Timeline of Christianity

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This article is about the timeline of Christianity beginning with Jesus. For the timeline of the Bible, see Biblical chronology. For the history of Christianity, see History of Christianity. For the timeline of the Roman Catholic Church, see Timeline of the Roman Catholic Church.

The purpose of this timeline is to give a detailed account of Christianity from the beginning of the current era (AD) to the present. Question marks on dates indicate approximate dates.

Main article: Chronology of Jesus

The year one is the first year in the Christian calendar (there is no year zero), which is the calendar presently used (in unison with the Gregorian calendar) almost everywhere in the world. Traditionally, this was held to be the year Jesus was born; however, most modern scholars argue for an earlier or later date, the most agreed upon being between 6 BC and 4 BC

Jesus began his ministry after his baptism by John and during the rule of Pilate, preaching: "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is near" (Matthew 4:12–17). While the historicity of the gospel accounts is questioned to some extent by some critical scholars and non-Christians, the traditional view states the following chronology for his ministry: Temptation, Sermon on the Mount, Appointment of the Twelve, Miracles, Temple Money Changers, Last Supper, Arrest, Trial, Passion, Crucifixion on Nisan 14th (John 19:14,Mark 14:2, Gospel of Peter) or Nisan 15th (Synoptic Gospels), entombment by Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, Resurrection by God and Resurrection appearances of Jesus to Mary Magdalene and other women (Mark 16:9, John 20:10–18), Simon Peter (Luke 24:34), and others, (1Cor.15:3–9), Great Commission, Ascension, Second Coming Prophecy to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the Resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment, and establishment of the Kingdom of God and the Messianic Age.

Apostolic Age[edit]

Main article: Apostolic Age

Shortly after the death of Jesus (Nisan 14 or 15), the Jerusalem church was founded as the first Christian church with about 120 Jews and Jewish Proselytes (Acts 1:15), followed by Pentecost (Sivan 6), the Ananias and Sapphira incident, Pharisee Gamaliel's defense of the Apostles (5:34-39), the stoning of Saint Stephen (see also Persecution of Christians) and the subsequent dispersion of the Apostles (7:54-8:8, also Mark 16:20) which led to the baptism of Simon Magus in Samaria (8:9-24), and also an Ethiopian eunuch (8:26-40). Paul's "Road to Damascus" conversion to "Apostle to the Gentiles" is first recorded in 9:13-16, cf. Gal 1:11-24. Peter baptized the Roman Centurion Cornelius, who is traditionally considered the first Gentile convert to Christianity (10). The Antioch church was founded, it was there that the term Christian was first used (11:26).

Ante-Nicene Period[edit]

Main article: Ante-Nicene Period

First Seven Ecumenical Councils[edit]

Constantine called the First Council of Nicaea in 325 to unify Christology, also called the first great Christian council by Jerome, the first ecumenical, decreed the Original Nicene Creed, but rejected by Nontrinitarians such as Arius, Theonas, Secundus of Ptolemais, Eusebius of Nicomedia, and Theognis of Nicaea who were excommunicated, also addressed Easter controversy and passed 20 Canon laws such as Canon VII which granted special recognition to Jerusalem.

Middle Ages[edit]

Renaissance[edit]

See also: Renaissance

Reformation[edit]

17th century[edit]

See also: Age of Reason

18th century[edit]

19th century[edit]

20th century[edit]

21st century[edit]

Sources[edit]

  • World Almanac and Book of Facts
  • Academic American Encyclopedia (on Compuserve)
  • Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary
  • English Versions of the Bible by John Berchmans Dockery O.F.M.
  • Catholic Encyclopedia: Biblical Chronology

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, page 246: "When Archelaus was deposed from the ethnarchy in 6 CE, Judea proper, Samaria and Idumea were converted into a Roman province under the name Iudaea."
  2. ^ John P. Meier's A Marginal Jew, v. 1, ch. 11; also H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, page 251: "But after the first agitation (which occurred in the wake of the first Roman census) had faded out, we no longer hear of bloodshed in Judea until the days of Pilate."
  3. ^ Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Tiberius 36;
    • Jewish Encyclopedia: Rome: Expelled Under Tiberius: "The Jewish deputation which petitioned for the deposition of the royal house of the Idumeans was joined by 8,000 Jewish residents of Rome. Several Romans adopted Jewish customs, and some, as the rhetor Cilicius of Kalakte, a friend of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, even embraced Judaism (Müller, "Fragmenta Historicorum Græcorum," iii. 331). The reign of Tiberius (until the removal of his minister Sejanus) was fraught with misfortune for the Jews. When the cult of Isis was driven out of Rome (19 CE.) the Jews also were expelled, because a Roman lady who inclined toward Judaism had been deceived by Jewish swindlers. The synagogues were closed, the vessels burned, and 4,000 Jewish youths were sent upon military service to Sardinia. After the death of Sejanus (31) the emperor allowed the Jews to return.";
    • Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson (and Abraham Malamat contributor) A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 978-0674397316, page 288 quote: "Explicit evidence of a systematic attempt to propagate the Jewish faith in the city of Rome is found as early as 139 BCE. With the increase of the Jewish population of Rome, the Jews intensified their efforts to make converts among the Romans. Although the activity of Jewish missionaries in Roman society caused Tiberius to expel them from that city in 19 CE, they soon returned, and Jewish religious propaganda was resumed and maintained even after the destruction of the Temple. Tacitus mentions it regretfully (Histories 5.5), and Juvenal, in his Fourteenth Satire (11. 96ff.), describes how Roman families 'degenerated' into Judaism: the fathers permitted themselves to adopt some of its customs and the sons became Jews in every respect." ... [last sentence of next paragraph:] "In addition, the Bible provided the apostles of Judaism with a literature unparalleled in any other religion."
  4. ^ G. J. Goldberg. "John the Baptist and Josephus". Retrieved 2006-08-16. 
  5. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, The Crisis Under Gaius Caligula, pages 254-256: "The reign of Gaius Caligula (37-41) witnessed the first open break between the Jews and the Julio-Claudian empire. Until then — if one accepts Sejanus' heyday and the trouble caused by the census after Archelaus' banishment — there was usually an atmosphere of understanding between the Jews and the empire ... These relations deteriorated seriously during Caligula's reign, and, though after his death the peace was outwardly re-established, considerable bitterness remained on both sides. ... Caligula ordered that a golden statue of himself be set up in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Only Caligula's death, at the hands of Roman conspirators (41), prevented the outbreak of a Jewish-Roman war that might well have spread to the entire East."
  6. ^ A. J. MAAS (2003). Origin of the Name of Jesus Christ. Retrieved January 23, 2006. Walter Bauer's et al. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, 1979, under Christos notes: "as a personal name; the Gentiles must have understood Christos in this way (to them it seemed very much like Chrestos [even in pronunciation ...], a name that is found in lit."
  7. ^ Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Claudius XXV.4; Jewish Encyclopedia: Rome: Expelled Under Tiberius: "... in 49-50, in consequence of dissensions among them regarding the advent of the Messiah, they were forbidden to hold religious services. The leaders in the controversy, and many others of the Jewish citizens, left the city."
  8. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Judaizers see section titled: "THE INCIDENT AT ANTIOCH"
  9. ^ Cumming, John (1998). Butler's Lives of the Saints. Collgeville, MN: The Liturgical Press. p. 24
  10. ^ Pauline Chronology: His Life and Missionary Work, from Catholic Resources by Felix Just, S.J.
  11. ^ http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Kochi/more-studies-needed-at-pattanam/article4743789.ece
  12. ^ stthoma.com
  13. ^ In the earliest extant manuscript containing Annales 15:44, the second Medicean, the e in "Chrestianos", Chrestians, has been changed into an i; cf. Gerd Theißen, Annette Merz, Der historische Jesus: ein Lehrbuch, 2001, p. 89. The reading Christianos, Christians, is therefor doubtful.
  14. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Fiscus Iudaicus, Suetonius's Domitian XII: "Besides other taxes, that on the Jews [A tax of two drachmas a head, imposed by Titus in return for free permission to practice their religion; see Josephus, Bell. Jud. 7.6.6] was levied with the utmost rigor, and those were prosecuted who, without publicly acknowledging that faith, yet lived as Jews, as well as those who concealed their origin and did not pay the tribute levied upon their people [These may have been Christians, whom the Romans commonly assumed were Jews]. I recall being present in my youth when the person of a man ninety years old was examined before the procurator and a very crowded court, to see whether he was circumcised."
  15. ^ Wylen, Stephen M., The Jews in the Time of Jesus: An Introduction, Paulist Press (1995), ISBN 0-8091-3610-4, Pp 190-192.; Dunn, James D.G., Jews and Christians: The Parting of the Ways, A.D. 70 to 135, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing (1999), ISBN 0-8028-4498-7, Pp 33-34.; Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro & Gargola, Daniel J & Talbert, Richard John Alexander, The Romans: From Village to Empire, Oxford University Press (2004), ISBN 0-19-511875-8, p. 426.;
  16. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Tarfon: "R. Ṭarfon was extremely bitter against those Jews who had been converted to the new faith; and he swore that he would burn every book of theirs which should fall into his hands (Shab. 116a), his feeling being so intense that he had no scruples against destroying the Gospels, although the name of God occurred frequently in them."
  17. ^ ANTITHESIS: Marcion and Contradictions Between the Old Testament Deity and the New Testament
  18. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Dionysius
  19. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Caius (3rd Century)
  20. ^ ANF05. Fathers of the Third Century: Hippolytus, Cyprian, Caius, Novatian, Appendix | Christian Classics Ethereal Library
  21. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Monarchians
  22. ^ Richard McBrien The Church (New York: HarperOne, 2008) 390
  23. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Lapsi
  24. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope St. Eusebius
  25. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Synods of Arles
  26. ^ NPNF2-01. Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, Life of Constantine, Oration in Praise of Constantine | Christian Classics Ethereal Library
  27. ^ The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, 2002, pages 414-415
  28. ^ Rapp, Stephen H., Jr (2007). "7 - Georgian Christianity". The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. John Wiley & Sons. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-4443-3361-9. Retrieved 11 May 2012. 
  29. ^ The Seventh Arian (or Second Sirmium) Confession Sirmium (357)
  30. ^ Theodosian Code XVI.1.2 Medieval Sourcebook: Banning of Other Religions by Paul Halsall, June 1997, Fordham University, retrieved September 25, 2006; Theodosian Code XVI.1.2; Catholic Encyclopedia: Theodosius I: "In February, 380, he and Gratian published the famous edict that all their subjects should profess the faith of the Bishops of Rome and Alexandria (Cod. Theod., XVI, I, 2; Sozomen, VII, 4)."
  31. ^ Evagrius Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History (AD431-594), translated by E. Walford (1846). Introduction
  32. ^ Paul Moses, "Mission Improbable: St. Francis and the Sultan" Commonweal 25 September 2009, 16.
  33. ^ The Rosicrucian Fellowship: The Rosicrucian Interpretation of Christianity
  34. ^ Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, XXX: Knight Kadosh, p. 822, 1872
  35. ^ René Guénon, El Esoterismo de Dante, p. 5-6, 14, 15-16, 18-23, 1925
  36. ^ Manly Palmer Hall, The Secret Teachings of All Ages: The Fraternity of The Rose Cross, p. 139, 1928
  37. ^ NOMBRE DE DIOS Mission in Spanish La Florida
  38. ^ ("What think you, loving people, and how seem you affected, seeing that you now understand and know, that we acknowledge ourselves truly and sincerely to profess Christ, condemn the Pope, addict ourselves to the true Philosophy, lead a Christian life (...)".
  39. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Evangelical Church
  40. ^ Beauraing 1932
  41. ^ laudate.org
  42. ^ Messages of Our Lady at Akita Japan
  43. ^ http://www.pmcc4w.org/
  44. ^ APPROVED APPARITIONS: Our Lady of Kibeho This was an ominious foreshadowing of the Rwanda Genocide of 1994.
  45. ^ Evangelicals and Catholics Together
  46. ^ alliancenet.org
  47. ^ Independent Online - South Africa, Virgin Mary 'appears over Egyptian church', August 31, 2000
  48. ^ Holy Lights in Assiut: Apparition in Assiut: Eyewitness Account, Upper Egypt March/April 2006
  49. ^ Joan G. LaBarr, United Methodist Church, World Methodists approve further ecumenical dialogue
  50. ^ CNS STORY: Methodists adopt Catholic-Lutheran declaration on justification
  51. ^ Schism - By Travis Kavulla - The Corner - National Review Online
  52. ^ Cf. years 1909-1911 and 1920 in the 20th century section
  53. ^ Cf. Fama Fraternitatis. 1614
  54. ^ Note: Centennial anniversary (on November 13, 2009) of the publication of The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception or Mystic Christianity
  55. ^ Cf. year 1313 in the Renaissance section and years 1614 to 1616 in the 17th century section
  56. ^ Rosicrucian revival. The San Diego Union-Tribune. August 2009
  57. ^ "Eyewitness: Baghdad church siege".