Timeline of Cardiff history

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The timeline of Cardiff history shows the significant events in the history of Cardiff which transformed it from a small Roman fort into the modern capital city of Wales.

The word Caerdyf has its origins in post-Roman Brythonic words meaning "the fort of the Taff". The fort probably refers to that established by the Romans. Caer is Welsh for fort and -dyf is in effect a form of Taf (Taff), the river which flows by Cardiff Castle.[1]

The Roman settlement of Cardiff[edit]

Part of the Roman fort (below the red bricks) outside Cardiff Castle

53: Cardiff was founded by Aulus Didius, the native population called him Didi Gawr.[2]

75: A Roman fort at Cardiff, where Cardiff Castle now is, was established.[3]

380s: The Romans abandoned Cardiff.[3]

The Dark Ages and the Viking settlement[edit]

445: The first written mention of Cardiff is made in the Annates Cambriae (The Welsh Annals).[4]

850: The Vikings attack the Welsh coast. The Vikings used Cardiff as a base and then as a port. Street names such as Dumballs Road and Womanby Street come from the Vikings[4]

The Norman town of Cardiff[edit]

The Norman keep, Cardiff Castle

1081: William I, known as William the Conqueror, led an army through southern Wales and may have erected defences at Cardiff on the site of the old Roman fort.[3]

1100: A small town outside the castle was establishing itself. It was made up primarily of settlers Norman/Saxon people.[5]

1111: Cardiff town walls were first mentioned by Caradoc of Llancarfan in his book Brut y Tywysogion.[6]

1126: Ralph "Prepositus de Kardi" who took up office as the first Mayor of Cardiff.[7]

1158: Ifor Bach, Lord of Senghenydd attacked Cardiff Castle and carried off William of Gloucester, Lord of Glamorgan.[3]

1294: The Glamorgan Welsh attacked Cardiff Castle.[3]

1315: Llywelyn Bren, a great-grandson of Ifor Bach,[8] attacked Cardiff Castle[3]

1318: Llewelyn Bren executed at Cardiff as a traitor.[3]

1327: Cardiff declared a Staple Port.[3]

1404: Owain Glyndŵr captured Cardiff Castle.[3]

The county town of Glamorganshire[edit]

John Speed's map of Cardyfe (Cardiff)

1536: Legislative union of England and Wales (Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542).[3] The shire of Glamorgan was established and Cardiff became the county town and the Herbert family became the most powerful family in Cardiff[5]

1551: William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, became the first Baron Cardiff (Baron Herbert of Cardiff).[5]

1542: Cardiff became a Free Borough.[3]

1574: Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, began restoration work to Cardiff Castle.[5]

1595: The first shipment of coal was exported from Cardiff docks.[9]

1608: King James I granted a Royal Charter to the town of Cardiff.[10]

1610: Map of Cardiff produced by John Speed.[3][11]

1648: Battle of St. Fagans fought between the Parliamentarian Army and the Royalists.[3] It was the last major battle to occur in Wales, some 8,000 Royalists were defeated in a two-hour fight by 3,000 Parliamentarian troops of the New Model Army with about 200 soldiers, mainly Royalists, killed.[5]

1737: Flat Holm Lighthouse built.[12]

1766: John Stuart, 1st Marquess of Bute married into the Herberts, the great local landowning family.[5]

1774: An Act of Parliament established the Improvement Commissioners, responsible for paving, cleaning streets and providing oil lamp lighting in Cardiff.[13]

1776: John Stuart was created Baron Cardiff of Cardiff Castle.[5]

1778: The reconstruction of Cardiff Castle begins.[12]

The building of Cardiff docks[edit]

2nd Marquess of Bute

1793: John Crichton-Stuart, 2nd Marquess of Bute was born. He is later described as the creator of modern Cardiff, building the Port of Cardiff.[5]

1815: Boat service between Cardiff and Bristol established, running twice a week.[12]

1819: Cardiff Free School for boys and girls opened.[12]

1821: Cardiff Gas Works established.[12]

1826: The first theatre in Cardiff, the Theatre Royal, is opened.[12]

1832: A new County goil built in the Spital Field (the site of the present Cardiff Prison.[12]

1835: Thomas Revel Guest became the first elected Mayor of Cardiff and also Judge of the Borough Court of Record.[7]

1839: West Bute Dock opened.[12]

1840: First railway station in Cardiff opened at Crockherbtown and owned by the Taff Vale Railway. The service ran from Cardiff to Navigation House (now Abercynon). The line was extended fron Navigation House to Merthyr Tydfil in 1841. (The Taff Vale Railway, DSM Barrie 1969)

1850: Cardiff Water Company established to provide water for Cardiff.[14]

1853: The new Town Hall opened.[14]

1855: The Taff Vale Railway begins a train service from the Rhondda Valley to Cardiff.[14]

1857: The last public execution in Cardiff.[14]

Bute Docks, Cardiff

1860: the Principality Building Society established in Cardiff.[14]

1863: The Royal Arcade opened, the first of many shopping arcades in Cardiff.[14]

1865: James Howell establishes Howells department store.[14]

1867: Cardiff Cricket Club established with Cardiff Arms Park as its ground.[14]

1872: Cardiff Castle Clock Tower completed.[14]

1876: Cardiff Arms Park hosted the first rugby game between Cardiff Rugby Club and Swansea Rugby Club.[5]

1879: The Cardiff Town Council took over responsibility of the water supply from the Cardiff Water Company.[5]

1881: The first grandstand was built at Cardiff Arms Park, it held 300 spectators.[5]

1883: The National Eisteddfod held in Cardiff.[5]

1884: The Cardiff Arms Park hosts its first international match, a rugby union encounter between Wales and Ireland.

1885/6: rugby season, Frank Hancock Cardiff RFC, introduces new 'two-centre' tactical innovation, since adopted world wide. [15]

1886: The Coal Exchange was opened to conduct trade for the growing coal industry.[5][16]

1889: Cardiff became a County Borough, which was independent of the new Glamorgan County Council.[5]

1893: Ivor Novello was born in Cowbridge Road East, Cardiff.[17]

1894: Cardiff Masonic Hall Company Ltd established after purchasing the thirty-year-old Methodist chapel at Guildford Street

1895: The first Welsh Grand National hunt race was run at Ely Racecourse.

1897: The Pierhead Building was built.[5]

1899: Riverside Football Club, later to be renamed Cardiff City, was formed.[18]

1903: The first building in Cathays Park, the University of Wales, Registry is opened.[5]

1904: Cardiff Town Hall opened, later renamed City Hall.[19]

The city of Cardiff - the largest coal port in the world[edit]

1905: Cardiff was granted city status by Edward VII and the Mayor became the Lord Mayor, with the right to use "The Right Honourable".[7][10]

1907: Queen Alexandra Dock was opened, it was the largest in Cardiff.[5]

1909: The University building in Cathays Park was opened.[5] The first Clark's Pies were produced.

1910: Cardiff City played their first match at Ninian Park.[5]

1913: The record amount of around 107 million tons of coal were exported through Cardiff docks. This was the high point of the docks.[5]

The decline of the docks[edit]

A 1911 Railway Clearing House map showing Cardiff docks and railway lines in the Cardiff area

1916: Roald Dahl was born in Llandaff, Cardiff.[5]

1923: The BBC began broadcasting from studios in Castle Street.[5]

1927: Cardiff City beat Arsenal 1-0 to win the FA Cup.[5]

1930: Cardiff Round Table, local branch of Round Table Britain & Ireland, is founded, being the 26th Table in the organisation

1931: Cardiff Municipal Airport was opened on Pengam Moors

1932: The first miners' hunger march to start in Cardiff, left for London to protest about unemployment.[5]

1935: The first RAC Welsh Rally started from Cardiff.[5]

1937: Shirley Bassey was born in Tiger Bay, Cardiff.[20]

1939: Billy the Seal died.[5][21]

1941: The heaviest German Luftwaffe raid of World War II, the Cardiff Blitz, occurred when 156 people were killed.[5]

1946: Welsh National Opera put on its first staged productions at the Prince of Wales Theatre.

1947: The Bute family gave Cardiff Castle to the city.[5]

1948: Welsh Folk Museum was opened at St. Fagans.[5]

1952: The last execution took place in Cardiff Prison. Mahmood Hussein Mattan was hanged for murder, but his conviction was quashed in 1998.[5][22]

1954: Cardiff Airport moved from Pengam Moors to its current home in Rhoose

1955: Cardiff was officially recognised as the capital city of Wales.[5]

A map of Cardiff in 1946

1956: Cardiff ceased being a fishing port after 70 years.[5]

1958: The British Empire and Commonwealth Games opened at Cardiff Arms Park in Cardiff.[14]

1959: The movie Tiger Bay was released. It was partly shot in Cardiff.[5]

1961: Public houses in Cardiff were allowed to open for the first time on Sundays since the 1880s.[5]

1963: The Rover car factory was opened.[5]

1964: West Bute Dock closed with the last shipment of coal, just 229,000 tons, left the docks.[5][23]

1966: The Heath Hospital was officially opened.[5][23]

1967: Glamorgan County Cricket Club play their first game at Sophia Gardens, having moved from Cardiff Arms Park.[5]

1970: Bute East Dock was closed.[5]

1971: The National Sports Centre for Wales opened in Sophia Gardens.[24]

1973: John Desmond Brayley MC DL was nominated for a peerage as Baron Brayley of the City of Cardiff and County Glamorgan

1974: South Glamorgan was established as part of the local government reorganisation. Cardiff lost the independent County Borough status it had since 1889.[5]

1976: James Callaghan MP for Cardiff became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.[14]

1980: The M4 motorway to the north of the city was opened.[5]

1982: S4C, the Welsh-language television channel was established.[5][25]

1983: BBC Cardiff Singer of the World competition was launched.[5][26]

1984: The National Stadium at Cardiff Arms Park was opened.[5]

1986: Wales National Ice Rink was opened and the Cardiff Devils ice hockey team established.[5]

The regeneration of Cardiff Bay and the city[edit]

1987: The Cardiff Bay Development Corporation was established to transform derelict land that was Cardiff docks into Cardiff Bay.[5]

1988: The new County Hall was completed in Cardiff Bay.[5]

1989: Cardiff Athletics Stadium was opened in Leckwith.[5]

1996: Cardiff became a unitary authority in a local government reorganisation of 1996. Cardiff reverted to its previous status of administratively-independent city.[5]

1997: Wales voted in favour of a Welsh Assembly in a national referendum, but Cardiff again voted against it.[5]

1999: The Millennium Stadium was opened to host the final of the 1999 Rugby World Cup.[5] The Cardiff Bay Barrage was opened.[5]

2001: The 2001 Census showed that the population of 305,353.[5]

2004: The Wales Millennium Centre was opened.[5]

The Senedd

2006: The Senedd, the new debating chamber for the Welsh Assembly was opened.[5]

2008: Cardiff International Pool opened to the public at the International Sports Village in Cardiff Bay on 12 January, replacing the Empire Pool that was demolished in 1997 to make way for the Millennium Stadium.[27] The National Eisteddfod was held in Cardiff.

2009: Cardiff City Stadium and Cardiff International Sports Stadium both opened,[28][29] while Ninian Park was demolished,[30] which was part of the Leckwith development.

2010: Cardiff International White Water, a whitewater rafting centre opened on 26 March at the International Sports Village.[31]

2011: Wales voted in favour of extending the law making powers of the Welsh Assembly in a national referendum, this time Cardiff also voted Yes to more powers, with over 61% of people in Cardiff supporting the change. The 2011 Census showed that the population of Cardiff was 346,100 had reached its highest actual recorded figure.[32]

2013: Cardiff City promoted to football's Premier League, 51 years since they were last in football's top tier in 1962, but the first since the Premier League came into being.[33]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hywel Wyn Owen and Richard Morgan, Dictionary of the Place-names of Wales. University of Wales Press, 2007, ISBN 1-84323-901-9, p. 70.
  2. ^ "Short history of Ancient Cardiff". www.cardiffworld.com. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "A Cardiff & Vale of Glamorgan Chronology up to 1699". Bob Sanders. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  4. ^ a b "Chronology of Cardiff History". Theosophical Society. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc "A Cardiff Timeline". Cardiffians. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  6. ^ "The Town's Wall". Herbert E. Roese. 06-03-2000. Retrieved 11-12-2011.  Check date values in: |date=, |accessdate= (help)
  7. ^ a b c "The Early Mayors of Cardiff". Cardiff Council. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  8. ^ "2000 years of history". Cardiff Castle. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  9. ^ "Search for Cardiff museum ideas". BBC. 2006-03-17. Retrieved 2008-01-10. 
  10. ^ a b "A History Lovers Guide to Cardiff". GoogoBits.com. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  11. ^ "An Introduction to Medieval Cardiff". National Museum of Wales. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h "A Cardiff & Vale of Glamorgan Chronology 1700 - 1849". Bob Sanders. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  13. ^ "A Short History of Cardiff". www.localhistories.org. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "A Cardiff & Vale of Glamorgan Chronology 1850 - 1960". Bob Sanders. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  15. ^ 'Thomas Cook's Rugby Club', John Dann, page 14
  16. ^ "A Brief History". The Coal Exchange. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  17. ^ "Ivor Novello Stage and screen legend". BBC. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  18. ^ "The foundations and early years". Cardiff City Football Club. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  19. ^ "A brief history". Cardiff Council. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  20. ^ "Shirley Bassey biography". BBC. Archived from the original on 14 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  21. ^ "Billy the Seal". BBC. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  22. ^ "Mahmood Hussein Mattan". BBC. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  23. ^ a b "Why did Cardiff grow?". Glamorgan Record Office. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  24. ^ "About us:Elite Performance:Sport Wales-Chwaraeon Cymru". Sport Wales-Chwaraeon Cymru website. Sport Wales. 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2011. 
  25. ^ "S4C unveils silver anniversary line-up". S4C. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  26. ^ "History of the Competition". BBC. Retrieved 2007-12-31. [dead link]
  27. ^ "£32m Olympic pool opens its doors". BBC. 2008-01-12. Retrieved 2008-01-14. 
  28. ^ "Cardiff City gear up for Celtic invasion and stadium opener". Media Wales Ltd. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  29. ^ "Jacko back to his roots to open city’s new sports arena". Media Wales Ltd. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  30. ^ "Floodlights fall as Ninian Park demolition continues". Media Wales Ltd. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  31. ^ "Cardiff International White Water - Media Day and Opening Cermony March 2010". Cardiff Council. Retrieved 2011-06-21. 
  32. ^ "2011 Census First Release". Cardiff Council. Retrieved 2014-03-30. 
  33. ^ "Cardiff City fans celebrate first promotion to Premier League". BBC. 2013-04-17. Retrieved 2014-03-30.