Timeline of Birmingham history

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This article is intended to show a timeline of events in the History of Birmingham, England, with a particular focus on the events, people or places that are covered in Wikipedia articles.

Pre-Norman invasion[edit]

  • 1200 BC: Radiocarbon date of charcoal taken from the Woodlands Park Prehistoric Burnt Mounds.
  • Bronze Age: Small farming settlements constructed.
  • AD 48: Construction of Metchley Fort begins as Icknield Street is constructed by Romans through Birmingham.
  • AD 70: The Romans abandon Metchley Fort only to return a few years later.
  • AD 120: The Romans abandon Metchley Fort permanently.
  • 7th century: Possible creation of Birmingham as a hamlet.
  • 968: Duddeston is first mentioned in a charter granted to Wulfget the Thane by Eadgar, King of the Angles.

1000 – 1099[edit]

1100–1199[edit]

  • 1154: Lord of the manor, Peter de Birmingham, obtains a charter to hold a market in Birmingham on every Thursday, transforming the village into a town.
  • 1160: The first stone church building is erected on the site of St. Mary's Church, Handsworth.
  • 1176: A road passing through Sutton Coldfield is recorded. This was probably part of a highway leading from Birmingham to Lichfield.

1200–1299[edit]

  • 1218: Flaxeye Farm in Stechford is mentioned.
  • 1221: The manorial mill of King's Norton is recorded as being in the possession of Richard Clark.
  • 1231: A manorial mill at Edgbaston is recorded.
  • 1249: A ford over the River Cole is recorded.
  • 1250: A road from Birmingham to Saltley and Castle Bromwich is recorded in a deed.
  • 1250: William de Birmingham is granted permission to hold a four day fair in Birmingham during Ascensiontide annually.
  • 1260: Summer Lane, a road leading to Perry and Walsall, is recorded.
  • 1263: A church is documented at the site of the current St. Martin's Church.
  • 1273: Several mills are recorded to be in existence in Northfield.
  • 1276: Crossing of the River Rea at Deritend is reported.
  • 1282: Two roads are mentioned as passing through Yardley and converging at Deritend Bridge.
  • 1290: A lane crossing the River Tame at Salford Bridge leading in the direction of Erdington and Sutton Coldfield is mentioned.

1300–1399[edit]

  • 1317: A mill in Witton and Erdington is mentioned and this was probably located on the Hawthorn Brook.
  • 1318: A bridge named Bromford Bridge is recorded.
  • 1322: It is recorded that merchants were selling wool in Birmingham market.
  • 1333: A mill in Erdington named Bromford Mill is recorded in a court roll.
  • 1340: The road from Birmingham to Castle Bromwich is again mentioned in a deed.
  • 1368: The Old Crown public house in Deritend is believed to have been constructed as a guildhall. If so, it is Birmingham's first school.
  • 1379: A traveller records a bridge crossing the River Tame at Handsworth.
  • 1381: Residents of Deritend and Bordesley given permission to build a chapel next to the River Rea.
  • 1381: Sir John de Birmyneham provides the first reference to Deritend by name, written as Duryzatehende.
  • 1390: Thomas de Birmingham is recorded as a cloth merchant.
  • 1392: The Guild of the Holy Cross is established in Birmingham.

1400–1499[edit]

  • 1406: A goldsmith is referred to.
  • 1435: The last known overlordship of Erdington manor is recorded.
  • 1449: Three roads are recorded going from Birmingham to Edgbaston.
  • 1460: Handsworth Old Town Hall in Handsworth is constructed.
  • 1480: The tower of Church of Saints Peter and Paul, Aston is completed
  • 1492: The Saracen's Head in King's Norton is constructed.

1500–1599[edit]

  • 1511: The Clerk of the Ordnance orders horseshoes, bits and weapons for the royal army. All the suppliers are from Birmingham.
  • 1517: The Saint Margaret's Church in Ward End is built by Thomas Bond.
  • 1524: Lord Middleton refers to a goldsmith from Birmingham who repairs two cups and making nine spoons.
  • 1527: Bishop Vesey's Grammar School is founded by Bishop John Vesey.
  • 1536: A footbridge is mentioned crossing a ford in the River Rea at Deritend.
  • 1536: The Priory of St Thomas of Canterbury, north of the manor of Birmingham, is dissolved.
  • 1542: Sarehole Mill is constructed as Biddle's Mill on the site of a former pool.
  • 1547: The Guild of the Holy Cross is mentioned as maintaining to great stone bridges over the River Rea.
  • 1547: Priory of St Thomas of Canterbury buildings are demolished.
  • 1552: King Edward's School is founded.
  • 1553: A survey shows that the major industry had become metal-using instead of cloth.
  • 1560: A road in the direction of Dudley is recorded.
  • 1590: Blakesley Hall is constructed by Richard Smalbroke.

1600–1699[edit]

  • 1612: A road is mentioned from Perry Bridge to Birmingham. It is named the "great way".
  • 1612: The Handsworth Bridge Trust is set up by Nicholas Hodgetts.
  • 1616: King James I grants Kings Norton the right to hold a market.
  • 1635: Construction of Aston Hall is completed.
  • 1635–1642: The first Birmingham Library is founded by the puritan minister Francis Roberts
  • 17 October 1642, King Charles I passed through Birmingham, whilst travelling to the Battle of Edgehill, the towns folk seized the Kings carriages, containing the royal plate and furniture, which they conveyed for security to Warwick Castle, a parliamentary stronghold. The same day there was a small battle at Kings Norton: nine troops of horse and 200 foot under the command of Prince Rupert fought a skirmish with force of 800 Parliamentarians under the command of Lord Willoughby of Parham. The Parliamentarians lost about 20 men whilst the Royalists lost between 50 and 80 killed with a further 20 taken prisoner.
  • 3 April 1643, the Battle of Camp Hill took place on Easter Monday, it was a Royalist victory after which they torched 80 houses in the town.
  • 1643: Aston Hall is severely damaged by Parliamentary troops.
  • 1648: A paper mill is recorded as being in use in Perry Barr.
  • 1697: John Pemberton purchases the land once the site of the Priory of St Thomas of Canterbury.

1700–1799[edit]

1700-1709[edit]

  • 1700: John Pemberton begins construction on his prestigious Priory Estate on the former site of the Priory of St. Thomas.
  • 1702: The Old Cross, Birmingham's first public meeting place, is completed. It was located near the Bull Ring.
  • 1707: The timber structure of the Guild Hall on New Street is demolished.
  • 1708: The vacant New Street site becomes King Edward's School and a two-storey brick building is constructed on it.
  • 1708: Parliament receives a petition for a new Anglican church as St. Martin's was overcrowded.

1710-1719[edit]

  • 1713: Old Square is constructed by John Pemberton on the former site of the Priory of St. Thomas.
  • 1715: St. Philip's Church is dedicated however not completed.
  • 1715: The Jacobite Rising sees a mob attack the Lower Meeting House in Digbeth.

1720-1729[edit]

  • 1724: The Blue Coat School on Colmore Row is completed.
  • 1726: The Bristol Road, which had suffered from intense traffic, is turnpiked.
  • 1728: A building known as 'Leather Hall' on New Street is demolished "while men slept" and three houses are constructed on it which were later replaced by a prison. 'Leather Hall' contained the town's last dungeon.
  • 1728: Matthew Boulton is born to a toymaker in Snow Hill.

1730-1739[edit]

  • 1730: William Westley produces the first documentation of a newly constructed square named Old Square. It became one of the most prestigious addresses in Birmingham.
  • 1731: The first map of Birmingham is produced by William Westley.
  • 1732: The Birmingham Journal, Birmingham's first local newspaper, is printed by Thomas Warren.
  • 1733: The town's first workhouse is constructed on Lichfield Street near to the current Victoria Law Courts' location.
  • 1737: John Baskerville sets up in the Bull Ring as a writing-master.

1740-1749[edit]

  • 1740: Birmingham's first theatre – the Moor Street Theatre – opens, though it would be soon closed down and converted into a Methodist chapel.
  • 1741: Printing of The Birmingham Journal stops.
  • 1742: Sampson Lloyd II purchases Owen's Farm in Sparkbrook for £1,290.
  • 1745: John Baskerville leases an estate which he names 'Easy Hill' on which he builds a house and workshops on land which is currently occupied by Baskerville House.
  • 1746: Nechells Slitting Mill is completed at a cost of £1,212.
  • 1746: Ann Colmore obtains a private act of Parliament to sell land on her estate to Birmingham. This allowed a massive expansion of the town to the west and the creation of the Jewellery Quarter.

1750-1759[edit]

  • 1751: Methodists are attacked by Jacobites.
  • 1752: Two theatres on Smallbrook Street and King Street open to the public.
  • 1758: The land known as Duddeston Hall is renamed to Vauxhall Gardens after the London pleasure park and is opened to the public as an entertainment venue.
  • 1759: It becomes known that 20,000 people are being employed in Birmingham's toymaking industry.
  • 1759: The Quaker meeting house is seriously damaged for not sufficiently celebrating the English victories in Canada.

1760-1769[edit]

  • 1760: The Protestant Dissenting Charity School is established.
  • 1761: Matthew Boulton acquires a five-year lease on Soho Mill.
  • 1762: A glassworks is recorded as being in use at Snow Hill by Meyer Oppenheim.
  • 1764: Charles Westley's sermon at the opening of a chapel on Moor Street is disrupted by rioting.
  • 1765: Taylor's and Lloyds Bank, an ancestor to Lloyds Bank, opens on Dale End.
  • 1765: Soho Manufactory on Handsworth heath is completed and becomes Birmingham's principle tourist attraction.
  • 1766: Matthew Boulton moves into Soho House due to the completion of Soho Manufactory.
  • 1766: An infirmary wing is added to the Lichfield Street workhouse.
  • 1768: An act if obtained for Birmingham's first canal, the Birmingham Canal.
  • 1769: The Birmingham Chronicle is printed for the first time.
  • 1769: A bill for creating paving space, street lighting and street cleaning receives Royal Assent.

1770-1779[edit]

  • 1770: Discounting the monuments in the parish church courtyard, the first statues in the town are erected at the front of the Blue Coat School. They depicted a young boy and a young girl and were created by Edward Grubb.
  • 4 am 15 November 1772: An earthquake strikes Birmingham and is felt in Hall Green, Erdington and Yardley. No damage was sustained but a flock of sheep escaped in Yardley.
  • 31 August 1773: The Birmingham Assay Office opens for the first time at the King's Head Inn at New Street.
  • 1774: Birmingham's fourth theatre opens on New Street as the Theatre Royal.
  • 1777: Construction of St Paul's Square commences.
  • 1777: A bill is presented to Parliament for a licensed theatre however is rejected.
  • 1777: Tailors' cooperative organized.[1]
  • 1779: Construction of St Paul's Square is completed and the church is consecrated.
  • September 1779: Birmingham General Hospital opens to the public.
  • 1779: The Birmingham Library is established by 19 subscribers.
  • 1779: A button maker named John Pickard fits a crank and flywheel to his Newcomen engine to make a mill. It is adapted into a flour mill and his business increases.

1780-1789[edit]

  • 1780: William Hutton calls for the demolition of the prison at Peck Lane.
  • 1780: Joseph Priestley arrives in Birmingham.
  • 1781: The Birmingham Library moves to premises in Swan Yard.
  • 1782: The Birmingham Old Brewery, Birmingham's first large scale brewery, opens on Moseley Street.
  • 1783: An act for the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal is obtained which would connect the Birmingham Canal with the Coventry Canal.
  • 1783: The Birmingham Commercial Committee is formed.
  • 1783: A proposal for a major new workhouse is proposed to the Parliament however faces objections from William Hutton.
  • 1784: The Old Cross is demolished.
  • 1786: The theatre on King Street is closed and converted into a Methodist chapel.
  • 1787: New Hall is put up for sale as demand for the area increases.
  • 1787: 'Apollo Hotel' opens in Deritend, then a small hamlet.
  • 1788: A turnpike is established on the main road into Deritend.

1790-1799[edit]

  • 1791: An act for the Worcester and Birmingham Canal is obtained.
  • 1791: The Protestant Dissenting Charity School moves to a new building on Park Street.
  • 1791: John Baskerville's house (though Baskerville was now deceased) is destroyed during riots.
  • 1791: Birmingham's first synagogue begins construction in the Froggary.
  • 14 July 1791: Joseph Priestley's house on Easy Hill is looted during the Priestley Riots.
  • 1792: The Theatre Royal in New Street is seriously damaged by fire.
  • 1793: An act for the Warwick and Birmingham Canal is obtained.
  • February 1793: An effigy of Tom Paine is hung and burned by a crowd singing 'God Save The King.'
  • Summer 1793: A permanent military barracks is completed at Ashted.
  • 1795: Pickard's Flour Mill is attacked by a mob of women after rumours he had wrongly increased the price of flour. The military arrive and break up the mob.
  • 1797: 300 children are removed from the Lichfield Street workhouse to an Asylum for the Infant Poor on Summer Lane.
  • 1797: The Birmingham Library moves to a purpose-built building on Union Street on land formerly Corbett's Bowling Green.
  • 1797: The Anchor Inn in Digbeth opens.
  • 1799: The Warwick and Birmingham Canal is completed.

1800–1899[edit]

1800-1809[edit]

  • 1800: Another mob attack Pickard's Mill however instead of waiting for the military, John Pickard and his workers attacked the mob with rifles, killing one rioter.
  • 1802: The lighting system of Soho Manufactory is displayed to the public. It was the first factory to be lit by gas.
  • 1802: Horatio Nelson visits Birmingham and is greeted by large crowds.
  • 18 September 1805: The foundation stone of a building complex consisting of public offices, a courtroom and prison in Moor Street is laid.
  • January 1804: Joshua Toulmin appointed as a Unitarian minister.
  • 23 November 1805: A meeting his held to decide upon the creation of monument dedicated to Horatio Nelson.
  • 1806: The prison on Moor Street opens.
  • 1806: Another bill is presented to Parliament for a licensed theatre and this time is granted.
  • 13 June 1806: A decision is made that a statue should be created in memory of Horatio Nelson.
  • 1807: Space becomes available on Park Street for the expansion of the graveyard at St. Martin's, Birmingham's only Anglican graveyard.
  • October 1807: The building complex on Moor Street is completed and opened one year after the completion of the prison.
  • 1809: The Nelson Monument in the Bull Ring is unveiled on the Jubilee Day of George III.
  • 1809: Birmingham's second synagogue, the Severn Street Synagogue, is completed on Severn Street.

1810-1819[edit]

1820-1829[edit]

  • 1820: The Theatre Royal on New Street is destroyed in a fire. Only two medallions of Shakespeare and Garrick are retrieved from the ruins.
  • 1820: A canal is extended through an area behind what is now Centenary Square to create a wharf. The extension cut across Baskerville's tomb where the builder's found his body to be well preserved.
  • 1823: The spire is added to St Paul's Church.
  • 1824: John Cadbury opened his shop on Bull Street
  • 1825: The Birmingham Female Society for the Relief of Negro Slaves is established Mary Sturge, Maria Cadbury and Mary Samuel Lloyd.
  • 1826: The Birmingham and Liverpool Junction canal is authorised and opened.
  • 1827: After being broken into and seriously damaged years earlier, the Severn Street synagogue receives enough funds to reopen.
  • 1828: The main road into Deritend is disturnpiked.

1830-1839[edit]

1840-1849[edit]

  • 1840: The Protestant Dissenting Charity School moves into new premises in Graham Street.
  • 1840: The Hebrew National School is established.
  • 1841: Saint Chad's is consecrated as a church.
  • 1841: Five Ways is disturnpiked.
  • 1842: The Moor Street prison is publicly condemned as being too ornate as the number of prisoners held in confinement there drops to zero.
  • 1843: The Hebrew National School is replaced by a new building on Hurst Street.
  • 1844: The Birmingham and Warwick Junction Canal is opened.
  • 1844: Stechford railway station is opened.
  • 7 October 1846: The Birmingham Baths Committee is officially established.
  • 1846: St. Philip's School is completed and opened.
  • 29 October 1849: Construction of Kent Street Baths commences.
  • 1849: Kings Norton railway station is opened.

1850-1859[edit]

1860-1869[edit]

1870-1879[edit]

1880-1889[edit]

1890-1899[edit]

1900–1999[edit]

1900-1909[edit]

1910-1919[edit]

  • 22 June 1910: The Nechells Baths are completed and opened.
  • 9 November 1911: The Urban District of Handsworth, in Staffordshire, and the Rural District of Yardley along with the greater part of the Urban District of King's Norton and Northfield (which included most of Bartley Reservoir), both in Worcestershire, become part of Birmingham, and thus Warwickshire.
  • 1911: Construction of an extension to the Council House, designed by Ashley & Newman, begins construction.
  • 1912: The Sutton House Hotel is constructed by a local doctor.
  • 15 February 1913: The Rep is founded by Sir Barry Jackson when a theatre company opens a permanent home on Station Street, now the Old Rep.
  • 23 April 1913: The King Edward VII Memorial is unveiled by Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll in Victoria Square.
  • 30 March 1914: An addition to Kent Street Baths consisting of a women's swimming baths and baths for women are opened in an adjoining building.
  • 1914: The Stechford Club moves to newly completed premises.
  • 29 September 1916: The Birmingham Municipal Bank opens to the public.
  • 1917: Birmingham Children's Hospital moves to a new site on Ladywood Road.
  • 1917: Fort Dunlop is established.
  • 10 June 1918: The Birmingham Civic Society is founded at an inaugural meeting at Birmingham Council House.
  • 1919: Construction of the extension to the Council House is completed.
  • 1919: The Birmingham Municipal Bank moves to offices in the Council House.

1920-1929[edit]

1930-1939[edit]

1940-1949[edit]

  • 9 August 1940 – 23 April 1943: the Birmingham Blitz – Birmingham is bombed by German aircraft.
  • 1944: The original Five Ways railway station closes.
  • 1945: Abdul Aziz opens a cafe shop selling curry and rice in Steelhouse Lane. This later becomes The Darjeeling, the first Indian restaurant in Birmingham, owned by Afrose Miah.
  • July 1946: Birmingham Elmdon Airport reverts to civilian use, though still under the control of the government.
  • 1947: Ansells Brewery purchases Penns Hall.
  • 1948: The blue brick lodge gate, designed by Hamilton & Medland, at Warstone Lane Cemetery is completed.
  • 1949: The first Sutton Coldfield mast is built.

1950-1959[edit]

  • 1950: Penns Hall is converted into a hotel by Ansells Brewery.
  • 1951: The city's population peaks, at 1,113,000.
  • 1951: The King Edward VII Memorial is moved to Highgate Park as Victoria Square is remodelled.
  • 1951: The Museum of Science and Industry is opened as a museum owned by Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery.
  • 28 September 1953: A reconstructed section of Metchley Fort is opened by the Lord Mayor of Birmingham, G. H. W. Griffith.
  • 1954: The Digbeth Institute is put up for sale.
  • 1954: Queens Tower in Duddeston is completed, becoming the city's first tower block.
  • 1954: The chapel at Warstone Lane Cemetery is demolished.
  • 1955: The Digbeth Institute is purchased by Birmingham City Council.
  • 1955: Shops begin to shut down in the Bull Ring for the redevelopment of the area.
  • 1956: Tong Kung, on the Holloway Head, opens becoming Birmingham's first Chinese restaurant.
  • 1957: Blakesley Hall reopens as a museum following restoration conducted as a result of bomb damage during World War II.

1960-1969[edit]

1970-1979[edit]

1980-1989[edit]

  • September 1980: The Aston Hippodrome is demolished.
  • 1981: Trident House is completed and opened.
  • 1981: Aston Villa win the league for the first time in 71 years
  • 1981: A golden dome is added to the minaret of Birmingham Central Mosque.
  • 1982: Aston Villa win the European Cup
  • 1983: The Sutton Coldfield mast is rebuilt.
  • 1983: Bingley Hall is seriously damaged by fire and demolished.
  • 1983: Birmingham Airport is privatised.
  • 1984: A new terminal is opened at Birmingham Airport.
  • 1984: The Perrott's Folly Company is formed to restore Perrott's Folly for public use.
  • 31 March 1986: The West Midlands County Council is abolished.
  • January 1987: The foundation stone to the International Convention Centre is laid, signalling the start of construction.
  • 1 April 1987: The ownership of Birmingham International Airport is transferred to Birmingham International Airport plc.
  • July 1987: The city council invites developers to draw up a masterplan for 26 acres (110,000 m2) of land alongside canals, adjacent to the International Convention Centre.
  • 1987: A rebuilt Snow Hill station is opened to the public.
  • 1987: "The People's Plan", a document containing designs and plans for the redevelopment of the Bull Ring, is published and issued by London and Edinburgh Trust but the plans are greeted with public objection.
  • 1988: A glass roof is built over Paradise Forum and crossing the Inner Ring Road is built.
  • 1988: London and Edinburgh Trust redesign their proposals for the Bull Ring redevelopment but again receive public criticism.
  • 1988: The Birmingham Institute of Art and Design is formed following the Faculty of Art and Design at Birmingham Polytechnic absorbing Bournville College of Art.
  • September 1989: The Brindleyplace development alongside the ICC and Broad Street is granted planning permission.
  • October 1989: The topping out ceremony of the railway tunnel for the future site of the National Indoor Arena is conducted by the council.
  • 1989: The Birmingham School of Music is renamed the Birmingham Conservatoire.

1990-1999[edit]

2000s[edit]

2000-2009[edit]

  • December 2000: The Mailbox, an upmarket shopping centre, opens to the public.
  • 2000: Demolition of the 1960s Bull Ring shopping centre commences.
  • 2000: The Rotunda is granted Grade II listed status.
  • 2000: The parish of New Frankley is established and becomes Birmingham's only remaining civil parish.
  • 2001: Plans for a replacement football stadium to St Andrews were mooted.
  • 2 July 2002: Millennium Point is opened by Queen Elizabeth II.
  • 2002: The nightclub at Methodist Central Hall closes leaving the building empty.
  • 3 April 2003: The planning application for a 122 metre tall tower at Holloway Circus is approved by Birmingham City Council.
  • August 2003: The refurbishment of Baskerville House commences.
  • 4 September 2003: The new Bullring shopping centre opens.
  • 2003: Quayside Tower is extensively refurbished.
  • 2003: The BT Tower is repainted and a lighting scheme is added.
  • 2003: Plans to redevelop New Street station in a project called Birmingham Gateway are approved by the city council.
  • 5 April 2004: Responsibility and budgets for a number of council services are devolved to 11 district committees (later reorganised as 10 council constituencies).
  • 10 June 2004: The Sutton Trinity Birmingham City Council ward comes into existence.
  • 2004: Refurbishment of The Rotunda commences.
  • 2004: Construction of the Orion Building commences.
  • 2004: Centenary Plaza, the first phase of the £500 million Arena Central development, is completed and opened.
  • 2004: BBC Birmingham moves into new offices in The Mailbox.
  • 2004: The plans for the City of Birmingham Stadium, the stadium to replace St Andrews, develop to include a sports village.
  • 2005: Nanjing Automobile Group acquires the entire assets of MG Rover.
  • 28 July 2005: A tornado causes approx. 30 injuries, and an estimated £40 million damage.
  • 29 August 2005: New Hall Valley Country Park in Sutton Coldfield is officially opened.
  • 22 October 2005 & 23 October 2005 : Two nights of rioting occurs in the Lozells area.
  • November 2005: Demolition of the Post and Mail Building commences for the construction of a replacement office block.
  • 2006: Beetham Tower at Holloway Circus is completed, becoming Birmingham's second tallest building.
  • 2006: Construction of the Orion Building is completed.
  • 16 March 2007 – the last HP Sauce to be made in Aston is produced; production is moved to the Netherlands.
  • 2–4 March 2007: The National Indoor Arena hosts the 2007 European Athletics Indoor Championships.
  • 2007: Nanjing Automobile Group restarts MG TF and MG6 production at Longbridge and in China.
  • 2007: The refurbishment of Baskerville House is completed.
  • 2008: Colmore Plaza, on the site of the Post and Mail Building, is completed.
  • 2008: Construction of The Cube commences.
  • 2008: Construction of Snowhill commences.
  • 9 March 2008: Calthorpe House at Five Ways is demolished by controlled explosion to make way for Edgbaston Galleries.
  • 13 May 2008: The Rotunda building is reopened as apartments, after extensive refurbishment.

2010-2019[edit]

  • 2013: A redesigned Birmingham Central Library is opened near to the previous library which is to enter demolition.

Future events[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ James C. Docherty; Peter Lamb (2006). "Chronology". Historical Dictionary of Socialism (2nd ed.). Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6477-1. 
  2. ^ Old and new Birmingham: a history of the town and its people, Robert Kirkup Dent, Houghton and Hammond, 1880 p. 364
  3. ^ "Directory". UK: Association of Independent Libraries. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

Published in the 19th century[edit]

1800s-1840s
  • "Birmingham". Commercial Directory for 1818-19-20. Manchester: James Pigot. 1818. 
  • David Brewster, ed. (1830). "Birmingham". Edinburgh Encyclopædia. Edinburgh: William Blackwood. 
  • "Birmingham", J. Pigot & Co., London, 1837 
  • Francis Coghlan (1838). "Birmingham". Iron Road Book and Railway Companion from London to Birmingham, Manchester, and Liverpool. London: A.H. Baily & Co. 
  • Arthur Freeling (1838), "Birmingham Guide", Freeling's Grand Junction Railway Companion to Liverpool, Manchester, and Birmingham, H. Lacey 
  • "Birmingham", Osborne's Guide to the Grand Junction, Or Birmingham, Liverpool, and Manchester Railway, Birmingham: E.C. & W. Osborne, 1838 
  • John Thomson (1845), "Birmingham", New Universal Gazetteer and Geographical Dictionary, London: H.G. Bohn 
  • "Birmingham and its Vicinity". Slater's National Commercial Directory of Ireland; including ... English Towns of Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham, West Bromwich, Leeds, Sheffield and Bristol, and in Scotland, those of Glasgow and Paisley. Manchester: I. Slater. 1846. 
  • Birmingham, Sheffield: Francis White & Co., 1849 
1850s-1890s
  • "History and Directory of Birmingham". History, Gazetteer, and Directory, of Warwickshire. Francis White & Co. 1850. 
  • George Measom (1861), "Birmingham", Official Illustrated Guide to the North-Western Railway (2nd ed.), London: W.H. Smith and Son 
  • "Birmingham", Black's Guide to Warwickshire (3rd ed.), Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black, 1874 
  • White & Co.'s Commercial & Trades Directory of Birmingham, Vol. I, 1875
  • John Parker Anderson (1881), "Warwickshire: Birmingham", Book of British Topography: a Classified Catalogue of the Topographical Works in the Library of the British Museum Relating to Great Britain and Ireland, London: W. Satchell 

Published in the 20th century[edit]

External links[edit]