Timeline of Arda
|The History of Arda|
|Timeline of Arda|
|Music of the Ainur|
|Ages of the Children of Ilúvatar|
In Tolkien's cosmology, Arda (the Earth) is at first created without the Sun and Moon to illumine it, and its earliest history is measured in Valian Years (V.Y.). After the creation of the Trees of the Valar, a new tally of Years of the Trees is begun in V.Y. 3501. In about V.Y. 4550, at the First Age of the Children of Ilúvatar begins with the Awakening of the Elves.
The Years of the Sun begin with the Awakening of Men in about V.Y. 5000. From this time, First Age lasts for another 590 years. The Second Age extends to 3441 years, beginning with the foundation of Mithlond (the Grey Havens) under Círdan, and Lindon as the Noldorin Kingdom under Gil-galad, and ending with the defeat of Sauron at the hands of the Last Alliance of Elves and Men. The Third Age extends to 3021 years, ending with the final defeat of Sauron in the War of the Ring and the establishment of the Reunited Kingdom of Arnor and Gondor.. The Fourth Age is outside the scope of Tolkien's legendarium, beginning the suggested transition to the historical period, but Tolkien gives a summary of the first two centuries of the Fourth Age.
- 1 Summary
- 2 Valian Years
- 3 Years of the Sun
- 4 Battles
- 5 Other timelines of interest
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Tolkien revised his chronology numerous times. The Annals of Valinor were written in the early 1930s. In this early version, a Valian Year corresponds to 10 solar years, and the time from the creation of Arda until the creation of Sun and Moon is 3,000 Valian Years. In a revision dated c. 1937, the earlier timeline is mostly left intact, with the addition of the explicit statement that "It is said that the Valar came into the world 30,000 Sun-years ere the first rising of the Moon".
The chronology underwent major revisions after the publication of The Lord of the Rings, in about 1958. In this revision, published as the Annals of Aman, Tolkien defined a Valian Year as equal to 9.852 solar years, and the Valian Year of the creation of Sun and Moon was now given as 5000, so that the time between the creation of Arda and the rising of the Sun and Moon was now the equivalent of 47,910 solar years instead of 30,000.
Late in his life, Tolkien planned to again revise chronology, now assuming one Valian Year as the equivalent of 144 solar years. This is consistent with his earlier decision (published in 1955 in Appendix D of The Lord of the Rings) that the Elves would reckon time in "long-years" or yéni equivalent to 144 solar years (thus equating the yéni and the Valian Year), but Tolkien never finished this final revision.
|Annals of Valinor (1937)
1 V.Y. = 10 solar years
|Annals of Aman (1958)
1 V.Y. = 9.852 solar years
|Creation of Arda, Years of the Lamps||1||1|
|Destruction of the Lamps||500||3450|
|Birth of the Two Trees||1000||3500|
|Awakening of the Elves||2000||4550|
|Destruction of the Two Trees||2990||4995|
|Creation of the Sun and Moon and Awakening of Men||3000||5000|
|First Age||450 Years of the Trees + 583 Years of the Sun|
|Second Age||3,441 Years of the Sun|
|Third Age||3,021 Years of the Sun.|
|Fourth Age||of unspecified length, suggested as overlapping with (real-world) protohistory)|
Before the making of the Sun dates are given in Valian Years and not all events can be precisely dated. In such cases events are given in chronological order between known dates. Although all dates prior to the first sunrise have been given in Valian years, these can be converted to Years of the Lamps by subtracting 1900, Years of the Trees by subtracting 3500, or Years of the Trees in the First Age by subtracting 4550.
The conversion between Valian Years and Years of the Sun is not clear, depending on the choice of conversion factors (among many that Tolkien used at different times), the First Age may have lasted anywhere between 4,902 and 65,390 sun years. The greater number is supported by the Appendices to The Lord of the Rings and later writings, the lesser by earlier writings. In Morgoth's Ring, Christopher Toklkien cites a passage stating a Valian Year being "longer than are now nine years under the Sun."
- 1: After many ages completing labours in the halls of Eä, including Varda's crafting of the stars, the Valar descended into Arda at the time of its origin.
- First War: Melkor assaults his brethren and disrupts the ordered symmetry they seek to build within Arda.
- 1500: Tulkas arrives, the last of the Valar to descend into Arda: Melkor runs from him and hides in the halls of Eä.
- The Valar begin their labours anew and order the lands and seas to their liking.
- 1900: The Two Lamps, Illuin and Ormal, are set upon pillars to provide light for Arda.
- Ordering of Arda by the Valar. They form the isle of Almaren to dwell upon.
- Spring of Arda: first forests grow, and non-humanoid animals are awakened.
- Melkor's spies and secret friends, chief among them a great craftsman of the folk of Aulë, later named Sauron, inform him that the Valar are weary from their labours.
- 3400: Wedding of Tulkas and Nessa. Melkor returns in secret with followers from Eä and begins building Utumno.
- Melkor begins to corrupt the lands and living things of Arda, turning them into sickly or monstrous shapes.
- The Valar become aware of Melkor's return and begin seeking his stronghold.
- 3450: Destruction of the Two Lamps and the isle of Almaren by Melkor and his followers; Spring of Arda ends.
- Melkor retreats to Utumno while the Valar save what they can from the cataclysm.
- The Valar establish a new home in Aman and raise the Pelóri to defend it.
- 3500: Yavanna makes the Trees of the Valar.
Years of the Trees
In some cases, after V.Y. 4580, exact chronological order cannot be determined and the placement of undated entries is estimated.
- 3501: A new tally of years is begun with Year of the Trees 1.
- Aulë the Smith makes the Dwarves but is not allowed to awaken them; Yavanna thinks of the Ents in response.
- 4500: The Valar hold council to discuss the concerns of Oromë and Yavanna regarding Middle-earth and the impending arrival of the Eruhíni, or Children of Ilúvatar.
- Varda begins gathering light from the Trees of the Valar for the Great Stars.
- Varda sets the Menelmacar and other constellations in the sky.
- 4550: Varda finishes her work on the Great Stars, setting the Sickle of the Valar in the north as a challenge to Melkor.
During the Years of the Trees the First Age of the Children of Ilúvatar begins, at the Awakening of the Elves.
- 4550: Eru Ilúvatar awakens the Elves in Cuiviénen. Melian the Maia departs for Middle-earth.
- 4580: Melkor discovers and begins capturing Elves in secret. Melkor begins breeding the Orcs from captured Elves, and the Trolls
- 4585: Oromë first learns of the Elves
- 4586: Oromë returns to Valinor, informs the other Valar of the dangers faced by the Elves, and then returns immediately to Cuiviénen.
- 4590: The Valar march to war against Melkor on behalf of the Elves: the War of the Powers.
- 4592: The Valar lay siege to Utumno.
- Melian begins dwelling in Nan Elmoth and caring for the living things that have been awakened in Beleriand.
- 4599: Melkor is captured, and bound in the great chain Angainor; Utumno is destroyed. Sauron escapes capture and remains in Angband, breeding Orcs and Trolls for Melkor.
- 4600: Melkor is taken to Valinor in chains and sentenced to serve a term in the Halls of Mandos for three Ages.
- 4601: The Valar decide to summon the Elves to dwell with them in Aman.
- 4602: Oromë brings three ambassadors of the Elves to Aman: Ingwë of the Vanyar, Finwë of the Noldor, and Elwë of the Teleri
- 4604: The three ambassadors return and work to convince the Elves to accept the summons of the Valar. They accumulate many followers.
- 4605: Great Journey of the Elves: The Elves depart towards Aman (not all answer the summon—see Sundering of the Elves)
- 4615: The Elves reach the great river which would later be called Anduin. A group of Teleri under Lenwë (or Dan), wary of crossing the Misty Mountains, abandon the March near the Anduin and become the Nandor.
- Fathers of the Dwarves and first Ents awakened by Eru Ilúvatar; Elves discover the Ents and begin teaching them language.
- 4625: The Vanyar and Noldor arrive in Beleriand.
- 4628: The Teleri arrive in Beleriand after tarrying in the great forests of Eriador.
- 4630: Elwë meets Melian and is entranced.
- 4632: Ulmo is unwilling to wait until Elwë is found, and the Vanyar and Noldor are ferried across on the island of Tol Eressëa, while the Teleri stay behind, looking for their lord.
- 4633: The Vanyar and Noldor settle in Eldamar and begin building Tirion
- 4640: Tirion is finished, Mindon Eldaliéva is built. Ingwë and many of the Vanyar leave Tirion to dwell with Manwë in Valimar.
- 4642: Yavanna gives the White Tree, Galathilion, to the Noldor.
- 4649: Ulmo finally returns for the Teleri, but many stay behind because Elwë is not yet found, and become the Sindar. Another group remains behind at the request of Ossë, and together with those who came too late they become the Elves of the Falas under Círdan.
- 4651: The majority of the Teleri are ferried across on Tol Eressëa, which is anchored in the Bay of Eldamar. They take Elwë's brother, Olwë, as lord.
- 4652: Elwë awakes from slumber and reunites with the Sindar. He becomes known as Thingol, settling in Doriath.
- 4661: The Teleri of Tol Eressëa learn the art of shipbuilding, and ferry across the bay of Eldamar to Aman, where they found the city of Alqualondë.
- 4665: The last Vanyar abandon Tirion and settle in Valimar proper. The Noldor remain in Tirion under their lord, Finwë.
- 4669: Birth of Fëanor. Rúmil invents writing. Nogrod and Belegost founded by Dwarves; Khazad-dûm founded by Durin the Deathless.
- 4670: Death of Míriel.
- 4672: Statute of Finwë and Míriel
- 4685: Marriage of Finwë and Indis
- 4690: Fingolfin born
- 4700: Lúthien born
- 4730: Finarfin born
- 4750: Dwarves of Nogrod and Belegost are met by the Sindar, establishing trade. Fëanor develops the Tengwar.
- 4780: Marriage of Finarfin and Eärwen
- 4800: Turgon and Finrod Felagund born. Building of Menegroth by the Dwarves of Belegost and the Sindar. Daeron devises the Cirth.
- 4830: Orcs begin to appear in Beleriand. The Dwarves of Belegost make weapons for the Sindar.
- 4850: The Nandor, under Denethor, arrive in Beleriand, becoming known as the Green Elves of Ossiriand. The Halls of Menegroth finished.
- 4862: Aredhel and Galadriel born.
- 4900: Melkor is freed from his sentence
- 4910: Melkor begins corrupting some of the Noldor
- 4949: Fëanor begins to make the Silmarils
- 4950: Fëanor completes the forging of the Silmarils
- 4950–70: Melkor spreads lies among the Noldor and talks of weapons
- 4990: Fëanor, deceived by Melkor, draws arms against his brother and is banished from Tirion: his father, Finwë, and many of the Noldor follow him in exile to Formenos.
- 4992: Fëanor argues with Melkor at Formenos. Melkor hides from capture by the Valar and joins forces with Ungoliant.
- 4995: The Darkening of Valinor. Manwë tries to heal the feud of the Noldor, and summons Fëanor to a festival in Valimar. Melkor and Ungoliant destroy the Two Trees, kill Finwë and steal the Silmarils. Fëanor becomes High King of the Noldor. Fëanor and his sons swear an oath to regain the Silmarils and the majority of the Noldor depart from Valinor; Noldor kill many Teleri and seize their ships in the First Kinslaying.
- 4996: Doom of Mandos: the Noldor are banished from Valinor and face great doom. Finarfin turns back and returns to Valinor.
- 4997: Melkor returns to Angband, and tries to take Beleriand: First Battle of Beleriand is fought; Denethor of the Green-elves slain and the Havens of the Falas are besieged. The Noldor arrive at Helcaraxë; Fëanor and his host betray the sons of Indis and sail across, then burn the ships at Losgar. Death of Amrod at Losgar. Return of the Noldor to Middle-earth. Morgoth's army attacks Fëanor. Dagor-nuin-Giliath ("the Battle under Stars") is fought. Fëanor is slain by Balrogs in sight of Angband. Maedhros becomes High King of the Noldor; he feigns to treat with Melkor, but is ambushed and taken captive. The Valar hide Valinor behind the Enchanted Isles and raise the Pelóri mountains to greater heights; they begin devising the Moon and Sun.
- 4998: Maedhros hung upon Thangorodrim. The Noldor camp around Mithrim, refusing to depart as Morgoth demanded
- 5000: The host of Fingolfin arrives in Middle-earth; the Moon arises. Battle of the Lammoth and death of Argon.
Years of the Sun
Years of the Sun in the First Age
From this time on years are of normal length. Events from Valinor during the Years of the Sun cannot be accurately dated. All entries are derived from The Grey Annals (see references) unless otherwise noted. The dating begins anew at 1, although these years are still held to be part of the First Age.
- 1: The Sun first sets sail, start of reckoning by 'Years of the Sun', Awakening of Men in Hildórien.
- 2: Fingolfin camps at Lake Mithrim
- 5: Fingon rescues Maedhros. Fingolfin becomes High King of the Noldor: the feud between the Noldor is healed.
- 6: Angrod meets Thingol in Doriath. Thingol permits the Noldor to occupy Hithlum, Dorthonion, and East Beleriand.
- 7: Sons of Fëanor depart to Eastern Beleriand.
- 20: The Mereth Aderthad (Feast of Reuniting) is held at Eithel Ivrin.
- 50: Turgon and Finrod are told by Ulmo to establish a refuge.
- 52: Finrod begins building Nargothrond.
- 53: Turgon discovers the hidden valley of Tumladen.
- 60: Dagor Aglareb: the Noldor defeat Morgoth's forces and start the Siege of Angband
- 60–c. 200: Melkor is absent from Angband, after discovering Men. Persuaded by Melkor, Men stop worshipping Eru Ilúvatar and turn to evil, but some revolt: the Atanatári. These travel to the West in search for the Valar, aided by Avari Elves and Dwarves. According to legend, Men now lose the gift to die at will as the result of divine punishment, and are doomed to lead short life-spans at the end of which death takes them by force.
- 64: Turgon begins building Gondolin.
- 65: The havens of Brithombar and Eglarest are fortified; the Tower of Barad Nimras is built.
- 66: Galadriel tells Melian of the Silmarils.
- 67: Thingol learns of the Kinslaying at Alqualondë. Quenya is prohibited by Thingol.
- 102: Completion of Nargothrond: Finrod's folk depart from Hithlum.
- 116: Completion of Gondolin. Turgon's people begin the migration from Nevrast in secret.
- 150: The Dwarves renew their trade in Beleriand. Caranthir meets them.
- 155: An assault upon Hithlum from the Firth of Drengist is defeated by Fingolfin's forces.
- 260: Glaurung ravages Ard-galen, but is driven back to Angband. The Long Peace begins.
- 262: Bëor born
- 282: Marach born
- 289: Baran born
- 292: Belen born
- 307: Malach born
- 310: Bëor leads The First House of the Edain into Beleriand: they are discovered by Finrod. They move to Estolad, and after a few years the Second House enters Thargelion and the Third settles in Estolad. Imlach born.
- 311: Finrod and Bëor leave Estolad together. Baran becomes lord of the House of Bëor.
- 316: Aredhel departs from Gondolin and comes to Eöl.
- 320: The Edain begin migrating from Estolad to Dorthonion, Hithlum and Talath Dirnen.
- 369: Many of the Edain, led by Bereg, leave to Eriador.
- 375: An attack of orcs on Thargelion; many of the Second House of the Edain perish, but next year Haleth leads the remnants to Estolad.
- 390: Haleth lead her people from Eriador and in 391 they come to the lands south of Taeglin. The majority later enter the forest of Brethil.
- 400: Return of Aredhel and Maeglin to Gondolin; later, Eöl and Aredhel die.
- 410: The province of Ladros is officially granted to Boromir of the House of Bëor.
- 416: Dor-lómin is granted to the House of Marach.
- 432: Birth of Beren Erchamion.
- 455: Morgoth breaks the Siege of Angband in Dagor Bragollach ("Battle of Sudden Flame"); Dorthonion is laid waste, deaths of Angrod and Aegnor, people of Barahir become outlaws. Capture of Finrod's fortress of Minas Tirith by the forces of Sauron; Tol Sirion is renamed Tol-in-Gaurhoth, "Isle of Werewolves".
- 456: Fingolfin challenges Morgoth to single combat and is slain. Fingon becomes the High King of the Noldor.
- 458: Húrin and Huor are separated from the Folk of Brethil during a battle and are brought to Gondolin by Thorondor.
- 459: Húrin and Huor return out of Gondolin to Dor-lómin.
- 460: Barahir and companions are betrayed by Gorlim and killed, but Beren survives.
- 462: Morgoth tries to assault Hithlum but is withstood by Fingon and Círdan.
- 463: The first hosts of Easterlings appear in Beleriand.
- 464: Birth of Túrin Turambar in Gwaeron (March). Beren departs for Doriath and is enchanted by Lúthien.
- 465: Beren sets on a Quest of the Silmaril, comes to Nargothrond and receives help of Finrod Felagund. They are imprisoned in Tol-in-Gaurhoth. Finrod is slain by a werewolf, but Beren is rescued by Lúthien. Celegorm and Curufin are exiled from Nargothrond and attempt to attack Beren and Lúthien, but fail. Celebrimbor the son of Curufin rejects the deeds of his father and stays in Nargothrond.
- 466: Birth of Lalaith in the beginning of spring. Beren and Lúthien come to Angband and achieve the Quest of the Silmaril. They return to Doriath, but Carcharoth ravages the land. Beren dies, and Lúthien abandons life. She pleads with Mandos and Beren and Lúthien are restored to life as mortals; they take up bodies again in Ossiriand.
- 468: The Union of Maedhros is begun.
- 469: Death of Lalaith in autumn.
- 470: Dior Eluchíl born
- 472: Nírnaeth Arnoediad, "The Battle of Unnumbered Tears", is fought at midsummer. Morgoth utterly defeats the Elves and Edain. Fingon and Huor are slain, but Gwindor and Húrin are captured. Turgon becomes High King of the Noldor. Easterlings invade Hithlum, in autumn Morwen sends Túrin to Doriath. Birth of Tuor, son of Huor.
- 473: Birth of Nienor in the beginning of year; Túrin reaches Doriath. Siege and capture of the Havens of the Falas.
- 481: Dor-lómin is cut off; Túrin goes to the marches of Dimbar.
- 484: In summer he slays Saeros, flees from Doriath and joins the outlaws.
- 485: In spring Túrin becomes their leader, meets Beleg in summer. In summer Mîm leads the outlaws to Amon Rûdh.
- 486: In the beginning of year Beleg joins Túrin; by autumn Dor-Cúarthol prospers.
- 489: In autumn Amon Rûdh is taken; Túrin captured, but is rescued by Gwindor and Beleg, and slays the latter.
- 490: In the beginning of year Túrin is healed at Eithel Ivrin, comes to Nargothrond. Gurthang is reforged, Túrin becomes known as the Blacksword.
- 494: In autumn Morwen and Nienor flee to Doriath.
- 495: Fall of Nargothrond in autumn; Gwindor, Orodreth and his daughter Finduilas perish, but his son Gil-galad escapes with Celebrimbor. In the beginning of winter Túrin passes Ivrin; Tuor comes to Nevrast.
- 496: Túrin rises a revolt in Dor-lómin; in the beginning of spring he comes to Brethil, Morwen with Nienor journey to Nargothrond; Níniel comes to Brethil. Tuor arrives at Gondolin.
- 497: Turambar asks Níniel in marriage, but she delays. Dior marries Nimloth.
- 498: Turambar marries Níniel in autumn; before the end of the year he returns to warfare.
- 499: In spring Níniel conceives; in the beginning of summer slaying of Glaurung, and deaths of Túrin Turambar and Nienor Níniel.
- 500: Húrin released from captivity. Birth of Eluréd and Elurín.
- 501: Death of Morwen. The Kin-strife in Brethil is brought about by Húrin.
- 502: Húrin brings the Nauglamír from Nargothrond to Thingol.
From this point the entries are derived from The Tale of Years of the First Age (see references) unless otherwise noted.
- 502: Reforging of the Nauglamír and quarrel of Thingol and the Dwarves. Thingol is slain. Melian returns to Valinor in grief.
- 503: Doriath is sacked by Dwarves of Nogrod. Beren and the Laiquendi destroy the Dwarves, with the help of the Ents who prevent the Dwarves' escape; Lúthien receives and wears the Silmaril, Dior travels to Doriath and tries to restore it. Birth of Eärendil and Elwing. Final deaths of Beren and Lúthien; Dior receives the Silmaril in autumn.
- 505: Sons of Fëanor demand the Silmaril from Dior.
- 506–7: Sons of Fëanor attack Doriath at Yule. Doriath is destroyed in the Second Kinslaying; Dior, Nimloth, Celegorm, Curufin, and Caranthir are all slain, and Eluréd and Elurín are abandoned to die by the cruel servants of Celegorm. Maedhros searches for them, but does not find them. Elwing escapes for the Mouths of Sirion with the Silmaril.
- 509: Maeglin captured by Morgoth's spies.
- 510: Gondolin is betrayed by Maeglin and sacked; Glorfindel slays a Balrog in the Echoriath, and Ecthelion and Gothmog slay each other. Death of Turgon; Tuor and Idril escape. Gil-galad son of Orodreth becomes High King of the Noldor.
- 511: Tuor and Idril bring Eärendil and the refugees of Gondolin to the Mouths of Sirion which prosper as 'New Havens'.
- 512: Maedhros learns that a Silmaril is at the Havens of Sirion, but foreswears his Oath.
- 525: Eärendil marries Elwing. Tuor feels 'Unquiet of Ulmo' and sails into the West in the ship Eärrámë with Idril.
- 527: Maedhros, Maglor, and Amras are tormented by their unfulfilled Oath.
- 532: Elrond and Elros are born to Eärendil and Elwing.
- 534: Eärendil begins his great voyages
- 538: Third Kinslaying: while Eärendil is away the remaining Sons of Fëanor attack the people of the Mouths of Sirion trying to claim the Silmaril. Elwing casts herself with the Jewel in the sea but is brought to Eärendil upon Vingilótë by Ulmo. Death of Amras. Of the Sons of Fëanor only Maedhros and Maglor now remain. Maglor takes Elrond and Elros captive and raises them.
- 540: Morgoth destroys the dwellings of Fëanorians upon Amon Ereb. The last inhabitants of Beleriand flee to the south or to the Isle of Balar. Morgoth's triumph is complete.
- 542: Eärendil arrives in Valinor and delivers the errand of the Two Kindreds.
- 545: The Host of the Valar arrives in Beleriand.
- 545–587: The War of Wrath.
- 587: Ancalagon killed by Eärendil. Morgoth is defeated; the remaining two Silmarils are stolen by Maedhros and Maglor, but are lost in the earth and in the sea; suicide of Maedhros and Maglor; most of Beleriand and the lands to the north are sunk.
- 590: Morgoth is cast into the Void; the Elves are summoned to Valinor and settle in Tol Eressëa; a small part of the Noldor and Sindar remain in Lindon (previously part of Ossiriand) or depart east and establish realms.
- 1: Foundation of Mithlond the Grey Havens under Círdan, and Lindon as the Noldorin Kingdom under Gil-galad
- 32: Edain reach Númenor from Middle-earth, Elros is crowned first King of Númenor
- c. 40: Many Dwarves abandon the ruined cities of Belegost and Nogrod in the Ered Luin and join Durin's folk in Moria
- 61: Birth of Vardamir Nólimon, eldest child of Elros. Subsequently three more children are born.
- 192: Birth of Tar-Amandil
- 222: Birth of Nolondil
- 350: Birth of Tar-Elendil
- 361: Birth of Eärendur
- 442: Elros, also known as Tar-Minyatur, dies. Vardamir Nólimon succeeds the throne but abdicates immediately. Tar-Amandil becomes third king of Númenor.
- c. 500: Sauron arises again in Middle-earth
- 521: Silmariën is born in Númenor, line of lords of Andúnië splits off the line of Kings
- 532: Isilmë, sister of Silmariën, born
- 543: Meneldur, brother of Silmariën, born
- 590: Tar-Elendil becomes fourth king of Númenor.
- 600: First Númenórean ships sail to Middle-earth.
- 700: Anardil born
- 740: Tar-Meneldur becomes fifth king of Númenor.
- 750: the Noldor found the realm of Eregion near Moria
- 800: Tar-Aldarion founds Vinyalondë on the Enedwaith coast of Middle-earth for lumbering and ship repair.
- 870: Anardil weds Erendis.
- 873: Ancalimë born
- 882: Anardil and Erendis separate
- 883: Tar-Aldarion becomes sixth king of Númenor.
- 985: Death of Erendis, apparently by drowning.
- c. 1000: Sauron begins building Barad-dûr
- 1075: Tar-Ancalimë becomes the first Queen and seventh ruler of Númenor.
- c. 1200: Sauron seduces and deceives the Noldor in Eregion, but Gil-galad mistrusts him and refuses to work with him; the Númenóreans begin building permanent havens in Middle-earth at Lond Daer, Umbar, and other places
- 1280: Tar-Anárion becomes seventh king of Númenor.
- c. 1350: Celeborn and Galadriel together with their daughter Celebrían emigrate from Eregion to Lórien; Celebrimbor becomes lord of Eregion
- 1394: Tar-Súrion becomes eighth king of Númenor.
- c. 1500: the Noldor under Celebrimbor are instructed by Sauron, beginning of the forging of the Rings of Power
- 1566: Tar-Telperiën becomes the second Queen and tenth ruler of Númenor.
- c. 1590: The Three Rings are completed in Eregion.
- c. 1600: Forging of the One Ring; Barad-dûr completed; Celebrimbor begins fighting Sauron
- 1693: War of the Elves and Sauron begins, the Three Rings are hidden
- 1695: Elrond sent to Eregion as lieutenant of Gil-galad
- 1697: Eregion destroyed, Elrond establishes the refuge of Rivendell, Celebrimbor dies, the gates of Moria are shut.
- 1699: Rivendell and Lindon besieged, Sauron overruns Eriador.
- 1700: Minastir sends a great navy to Lindon; Sauron defeated; Sauron's forces retreat from Eriador and the coasts
- 1731: Tar-Minastir becomes eleventh king of Númenor.
- c. 1800: Númenor begins establishing permanent settlements in Middle-earth, Sauron extends his power eastwards.
- 1869: Tar-Ciryatan becomes twelfth king of Númenor.
- 2029: Tar-Atanamir the Great becomes thirteenth king of Númenor but is hostile to the Valar. The Elendili or "Faithful" still receive the Elves in secret.
- 2221: Tar-Ancalimon becomes fourteenth king of Númenor.
- 2251: The Ringwraiths first appear.
- 2280: Umbar is fortified by the Númenóreans
- 2350: Pelargir is built by the Elendili
- 2386: Tar-Telemmaitë becomes fifteenth king of Númenor.
- 2526: Tar-Vanimeldë becomes third Queen and sixteenth ruler of Númenor.
- 2637: Herucalmo seizes the throne and rule as Tar-Anducal, but he is not counted in the list of kings.
- 2657: Tar-Alcarin becomes seventeenth king of Númenor.
- 2737: Tar-Calmacil becomes eighteenth king of Númenor.
- 2825: Tar-Ardamin becomes nineteenth king of Númenor.
- 2899: Ar-Adûnakhôr becomes twentieth king of Númenor and the first to take his royal name in Adûnaic, the language of Men, instead of Quenya, the high language of the Elves
- c. 2900: Teaching of Elvish languages prohibited in Númenor.
- 2962: Ar-Zimrathôn becomes twenty-first king of Númenor.
- 3033: Ar-Sakalthôr becomes twenty-second king of Númenor.
- 3102: Ar-Gimilzôr becomes twenty-third king of Númenor.
- c. 3110: Usage of Elvish languages and visit of the Elves prohibited in Númenor.
- 3119: Birth of Elendil
- 3177: Tar-Palantir repents, resulting in a civil war in Númenor
- 3209: Birth of Isildur
- 3219: Birth of Anárion
- 3243: Death of Gimilkhâd, at 198 years old.
- 3255: Ar-Pharazôn the Golden weds his first cousin Míriel, the daughter of Tar-Palantir, and seizes the throne of Númenor
- 3261: Ar-Pharazôn sails to Middle-earth landing at Umbar, and takes Sauron captive
- 3262: Sauron is taken as prisoner to Númenor, but begins corrupting the Númenóreans
- c. 3265: Sauron becomes Ar-Pharazôn's court advisor.
- c. 3280: Isildur steals a fruit from Nimloth. The White Tree is felled and burnt in Sauron's Temple thereafter.
- c. 3300: Sauron establishes himself as High Priest of Melkor, "Lord of the Dark"; Elendili are openly persecuted and sacrificed to Morgoth
- 3310: At Sauron's instigation, Ar-Pharazôn begins building the Great Armament.
- 3318: Birth of Meneldil, fourth child of Anárion and last man born in Númenor
- 3319: Ar-Pharazôn sets foot on Aman; the World is Changed: Aman and Tol Eressëa are removed from Arda, Númenor is drowned, and the world is made round; Elendil and his sons arrive on the shores of Middle-earth
- 3320: Founding of Gondor and Arnor by Elendil and his sons, Isildur and Anárion; Umbar as realm in exile founded by Black Númenóreans. Sauron returns to Mordor.
- 3429: Sauron attacks Gondor, conquers Minas Ithil and burns the White Tree; Isildur flees to Arnor while Anárion defends Osgiliath and Minas Anor
- 3430: The Last Alliance of Elves and Men is formed
- 3434: The Last Alliance crosses the Misty Mountains; Sauron's forces are defeated in the Battle of Dagorlad; Siege of Barad-dûr begins
- 3440: Anárion is slain
- 3441: Elendil and Gil-galad face Sauron in hand-to-hand combat, but they themselves perish; Isildur takes the shards of his father's sword Narsil and cuts the One Ring from Sauron's finger. Sauron's physical form is destroyed and the Barad-Dûr is razed to the ground. In the aftermath of the War, many Elves of Gil-galad's following depart to Valinor: end of the Noldorin realms in Middle-earth.
Note on Shire Reckoning: Year 1601 of the Third Age, in which the Shire was founded, is year 1 of the Shire Reckoning. Thus, Third Age years can be converted into their Shire equivalents by deducting 1600.
- 2: Planting of the Second White Tree at Minas Tirith; death of Isildur by Orcs in the Disaster of the Gladden Fields, losing the One Ring in the Gladden river
- 109: Elrond weds Celebrían, daughter of Celeborn and Galadriel
- 130: Elrohir and Elladan are born to Elrond and Celebrían
- 241: Arwen Undómiel is born to Elrond and Celebrían
- 490: Easterlings invade Gondor
- 541: Easterlings invade Gondor once more, slaying King Rómendacil
- c. 550: King Turambar of Gondor defeats the Easterlings of Rhûn; the Kingdom of Rhovanion becomes an ally of Gondor
- 861: Following Eärendur's death, the kingdom of Arnor breaks up into Arthedain, Cardolan and Rhudaur. The Court and the palantír of Annúminas are moved to Fornost.
- 933: Eärnil I of Gondor takes Umbar in a surprise attack. A monument to commemorate Sauron´s defeat is built in Umbar.
- 936: Eärnil I lost at sea
- c. 1000: The Wizards come to Middle-earth
- 1015: Hyarmendacil I ascends to the throne of Gondor
- 1015: Black Númenóreans of Umbar besiege their old city
- 1050: Hyarmendacil I, king of Gondor, conquers Umbar, finishing the siege of Umbar. Hobbits migrate to Eriador. The shadow of Sauron falls upon Greenwood the Great, which is renamed Mirkwood.
- 1149: Death of Hyarmendacil I, Atanatar II takes the sceptre of Gondor
- c. 1200: Rulers of Rhovanion assume the title "King of Rhovanion"
- 1248: Rómendacil II of Gondor strikes decisive blow to the Easterlings; forms a strong alliance with Rhovanion, to which he cedes all the lands east of the Anduin
- 1255: Eldacar born
- c. 1259: Castamir born
- 1300: Nazgûl reappear in Middle-earth, the kingdom of Angmar first appears at Arthedain's north-eastern border, built by the Witch-king, later revealed as Lord of the Nazgûl.
- 1344: Death of Vidumavi
- 1356: King Argeleb I of Arthedain is killed during an invasion by Rhudaur, now controlled by Angmar; his son, Arveleg I, ascends the throne
- 1366: Valacar ascends the throne of Gondor
- 1409: Cardolan is conquered by the kingdom of Angmar, and Rhudaur disappears; Weathertop watchtower and fortifications are burned and destroyed. Annúminas is attacked, sacked and abandoned in ruins until the Fourth Age.
- 1432: Eldacar succeeds his father, Valacar, as king of Gondor
- 1437: Castamir the Usurper, Lord of Ships, usurps throne of Gondor (see Kin-strife); Osgiliath's palantír is lost in the river
- 1447: Eldacar reclaims Gondor with a Rhovanion army and kills Castamir
- 1448: Sons of Castamir the Usurper and most of the fleet of Gondor flee south to Umbar; become known as the Corsairs of Umbar
- 1540: King Aldamir of Gondor is slain by Haradrim
- 1600: Two Fallohide brothers decided to cross the River Baranduin and settle on the other side, and are followed by large numbers of Hobbits
- 1601: The Shire is first settled by Hobbits, led by the brothers Marcho and Blanco
- 1634: Corsairs of Umbar attack Gondor, slaying king Minardil at Pelargir, and raiding the city
- 1636: The Great Plague decimates Gondor and Rhovanion; Cirith Ungol is abandoned
- 1810: King Telumehtar of Gondor reconquers Umbar; renames himself Umbardacil
- 1846: Haradrim, Wainriders and the Variags of Khand take Umbar; new Corsairs of Umbar emerge, officially ally themselves with Mordor and destroy the great monument commemorating Ar-Pharazôn's victory over Sauron
- 1851: The Wainriders first attack Gondor
- 1856: The Wainriders overrun eastern territories of Gondor; death of Narmacil II in battle.
- 1899: Gondor attacks Wainriders from the east; the Kingdom of Rhovanion, occupied by Wainriders, rebels and is freed
- 1936: Ondoher succeeds Calimehtar as king of Gondor
- 1944: During an invasion by the Wainriders and the Haradrim, King Ondoher of Gondor is killed in battle with his sons.
- 1945: Eärnil II succeeds the crown of Gondor
- 1964: Arvedui, son of King Araphant of Arthedain, ascends the throne
- 1974: The kingdom of Arthedain is conquered by Angmar. Fornost is attacked and left abandoned until the Fourth Age.
- 1975: Gondor destroys Angmar in the Battle of Fornost. Death of Arvedui and loss of the two palantíri of Amon Sûl (Weathertop) and Annúminas.
- 1980: The Moria Dwarves awaken Durin's Bane, a Balrog, which kills Durin VI, king of Khazad-dûm; the Nazgûl return to Mordor and lay siege to Minas Ithil.
- 1981: Durin VI's son, Náin I, is also killed, and the Dwarves flee Moria; deaths of Amroth and Nimrodel
- 1999: Thráin I founds realm of Erebor, discovers Arkenstone
- 2002: Minas Ithil falls to the Nazgûl, is renamed Minas Morgul
- 2043: King Eärnil II of Gondor dies and his son, the Witch-king's old enemy Eärnur, inherits the throne. Upon his coronation, the Witch-king challenges him to combat, but King Eärnur refuses.
- 2050: The Witch-king again challenges King Eärnur, this time he accepts. Eärnur rides out of Minas Tirith to meet the Witch-king in Minas Morgul. He enters the city's gates and is never seen again, thus ending the reign of the Gondorian Kings and causing the beginning of the Ruling Stewards of Gondor, until the time of King Elessar.
- 2063: Gandalf drives Sauron from Dol Guldur. The Watchful Peace begins.
- 2210: Thorin I, son of Thráin I, leaves Erebor with most of his people, settles in the Grey Mountains
- 2430: Approximate birth year of Sméagol
- 2460: Sauron returns to Middle-earth; establishes himself in Dol Guldur in southern Mirkwood. The Watchful Peace ends.
- 2463: Sméagol (later known as Gollum) becomes the fourth bearer of the One Ring, after killing his cousin Déagol
- 2475: First Uruks appear out of Mordor in attacks on Gondor.
- 2501–2510: Eorl the Young, lord of the Éothéod and first king of Rohan (2510–2545).
- 2509: Cirion, Steward of Gondor, sends summons to the Éothéod for military aid; Celebrían is waylaid by Orcs, receives a poisoned wound, and consequentially departs Middle-earth
- 2510: The alliance between Rohan and Gondor comes into existence. The Easterlings launch a massive invasion of Gondor. The Balchoth invade Rhovanion (which disappears as an independent realm) and Gondor, conquering much of Calenardhon, but are driven back by the people of Éothéod; Gondor gives the now-uninhabited province of Calenardhon to the people of Éothéod
- 2545: Eorl the Young, king of Rohan, dies in the battle in the Wold against the Easterlings. Brego succeeds him as the second king of Rohan
- 2570: Aldor, aged only 26, becomes third king of Rohan on the death of his father Brego; Dragons attack the Dwarf settlements in the Grey Mountains
- 2589: Dáin I and his son Frór are killed by a cold-drake
- 2590: Thrór, son of Dáin I, leaves the Grey Mountains and resettles The Lonely Mountain, his brother, Grór, settles in the Iron Hills
- 2645: Fréa becomes fourth king of Rohan after the death of his father Aldor ('the Old')
- 2659: Fréawine, fifth King of Rohan
- 2680: Goldwine, sixth King of Rohan
- 2699: Déor, seventh king of Rohan
- 2718: Gram, eighth king of Rohan
- 2741: Helm Hammerhand ninth king of Rohan ascends the throne as last king of the first line
- 2746: Amrothos, fifteenth Prince of Dol Amroth, falls while defending Dor-en-Ernil against the Corsairs of Umbar
- 2747: Bandobras "Bullroarer" Took leads a force of hobbits and defeats invading Orcs of the Misty Mountains in the Northfarthing at the Battle of Greenfields
- 2758: Dunlendings, under Wulf, invade Rohan, supported by the Corsairs of Umbar
- Long Winter of 2758–2759: The Dunlendings lay siege to Hornburg
- 2759: Helm Hammerhand, king of Rohan, freezes to death outside the fortress of Helm's Deep, where he and his loyal subjects have taken refuge from the Dunlendings. He is succeeded by his nephew Fréaláf Hildeson; Saruman settles in Isengard
- 2770: Smaug lays waste to the town of Dale and captures Erebor with all of its treasure. The surviving Dwarves there are driven into exile.
- 2790: Thrór enters Moria and is killed by Orc chieftain Azog, starting the War of the Dwarves and Orcs
- 2798: Fréaláf Hildeson, tenth king of Rohan, dies. He is followed by his son Brytta Léofa
- 2799: The Battle of Azanulbizar, the culmination of the War of the Dwarves and Orcs, is fought on Moria's East Gate, in which the Dwarves defeat the Orcs of Moria, including slaying their chieftain Azog, but lack the strength to retake Moria.
- 2802: Thráin II, son of Thrór settles in the Blue Mountains
- 2842: Brytta Léofa, eleventh king of Rohan, dies. Succeeded by his son Walda.
- 2845: Thráin II is captured by forces of Sauron and imprisoned in Dol Guldur after having wandered for four years trying to reclaim the lost treasure at Erebor and the last of the Dwarven Rings of Power is taken from him
- 2850: Gandalf enters Dol Guldur and confirms that the evil thereby found is indeed Sauron returned; Thráin II, broken, raving, and dying, gives Gandalf his map and key to be passed on to his son, Thorin Oakenshield
- 2851: Walda, twelfth king of Rohan, is killed by an orc, his son Folca succeeds him
- 2864: Folca, thirteenth king of Rohan, is killed by the Boar of Everholt. He is succeeded by his son Folcwine
- 2879: Birth of Gimli
- 2885: Harondor is once again claimed by the Haradrim, supported by the Corsairs of Umbar. Fastred and Folcred, the twin sons of king Folcwine, were killed during the Battle of Crossings of Poros
- 'September' 22, 2890: Bilbo Baggins is born in the Shire.
- 2903: Folcwine, fourteenth king of Rohan, dies and is succeeded by his youngest son Fengel
- 2907: Birth of Gilraen (later wife of Arathorn II)
- Fell Winter of 2911–2912: wolves invade the Shire. Tharbad is ruined in the following floods.
- 2930: Arathorn II becomes the Chieftain of the Dúnedain
- 2931: Birth of Aragorn, son of Arathorn II and Gilraen
- 2933: Arathorn II is killed while hunting Orcs
- 'March' 15, 2941: Thorin Oakenshield meets with Gandalf the Grey at the Prancing Pony in Bree, the Quest of Erebor begins
- 'July' 2941: Bilbo Baggins obtains the One Ring; the White Council drives Sauron out of Dol Guldur
- 'October' 2941: Esgaroth is attacked by the dragon Smaug, who is consequentially killed by Bard the Bowman; Thorin Oakenshield, Fíli, and Kíli killed at the Battle of Five Armies along with Bolg son of Azog; Dáin II Ironfoot becomes King of The Lonely Mountain; Town of Dale re-established by Bard
- 'June' 22, 2942: Bilbo Baggins returns to Bag End
- 2951: Sauron reveals himself in Mordor, and starts raising Barad-dûr anew. Estel, later known as Aragorn, comes of age and is told about his heritage.
- 2953: Last meeting of the White Council. Fengel, fifteenth king of Rohan, dies. His son Thengel returns to Rohan to succeed him.
- 2956: Aragorn first meets Gandalf the Grey
- 2957–2980: Aragorn as Thorongil serves in the armies of King Thengel of Rohan, and Steward Ecthelion II of Gondor
- 'September' 22, 2968: Frodo Baggins is born
- 2978: Birth of Boromir
- 2980: Arwen pledges her hand in marriage to Aragorn; Frodo Baggins loses both of his parents in a boating accident; Aragorn, in the service of the Steward of Gondor Ecthelion II leads a taskforce south and kills the Captain of the Haven, ruler of Umbar; Samwise Gamgee born; Théoden, son of Thengel, becomes seventeenth king of Rohan after the death of his father.
- 2982: Birth of Meriadoc Brandybuck (Merry)
- 2983: Birth of Faramir
- 2989: Frodo Baggins comes under the guardianship of Bilbo Baggins; a company of Dwarves, led by Balin, try to recolonize Moria
- 2990: Birth of Peregrin Took (Pippin)
- 2991: Birth of Éomer
- 2994: Balin is killed; the dwarf-colony in Moria is destroyed
- 2995: Birth of Éowyn
- 3001: Bilbo Baggins turns 111, passes the One Ring on to Frodo Baggins, and leaves the Shire. From now on Aragorn and Gandalf intermittently hunt Gollum
- 3002: Lalia Clayhanger, the matriarch of the Took clan, dies, aged 119, and possibly pushed by Pearl Took; Bilbo settles in Rivendell
- 3007: Gilraen, Aragorn II's mother passes away at the age of 100 years
- 3014: Saruman begins using his influence to weaken Théoden, king of Rohan
- 3017: Gollum is released from Mordor; Aragorn finally tracks him down in the Dead Marshes, and brings him as a captive to King Thranduil's halls in Mirkwood
"The Great Years"
All entries are derived from Appendix B (see references) unless otherwise noted.
- The Ringwraiths are given the task of retrieving the One Ring
- 'April' 11: Gandalf reaches Hobbiton in the Shire, telling Frodo Baggins he must take the Ring away.
- 'June' 20: Sauron attacks Osgiliath.
- Mid-year's Day: Gandalf, now in Bree, writes his letter to Frodo.
- 'July' 4: Boromir leaves Minas Tirith
- 'July' 10: Saruman imprisons Gandalf in Orthanc
- 'September' 18: Gandalf escapes from Orthanc
- 'September' 19–21: Gandalf reaches Edoras and is given Shadowfax the horse
- 'September' 23: Frodo leaves Bag End
- 'September' 26: Frodo meets Tom Bombadil
- 'September' 29: Aragorn meets Frodo in the Inn of the Prancing Pony in Bree.
- 'October' 6: Frodo wounded at Weathertop
- 'October' 20: Frodo crosses the ford of Bruinen
- 'October' 25: Council of Elrond at Rivendell
- 'December' 25: The Fellowship of the Ring sets out in the evening from Rivendell
- 'January' 15: Gandalf falls in Khazad-dûm while fighting a Balrog.
- 'February' 25: The Fellowship passes the Argonath and camp at Parth Galen. First Battle of Fords of Isen; Théodred son of Théoden is slain.
- 'February' 26: The breaking of the Fellowship; Boromir is killed.
- 'February' 29: Merry and Pippin escape the orcs and meet Treebeard.
- 'March' 1: Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli meet the resurrected Gandalf the White in Fangorn Forest while looking for Merry and Pippin, and they head off for Edoras. Frodo and Sam begin travelling through the Dead Marshes with Gollum.
- 'March' 3: Battle of the Hornburg.
- 'March' 5: Rohan's army reaches Isengard.
- 'March' 7: Faramir takes Frodo and Sam to Henneth Annûn.
- 'March' 8: Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli enter the Paths of the Dead.
- 'March' 9: Gandalf and Pippin arrive in Minas Tirith.
- 'March' 10: Frodo and Sam see the Morgul host led by the Witch-king leave Minas Morgul. An army from the Morannon takes Cair Andros and enters Anórien.
- 'March' 11: First assault on Lórien by Dol Guldur.
- 'March' 12: Gollum leads Frodo into Shelob's lair.
- 'March' 13: Frodo captured by Cirith Ungol orcs. Aragorn captures the Umbar fleet at Pelargir.
- 'March' 15: Witch-king breaks the gate of Minas Tirith in the early hours. Denethor burns himself on a pyre. Confrontation between Gandalf and the Witch-king at the gate; Horns of the Rohirrim are heard at a cockcrow. Battle of the Pelennor Fields: Théoden King of Rohan is killed by the Witch-king; Éomer succeeds him as the eighteenth king of Rohan. Éowyn and Merry kill the Witch-king. Aragorn, Rangers, the sons of Elrond and men from the southern fiefdoms of Gondor arrive in the black ships and turn the tide of battle. Sam and Frodo escape and journey along the Morgai. Battle under the trees in Mirkwood; second assault on Lórien.
- 'March' 16: Debate of the Captains of the West.
- 'March' 17: Battle of Dale. King Brand and Dáin Ironfoot fall in battle against invading Easterlings. Many Men and Dwarves take refuge in Erebor.
- 'March' 18: Armies leave Minas Tirith. Frodo and Sam join the orc company.
- 'March' 22: Third assault on Lórien.
- 'March' 25: The Host is surrounded on the slag-hills. Frodo and Sam reach the Sammath Naur. Gollum (Sméagol) seizes the One Ring and falls into the Cracks of Doom. Downfall of Barad-dûr and the passing of the Dark Lord Sauron.
- 'March' 28: Celeborn leads his forces in the attack and destruction of the fortress of Dol Guldur. Galadriel throws down its walls to cleanse Mirkwood of its evil.
- 'May': Arwen Undómiel and her father Lord Elrond of Imladris arrive in Lórien, where they are welcomed at Caras Galadhon by the Lady Galadriel and Lord Celeborn, grandparents of Lady Arwen through her mother, the Lady Celebrían.
- 'May': Aragorn is crowned King Elessar of the Reunited Kingdom of Arnor and Gondor. Gandalf helps Aragorn to find the sapling of the new White Tree.
- (Date unspecified): Faramir marries Éowyn.
- Mid-year's Day (between June and July): Aragorn marries Arwen Undómiel.
- 'July': King Théoden is laid to rest beside other Kings of Rohan in Edoras.
- 'September' 21: the four hobbits arrive back in Rivendell.
- 'September' 22: Saruman arrives in the Shire.
- 'November' 1: the four hobbits arrested at Frogmorton.
- 'November' 3: Battle of Bywater; death of Saruman and Wormtongue, final end to the War of the Ring.
- 'May' 1, 3020: Samwise Gamgee marries Rosie Cotton and together they move to Bag End on Bagshot Row
- 3021: Éomer marries Imrahil's daughter, Lothíriel of Dol Amroth
- 'September' 22, 3021: Bilbo marks his 131st birthday, surpassing the Old Took
- 'September' 29, 3021: Elrond, Galadriel, Gandalf, Frodo and Bilbo depart for the Grey Havens
- 'October' 6: Sam arrives back in Bag End
Length uncertain. All entries are derived from the Appendices to The Lord of the Rings, unless otherwise noted.
In the reckoning of Gondor, the Fourth Age began on 'March' 25, T.A. 3021. Since most of the following events had been dated according to the Shire-reckoning, their years in the Fourth Age cannot be stated with certainty. Some events may have occurred in the following year of the Fourth Age.
- 6: Peregrin Took marries Diamond of Long Cleeve
- (Date uncertain): Birth of Elfwine, son of Éomer and Lothíriel
- (Date uncertain): Birth of Elboron, son of Faramir and Éowyn
- (Date uncertain): Birth of Durin VII, descendant (perhaps son) of Thorin III Stonehelm
- 13: Peregrin Took becomes thirty-second Thain of the Shire
- 15: Death of Glóin, father of Gimli.
- 34: Death of Prince Imrahil. Imrahil's son Elphir assumes the Principality.
- 41: Birth of Holfast Gardner, son and heir of Frodo Gardner
- 61: Samwise Gamgee leaves Middle-earth via Mithlond
- 63: Meriadoc Brandybuck, aged 102, and Pippin leave the Shire to live in Gondor; death of Éomer, aged 93, whose son Elfwine ascends the throne of Rohan.
- 67: Death of Prince Elphir son of Imrahil, twenty-third Prince of Dol Amroth. Elphir's son Alphros assumes the Principality.
- 80: Birth of Harding of the Hill, Sam Gamgee's heir and great-grandson
- 82: Death of Faramir, aged 120. His son Elboron assumes the Principality.
- 91: Death of Dwalin, brother of Balin, aged 341.
- 95: Death of Prince Alphros of Dol Amroth, son of Elphir.
- 120: Death of Aragorn, King of the Reunited Kingdom of Arnor and Gondor, after 210 years of life and 122 years of reign; his son Eldarion ascends the throne. The bodies of Meriadoc and Peregrin are laid beside that of Aragorn. According to legend, on the death of Aragorn, Legolas builds a ship and sails into the west to the Undying Lands, taking Gimli (now a very old Dwarf) with him and marking an end to the Fellowship of the Ring.
- 121: Death of Arwen, aged 2901
- 172: A copy of the Red Book of Westmarch is made
- 185: Death of Harding of the Hill, Sam Gamgee's heir
- c. 220: End of Eldarion's reign
Years of the Trees
- 4590: Battle of the Powers
- 4995: Kinslaying at Alqualondë
- 4997: First Battle of Beleriand; Second Great Battle: Dagor-nuin-Giliath, Battle under the Stars
- 5000: Battle of the Lammoth
Years of the Sun
- 60: Third Great Battle of Beleriand: Dagor Aglareb, Glorious Battle—start of the Siege of Angband
- 60–455: Siege of Angband
- 155: Battle of the Firth of Drengist
- 260: First coming of Glaurung
- 455: Fourth Great Battle of Beleriand: Dagor Bragollach, Battle of Sudden Flame, which ended the Siege of Angband
- 472: Fifth Great Battle of Beleriand: Nírnaeth Arnoediad, Battle of Unnumbered Tears
- 495: Battle of Tumhalad and Sack of Nargothrond
- 503: First sack of Doriath
- 506–7: Second sack of Doriath
- 510: Fall of Gondolin
- 538: Sack of the Mouths of Sirion.
- 545–587: War of Wrath
See also Battles of Beleriand.
- 1693–1701: War of the Elves and Sauron
- 3255: Ar-Pharazôn's army humbles Sauron
- 3319: Ar-Pharazôn assails Aman—Downfall of Númenor
- 3429: Sauron conquers Minas Ithil and attacks Minas Anor
- 3434: Battle of Dagorlad
- 3434–3441: Siege of Barad-dûr
- 3441: Battle between Sauron and Elendil and Gil-galad on the slopes of Mount Doom
- 2: Battle of the Gladden Fields
- 1432: Kin-strife becomes open rebellion
- 1447: Battle of the Crossings of Erui
- 1856: Battle of the Plains
- 1945: Battle of the Camp
- 1975: Battle of Fornost
- 2509: Battle of the Field of Celebrant
- 2747: Battle of Greenfields
- 2799: Battle of Azanulbizar (part of the War of the Dwarves and Orcs)
- 2885: Battle of the Crossings of Poros
- 2941: Battle of Five Armies
War of the Ring
- 'February' 23, 3019: First Battle of the Fords of Isen
- 'March' 2, 3019: Second Battle of the Fords of Isen
- 'March' 2, 3019: Destruction of Isengard
- 'March' 3, 3019: Battle of the Hornburg
- 'March' 13, 3019: Battle of Osgiliath
- 'March' 15, 3019: Battle of the Pelennor Fields
- 'March' 17–20, 3019: Battle of Dale
- 'March' 25, 3019: Battle of the Morannon
- 'March' 27, 3019: Lifting of the siege of Erebor
- 'November' 3, 3019: Battle of Bywater
Other conflicts during the War of the Ring
- 'June' 20, 3018: Sauron attacks Osgiliath
- 'September' 23, 3018: Nazgûl attack the Rangers guarding the Shire
- 'September' 23, 3018: encounters with Black Riders in the Shire
- 'September' 26, 3018: encounter with Old Man Willow
- 'September' 28, 3018: Frodo, Sam, Merry, and Pippin are captured by a barrow-wight
- 'September' 30, 3018: Nazgûl attack Bree
- 'October' 3, 3018: battle of Gandalf with the Nazgûl on Weathertop
- 'October' 6, 3018: Nazgûl attack Aragorn and the hobbits on Weathertop
- 'October' 11, 3018: Glorfindel drives the Nazgûl from the Bridge of Mitheithel
- 'October' 20, 3018: unhorsing of the Nazgûl at the Ford of Bruinen
- 'January' 13, 3019: attack by wargs on Caradhras
- 'January' 14, 3019: battles with orcs in Moria
- 'January' 15–25 3019: battle of Gandalf with the Balrog upon the Bridge of Khazad-dûm and the Battle of the Peak
- 'January' 17, 3019: orc companies follow Fellowship into Lórien and are destroyed
- 'February' 23, 3019: arrows fired as the Fellowship pass Sarn Gebir
- 'February' 23, 3019: first Battle of the Fords of Isen.
- 'February' 26, 3019: battles with orcs near Parth Galen
- 'February' 29, 3019: Rohirrim destroy the orcs who captured Merry and Pippin
- Orc fights:
- 'March' 2, 3019: Ents destroy an army of Orcs out on the Wold
- 'March' 7, 3019: Frodo, Sam, and the Rangers of Ithilien ambush a company of Haradrim in northern Ithilien.
- 'March' 11–22, 3019: battles under the trees of Lórien
- 'March' 12, 3019: Sam fights Shelob
- 'March' 12, 3019: Aragorn and the Dead Men of Dunharrow capture the Corsair fleet at Pelargir
- 'March' 23–25, 3019: Battle of Mirkwood
- between 'March' 23 and 25, 3019: Cair Andros retaken.
- 'March' 25, 3019: Frodo fights Gollum in the Crack of Doom. Destruction of Barad-dûr.
- 'November' 1, 3019: Hobbits attack Bill Ferny at the Brandywine Bridge and are subsequently arrested.
End of the world
- Final Battle (prophesied)
Other timelines of interest
- Ages of Middle-earth
- Book publishing dates
- Chieftains of the Dúnedain
- Kings of Arnor
- Kings of Arthedain
- Kings of Gondor
- Kings of Númenor
- Kings of Rohan
- Line of Durin's folk
- Old Forest timeline
- Princes of Dol Amroth
- Realms of Arda
- Stewards of Gondor
- Sundering of the Elves
- Thains of the Shire
- in a letter written in 1958, published in Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #211, ISBN 0-395-31555-7, Tolkien places the beginning of the Fourth Age some 6,000 years in the past, consistent with the scope of classical historiography reaching back to just after the beginning Dominion of Men: "I imagine the gap [since the end of the Third Age] to be about 6000 years; that is we are now at the end of the Fifth Age, if the Ages were of about the same length as S[econd] A[ge] and T[hird] A[ge]. But they have, I think, quickened; and I imagine we are actually at the end of the Sixth Age, or in the Seventh."
- "Time indeed began with the beginning of Eä, and in that beginning the Valar came into the world. But the measurement which the Valar made of the ages of their labours is not known to any of the Children of Ilúvatar, until the first flowering of Telperion in Valinor. Thereafter the Valar counted time by the ages of Valinor, whereof each age contained one hundred of the Years of the Valar; but each such year was longer than are now nine years under the Sun."Tolkien, Christopher; Tolkien, J.R.R. (1993). Morgoth's Ring (First ed.). Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. Frontispiece illustration (calligraphy). ISBN 0-395-68092-1.
- Tale of Adanel (Tolkien, J. R. R. (1993), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Morgoth's Ring, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-68092-1)
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1994), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The War of the Jewels, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, The Later Quenta Silmarillion, p. 225–9, ISBN 0-395-71041-3
- The dates of the entering of the Second and Third Houses are given as 312 and 313 respectively in the Later Quenta Silmarillion, but as (?312/313) and 314 in later notes. (The War of the Jewels, pp. 227, 234)
- The date of the entering to Brethil is only once given (in Grey Annals, The War of the Jewels p. 50), as 422; but according to later sources Haleth, who is stated to had led them there, died in 420. (ibid. p. 228, 237)
- The War of the Jewels: "The new genealogies of the Edain", p. 229–38.
- The taking of Tol Sirion is given under the year 455 in the Grey Annals (The War of the Jewels p. 54). The statement in The Silmarillion (Ch. 18) that it occurred "nearly two years" after the Dagor Bragollach derives from earlier texts without changes and represents rejected chronology: see The War of the Jewels, p. 125.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1980), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Unfinished Tales, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Narn i Hîn Húrin, ISBN 0-395-29917-9
- The statements in The Silmarillion and The Children of Húrin that Túrin had dwelt in Doriath for nine years by this time derive from the early Quenta Silmarillion (The Lost Road, p. 320–2), and are contradicted by both earlier and later texts (e.g. The Grey Annals, pp. 79–80).
- The War of the Jewels: "The Wanderings of Húrin", p. 257, gives a plot-synopsis for the Narn i Chîn Húrin, written several years later than the concluding chapters of the story itself; the published Unfinished Tales and The Children of Húrin are based on the latter.
- The death of Thingol is placed under the year 503 in The Tale of Years, but according to the story introduced into The Silmarillion by Christopher Tolkien it should have rather occurred immediately after the reforging of Nauglamír, while the Sack of Doriath remained in the following year.
- J. R. R. Tolkien (1994). "The Tale of Years of the First Age". In Christopher Tolkien. The War of the Jewels. Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 342–354. ISBN 0-395-71041-3. Elrond and Elros are born in the same year, 532 of the Years of the Sun in the First Age.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1985), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Lays of Beleriand, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-39429-5
- Silmariën was definitely the eldest child of Tar-Elendil, and her birthdate is given several times as S.A. 521. In the Tale of Years, the entry of Silmariën's birthdate is given as 548, a date that goes back to the first drafts of that text (see Silmariën's article for details).
- In the Tale of years, it says in S.A. 2251 "Tar-Atanamir takes the sceptre", however, Atanamir died in 2221. 2221 is itself an emendation of 2251, and the former (2221) appears in the later tables, while the latter (2251) in the earlier tables: therefore 2251 (properly 2221) should have read "Death of Tar-Atanamir. Tar-Ancalimon takes the sceptre."
- In one table (probably an earlier draft) of the Kings of Gondor, Castamir's birthdate is given at T.A. 1159, however this is clearly impossible: Eldacar was born in 1255, and they are in the same generation, so 1259 is more correct.
- The date of Sam's birth in "The Longfather-Tree of Master Samwise" (Appendix C) is S.R. 1380 (equivalent to T.A. 2980), however, "The Tale of Years" (Appendix B) gives it as T.A. 2983, which is changed to T.A. 2980 in 2005 edition. In S.R. 1476, Sam is said to have been ninety-six years old, so 2980 is more correct than 2983. Also, the birth year of his sister, Marigold, is given S.R. 1383 (T.A. 2893), and it is most unlikely that they were born in the same year. In The Fellowship of the Ring, Merry and Pippin is said to be younger than both Sam and Frodo, so Sam's birth year must be in T.A. 2980, since Merry was born in T.A. 2982.
- Lalia (b. S.R. 1283) only appears in The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien. Pearl is the older sister of Pippin. See Took clan.
- J. R. R. Tolkien (1996). Christopher Tolkien, ed. The Peoples of Middle-earth. Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 220–224. ISBN 0-395-71041-3.
- Note on The Shire Records in the Prologue to The Lord of the Rings.
- The Family Trees in J. R. R. Tolkien (1996). Christopher Tolkien (ed.), ed. The Peoples of Middle-earth. Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 85–118. ISBN 0-395-71041-3.
- In a 1972 letter, Tolkien mentioned that Eldarion's reign would have lasted for about 100 years after the death of Aragorn. Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #338. "I have written nothing beyond the first few years of the Fourth Age. (Except the beginning of a tale supposed to refer to the end of the reign of Eldarion about 100 years after the death of Aragorn. ...)", ISBN 0-395-31555-7
- The Annals of Aman: J. R. R. Tolkien (1993). Christopher Tolkien (ed.), ed. Morgoth's Ring. Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 47–138. ISBN 0-395-68092-1.
- The Grey Annals: J. R. R. Tolkien (1994). Christopher Tolkien (ed.), ed. The War of the Jewels. Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 3–170. ISBN 0-395-71041-3.
- The Tale of Years of the First Age: J. R. R. Tolkien (1994). Christopher Tolkien (ed.), ed. The War of the Jewels. Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 342–354. ISBN 0-395-71041-3.
- Appendix B: J. R. R. Tolkien (2004, 1955). The Lord of the Rings. Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 1082–1098. ISBN 0-618-51765-0. Check date values in:
- The Chronicle of Arda
- Geospatial timeline of the history of Arda
- Timeline from Arda's creation to the Fourth Age at Tolkien Gateway Encyclopedia