their leader, meets Beleg in summer.[8] In summer Mîm leads the outlaws to Amon Rûdh.[8]
  • 486: In the beginning of year Beleg joins Túrin; by autumn Dor-Cúarthol prospers.[8]
  • 489: In autumn Amon Rûdh is taken; Túrin captured, but is rescued by Gwindor and Beleg, and slays the latter.
  • 490: In the beginning of year Túrin is healed at Eithel Ivrin, comes to Nargothrond. Gurthang is reforged, Túrin becomes known as the Blacksword.
  • 494: In autumn Morwen and Nienor flee to Doriath.
  • 495: Fall of Nargothrond in autumn; Orodreth and Gwindor perish. In the beginning of winter Túrin passes Ivrin; Tuor comes to Gondolin.
  • 496: Túrin rises a revolt in Dor-lómin;[10] in the beginning of spring he comes to Brethil, Morwen with Nienor journey to Nargothrond; Níniel comes to Brethil.
  • 497: Turambar asks Níniel in marriage, but she delays.[8]
  • 498: Turambar marries Níniel in autumn;[10] before the end of the year he returns to warfare.
  • 499: In spring Níniel conceives; in the beginning of summer slaying of Glaurung, and deaths of Túrin Turambar and Nienor Níniel.[8]
  • 500: Húrin released from captivity.[10]
  • 501: Death of Morwen. The Kin-strife in Brethil is brought about by Húrin.[10]
  • 502: Húrin brings the Nauglamír from Nargothrond to Thingol.[10]

From this point the entries are derived from The Tale of Years of the First Age (see references) unless otherwise noted.

  • 502: Reforging of the Nauglamír and quarrel of Thingol and the Dwarves. Thingol is slain.[11] Melian returns to Valinor in grief.
  • 503: Doriath is sacked by Dwarves of Nogrod. Beren and the Laiquendi destroy the Dwarves, with the help of the Ents who prevent the Dwarves' escape; Lúthien receives and wears the Silmaril, Dior travels to Doriath and tries to restore it. Birth of Eärendil and Elwing. Final deaths of Beren and Lúthien; Dior receives the Silmaril in autumn.
  • 506–7: Sons of Fëanor attack Doriath at Yule. Doriath is destroyed in the Second Kinslaying; Dior, Celegorm, Curufin, and Caranthir are all slain. Elwing escapes for the Mouths of Sirion with the Silmaril.
  • 509: Maeglin captured by Morgoth's spies.
  • 510: Gondolin is betrayed by Maeglin and sacked; Glorfindel slays a Balrog in the Echoriath, Ecthelion slays Gothmog, both of them killed as well. Death of Turgon. Tuor and Idril escape.
  • 511: Tuor and Idril bring Eärendil and refugees of Gondolin to the Mouths of Sirion which prosper as 'New Havens'.
  • 525: Eärendil marries Elwing. Tuor feels 'Unquiet of Ulmo' and sails into the West in the ship Eärrámë with Idril.
  • 532: Elrond and Elros are born to Eärendil and Elwing.[12]
  • 534: Eärendil begins his great voyages
  • 538: Third Kinslaying: while Eärendil is away the remaining Sons of Fëanor attack the people of the Mouths of Sirion trying to claim the Silmaril. Elwing casts herself with the Jewel in the sea but is brought to Eärendil by Ulmo. Of the Sons of Fëanor only Maedhros and Maglor now remain.
  • 540: Morgoth destroys the dwellings of Fëanorians upon Amon Ereb. The last inhabitants of Beleriand flee to the south or to the Isle of Balar. Morgoth's triumph is complete.
  • 542: Eärendil arrives in Valinor and delivers the errand of the Two Kindreds.
  • 545: The Host of the Valar arrives in Beleriand.
  • 545–587: The War of Wrath. Morgoth is defeated; the remaining two Silmarils are stolen by Maedhros and Maglor, but are lost in the earth and in the sea; most of Beleriand and the lands to the north are sunk.
  • 590: Morgoth is cast into the Void; the Elves are summoned to Valinor and settle in Tol Eressëa; a small part of the Noldor and Sindar remain in Lindon or depart east and establish realms.

Second Age[edit]

The Second Age was 3441 years long. All entries are derived from Appendix B (see references) unless otherwise noted.

Third Age[edit]

The Third Age was 3,021 years long. All entries are derived from Appendix B (see references) unless otherwise noted.

Note on Shire Reckoning: Year 1601 of the Third Age, in which the Shire was founded, is year 1 of the Shire Reckoning. Thus, Third Age years can be converted into their Shire equivalents by deducting 1600.

"The Great Years"[edit]

All entries are derived from Appendix B (see references) unless otherwise noted.

3018[edit]
3019[edit]
3020–21[edit]

Fourth Age[edit]

Length uncertain. All entries are derived from the Appendices to The Lord of the Rings, unless otherwise noted.

In the reckoning of Gondor, the Fourth Age began on 'March' 25, T.A. 3021. Since most of the following events had been dated according to the Shire-reckoning, their years in the Fourth Age cannot be stated with certainty. Some events may have occurred in the following year of the Fourth Age.

  • 6: Peregrin Took marries Diamond of Long Cleeve
  • (Date uncertain): Birth of Elfwine, son of Éomer and Lothíriel
  • (Date uncertain): Birth of Elboron, son of Faramir and Éowyn
  • (Date uncertain): Birth of Durin VII, descendant (perhaps son) of Thorin III Stonehelm
  • 13: Peregrin Took becomes thirty-second Thain of the Shire
  • 15: Death of Glóin, father of Gimli.
  • 34: Death of Prince Imrahil. Imrahil's son Elphir assumes the Principality.
  • 41: Birth of Holfast Gardner, son and heir of Frodo Gardner
  • 61: Samwise Gamgee leaves Middle-earth via Mithlond
  • 63: Meriadoc Brandybuck, aged 102, and Pippin leave the Shire to live in Gondor; death of Éomer, aged 93, whose son Elfwine ascends the throne of Rohan.
  • 67: Death of Prince Elphir son of Imrahil, twenty-third Prince of Dol Amroth. Elphir's son Alphros assumes the Principality.[18]
  • 80: Birth of Harding of the Hill, Sam Gamgee's heir and great-grandson
  • 82: Death of Faramir, aged 120. His son Elboron assumes the Principality.[18]
  • 91: Death of Dwalin, brother of Balin, aged 341.
  • 95: Death of Prince Alphros of Dol Amroth, son of Elphir.[18]
  • 120: Death of Aragorn, King of the Reunited Kingdom of Arnor and Gondor, after 210 years of life and 122 years of reign; his son Eldarion ascends the throne. The bodies of Meriadoc and Peregrin are laid beside that of Aragorn. According to legend, on the death of Aragorn, Legolas builds a ship and sails into the west to the Undying Lands, taking Gimli (now a very old Dwarf) with him and marking an end to the Fellowship of the Ring.
  • 121: Death of Arwen, aged 2901
  • 172: A copy of the Red Book of Westmarch is made[19]
  • 185: Death of Harding of the Hill, Sam Gamgee's heir[20]
  • c. 220: End of Eldarion's reign[21]

Battles[edit]

First Age[edit]

Years of the Trees

Years of the Sun

See also Battles of Beleriand.

Second Age[edit]

Third Age[edit]

War of the Ring[edit]

Other conflicts during the War of the Ring[edit]

End of the world[edit]

Other timelines of interest[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tolkien, Christopher; Tolkien, J.R.R. (1993). Morgoth's Ring (First ed.). Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. Frontspiece illustration (calligraphy). ISBN 0-395-68092-1. 
  2. ^ Tale of Adanel (Tolkien, J. R. R. (1993), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Morgoth's Ring, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-68092-1 )
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Tolkien, J. R. R. (1994), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The War of the Jewels, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, The Later Quenta Silmarillion, p. 225–9, ISBN 0-395-71041-3 
  4. ^ The dates of the entering of the Second and Third Houses are given as 312 and 313 respectively in the Later Quenta Silmarillion, but as (?312/313) and 314 in later notes. (The War of the Jewels, pp. 227, 234)
  5. ^ The date of the entering to Brethil is only once given (in Grey Annals, The War of the Jewels p. 50), as 422; but according to later sources Haleth, who is stated to had led them there, died in 420. (ibid. p. 228, 237)
  6. ^ The War of the Jewels: "The new genealogies of the Edain", p. 229–38.
  7. ^ The taking of Tol Sirion is given under the year 455 in the Grey Annals (The War of the Jewels p. 54). The statement in The Silmarillion (Ch. 18) that it occurred "nearly two years" after the Dagor Bragollach derives from earlier texts without changes and represents rejected chronology: see The War of the Jewels, p. 125.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Tolkien, J. R. R. (1980), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Unfinished Tales, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Narn i Hîn Húrin, ISBN 0-395-29917-9 
  9. ^ The statements in The Silmarillion and The Children of Húrin that Túrin had dwelt in Doriath for nine years by this time derive from the early Quenta Silmarillion (The Lost Road, p. 320–2), and are contradicted by both earlier and later texts (e.g. The Grey Annals, pp. 79–80).
  10. ^ a b c d e The War of the Jewels: "The Wanderings of Húrin", p. 257, gives a plot-synopsis for the Narn i Chîn Húrin, written several years later than the concluding chapters of the story itself; the published Unfinished Tales and The Children of Húrin are based on the latter.
  11. ^ The death of Thingol is placed under the year 503 in The Tale of Years, but according to the story introduced into The Silmarillion by Christopher Tolkien it should have rather occurred immediately after the reforging of Nauglamír, while the Sack of Doriath remained in the following year.
  12. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1994). "The Tale of Years of the First Age". In Christopher Tolkien. The War of the Jewels. Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 342–354. ISBN 0-395-71041-3.  Elrond and Elros are born in the same year, 532 of the Years of the Sun in the First Age.
  13. ^ Silmariën was definitely the eldest child of Tar-Elendil, and her birthdate is given several times as S.A. 521. In the Tale of Years, the entry of Silmariën's birthdate is given as 548, a date that goes back to the first drafts of that text (see Silmariën's article for details).
  14. ^ In the Tale of years, it says in S.A. 2251 "Tar-Atanamir takes the sceptre", however, Atanamir died in 2221. 2221 is itself an emendation of 2251, and the former (2221) appears in the later tables, while the latter (2251) in the earlier tables: therefore 2251 (properly 2221) should have read "Death of Tar-Atanamir. Tar-Ancalimon takes the sceptre."
  15. ^ In one table (probably an earlier draft) of the Kings of Gondor, Castamir's birthdate is given at T.A. 1159, however this is clearly impossible: Eldacar was born in 1255, and they are in the same generation, so 1259 is more correct.
  16. ^ The date of Sam's birth in "The Longfather-Tree of Master Samwise" (Appendix C) is S.R. 1380 (equivalent to T.A. 2980), however, "The Tale of Years" (Appendix B) gives it as T.A. 2983, which is changed to T.A. 2980 in 2005 edition. In S.R. 1476, Sam is said to have been ninety-six years old, so 2980 is more correct than 2983. Also, the birth year of his sister, Marigold, is given S.R. 1383 (T.A. 2893), and it is most unlikely that they were born in the same year. In The Fellowship of the Ring, Merry and Pippin is said to be younger than both Sam and Frodo, so Sam's birth year must be in T.A. 2980, since Merry was born in T.A. 2982.
  17. ^ Lalia (b. S.R. 1283) only appears in The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien. Pearl is the older sister of Pippin. See Took clan.
  18. ^ a b c J. R. R. Tolkien (1996). Christopher Tolkien, ed. The Peoples of Middle-earth. Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 220–224. ISBN 0-395-71041-3. 
  19. ^ Note on The Shire Records in the Prologue to The Lord of the Rings.
  20. ^ The Family Trees in J. R. R. Tolkien (1996). Christopher Tolkien (ed.), ed. The Peoples of Middle-earth. Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 85–118. ISBN 0-395-71041-3. 
  21. ^ In a 1972 letter, Tolkien mentioned that Eldarion's reign would have lasted for about 100 years after the death of Aragorn. Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #338. "I have written nothing beyond the first few years of the Fourth Age. (Except the beginning of a tale supposed to refer to the end of the reign of Eldarion about 100 years after the death of Aragorn. ...)", ISBN 0-395-31555-7 

General references[edit]

External links[edit]