Timeline of Cardiff history
The word Caerdyf has its origins in post-Roman Brythonic words meaning "the fort of the Taff". The fort probably refers to that established by the Romans. Caer is Welsh for fort and -dyf is in effect a form of Taf (Taff), the river which flows by Cardiff Castle.
- 1 The Roman settlement of Cardiff
- 2 The Dark Ages and the Viking settlement
- 3 The Norman town of Cardiff
- 4 The county town of Glamorganshire
- 5 The building of Cardiff docks
- 6 The city of Cardiff - the largest coal port in the world
- 7 The decline of the docks
- 8 The regeneration of Cardiff Bay and the city
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
The Roman settlement of Cardiff
53: Cardiff was founded by Aulus Didius, the native population called him Didi Gawr.
380s: The Romans abandoned Cardiff.
The Dark Ages and the Viking settlement
445: The first written mention of Cardiff is made in the Annates Cambriae (The Welsh Annals).
The Norman town of Cardiff
1126: Ralph "Prepositus de Kardi" who took up office as the first Mayor of Cardiff.
1294: The Glamorgan Welsh attacked Cardiff Castle.
The county town of Glamorganshire
1536: Legislative union of England and Wales (Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542). The shire of Glamorgan was established and Cardiff became the county town and the Herbert family became the most powerful family in Cardiff
1542: Cardiff became a Free Borough.
1595: The first shipment of coal was exported from Cardiff docks.
1648: Battle of St. Fagans fought between the Parliamentarian Army and the Royalists. It was the last major battle to occur in Wales, some 8,000 Royalists were defeated in a two-hour fight by 3,000 Parliamentarian troops of the New Model Army with about 200 soldiers, mainly Royalists, killed.
1776: John Stuart was created Baron Cardiff of Cardiff Castle.
The building of Cardiff docks
1819: Cardiff Free School for boys and girls opened.
1821: Cardiff Gas Works established.
1826: The first theatre in Cardiff, the Theatre Royal, is opened.
1835: Thomas Revel Guest became the first elected Mayor of Cardiff and also Judge of the Borough Court of Record.
1839: West Bute Dock opened.
1840: First railway station in Cardiff opened at Crockherbtown and owned by the Taff Vale Railway. The service ran from Cardiff to Navigation House (now Abercynon). The line was extended fron Navigation House to Merthyr Tydfil in 1841. (The Taff Vale Railway, DSM Barrie 1969)
1850: Cardiff Water Company established to provide water for Cardiff.
1853: The new Town Hall opened.
1857: The last public execution in Cardiff.
1879: The Cardiff Town Council took over responsibility of the water supply from the Cardiff Water Company.
1881: The first grandstand was built at Cardiff Arms Park, it held 300 spectators.
1884: The Cardiff Arms Park hosts its first international match, a rugby union encounter between Wales and Ireland.
1894: Cardiff Masonic Hall Company Ltd established after purchasing the thirty-year-old Methodist chapel at Guildford Street
The city of Cardiff - the largest coal port in the world
1913: The record amount of around 107 million tons of coal were exported through Cardiff docks. This was the high point of the docks.
The decline of the docks
1930: Cardiff Round Table, local branch of Round Table Britain & Ireland, is founded, being the 26th Table in the organisation
1931: Cardiff Municipal Airport was opened on Pengam Moors
1946: Welsh National Opera put on its first staged productions at the Prince of Wales Theatre.
1947: The Bute family gave Cardiff Castle to the city.
1955: Cardiff was officially recognised as the capital city of Wales.
1956: Cardiff ceased being a fishing port after 70 years.
1970: Bute East Dock was closed.
1973: John Desmond Brayley MC DL was nominated for a peerage as Baron Brayley of the City of Cardiff and County Glamorgan
The regeneration of Cardiff Bay and the city
2008: Cardiff International Pool opened to the public at the International Sports Village in Cardiff Bay on 12 January, replacing the Empire Pool that was demolished in 1997 to make way for the Millennium Stadium. The National Eisteddfod was held in Cardiff.
2011: Wales voted in favour of extending the law making powers of the Welsh Assembly in a national referendum, this time Cardiff also voted Yes to more powers, with over 61% of people in Cardiff supporting the change. The 2011 Census showed that the population of Cardiff was 346,100 had reached its highest actual recorded figure.
- Hywel Wyn Owen and Richard Morgan, Dictionary of the Place-names of Wales. University of Wales Press, 2007, ISBN 1-84323-901-9, p. 70.
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