Timeline of Commonwealth of Nations history

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a timeline of Commonwealth of Nations history from the Balfour Declaration. Some regard the Balfour Declaration as the foundation of the modern Commonwealth.

1920s1930s1940s1950s1960s1970s1980s1990s2000s

1920s from 1926[edit]

Year Date Event
1926 25 October The Balfour Declaration 1926 establishes the principle of the separate and equal status of the dominions within the British Empire, "freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth".[1]
1927 12 April The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 changes the title of the British monarch, to reflect the secession of most of historic Ireland from the United Kingdom

1930s[edit]

Year Date Event
1930 16 August The first British Empire Games, the forerunners of the Commonwealth Games, open in Hamilton, Canada.
1 October 7th Imperial Conference convenes in London. Meeting drafts what becomes the Statute of Westminster.
1931 11 December The Statute of Westminster 1931 is enacted, formalises the Balfour Declaration 1926, with the Parliament of the United Kingdom renouncing legislative power over the dominions. It is adopted by Canada, the Irish Free State, Newfoundland, and the Union of South Africa. Australia and New Zealand decline to adopt it.[1]
1932 21 July The British Empire Economic Conference is convened. Policy of Imperial preference adopted.
1934 16 February The self-government of the Dominion of Newfoundland is suspended, replaced by the Commission of Government. Newfoundland ceases to be in the Commonwealth.
4 August The second British Empire Games open in London, the United Kingdom.
1936 20 January King George V dies, being succeeded by Edward VIII.
10 December King Edward VIII signs the instruments of abdication, effective the next day.
11 December The United Kingdom passes His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 (which, at the request of those countries' Parliaments, equally applies to Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa), effecting Edward VIII's abdication and succession by George VI. Canada passes the Succession to the Throne Act to the same effect.
The Constitution (Amendment No. 27) Act 1936 of the Irish Free State comes into effect, removing reference to the King in the Constitution.
12 December The Irish Free State passes the Executive Authority (External Relations) Act 1936, resurrecting the office of king and recognising George VI as Edward VIII's successor, one day after the rest of the Commonwealth.
1937 14 May to 24 June 8th and final Imperial Conference held in London following the coronation of King George VI; rejects concept of Imperial Federation.
29 December A new Irish constitution is promulgated establishing the state under the name 'Ireland', creating the position of President, and calling into question who the Irish Head of State was.
1938 5 February The third British Empire Games open in Sydney, Australia.
1939 1 September Nazi Germany invades Poland, precipitating an ultimatum from the United Kingdom, which was ignored by Germany, leading inexorably to the Second World War.
2 September Irish Taoiseach Éamon de Valera announces his intention to remain neutral in the impending war, regardless of British policy. The government declares the Emergency.
3 September The United Kingdom declares war upon Nazi Germany, beginning the British Empire and Commonwealth's involvement in the six-year conflict.
Australia passes the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942.
4 September South Africa's United Party refuses to accept Prime Minister Barry Hertzog's declaration of neutrality in the war, and vote to replace him as party leader with Jan Smuts.
6 September South Africa declares war upon Nazi Germany, becoming the first dominion to do so independently of the United Kingdom.
9 September Canada declares war upon Nazi Germany.

1940s[edit]

Year Date Event
1942 9 October Australia passes the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942, adopting the Statute of Westminster 1931, but back-dating it to 3 September 1939, when the United Kingdom (and therefore Australia) declared war upon Nazi Germany.
1944 1 May The first Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference convenes in London.[2]
1945 4 April A Commonwealth Statesmen's Meeting convenes in London to co-ordinate members' demands and expectations of the impending end of the war.
8 May Nazi Germany surrenders to the Allied Powers, ending the Second World War in Europe.
15 August The Empire of Japan surrenders to the Allied Powers, ending the Second World War.
1946 21 February The British Commonwealth Occupation Force is formed from Australian, British, Indian, and New Zealand occupation forces in Japan.
23 April The second Commonwealth Prime Ministers Conference convenes in London.[2]
1947 3 February In response to Canada's passage the previous year of the Canadian Citizenship Act the previous year, a Commonwealth conference on nationality and citizenship is convened. It is agreed to redefine the concept of citizenship in the Commonwealth so that, rather than all those in the British Empire and Commonwealth being British subjects, each Commonwealth state is free to also define its own separate citizenship. As a result, the British Nationality Act 1948 is passed the next year by the British parliament which creates a distinction in that country between British citizens and British subjects; Australia and New Zealand also pass their own citizenship acts. Eventually, the category of British subject develops into that of a Commonwealth citizen whose rights are greater than those of a foreign national but often less than one of a full citizen of the country in question. Ireland had already passed citizenship legislation in 1935 defining its own citizenship laws.
14 August Pakistan (including modern Bangladesh) joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
15 August India joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
21 October India and Pakistan begin the first Indo-Pakistani War, over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu. It is the first armed conflict between two members of the Commonwealth.
25 November New Zealand passes the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947.
1948 4 February Ceylon (modern-day Sri Lanka) joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
16 June Three European plantation managers are killed in Perak, sparking the Malayan Emergency, leading to deployment of Commonwealth soldiers to Malaya.
11 October The third Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference convenes in London.[2]
31 December India and Pakistan sign a cease-fire, ending the first Indo-Pakistani War.
1949 31 March Newfoundland, a dominion until 1934, joins Canada as a province.
18 April Ireland ceases to be regarded as a member of the Commonwealth on the basis that it has declared itself a republic with the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 coming into effect. Irish leaders had not participated in the Commonwealth for many years and made no statement of withdrawal from the organisation.
22 April The fourth Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference convenes in London.[2] The agenda is dominated by the impending independence of India and its future within the Commonwealth.
28 April The Commonwealth Heads of Government issue the London Declaration. It allows India (and, thenceafter, all other members) to remain in the Commonwealth without having the British monarch as Head of State, creates the position of Head of the Commonwealth, and changes the name of the organisation to the 'Commonwealth of Nations'. The decisions of the 1947 Commonwealth ministerial conference on nationality and citizenship are affirmed which allow states to create their own citizenship rules. Indians are agreed to be recognised as Commonwealth citizens rather than British subjects once that dominion becomes a republic.

1950s[edit]

Year Date Event
1950 26 January India becomes a republic, being the first non-dominion member of the Commonwealth.
4 February The fourth British Empire Games open in Auckland, New Zealand. These would be the last under that name.
1951 4 January The fifth Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference convenes in London.[2]
28 July The 1st Commonwealth Division is created to amalgamate Australian, British, Canadian, Indian, and New Zealand forces engaged in the Korean War.
1952 6 February George VI dies, being succeeded as monarch of the Commonwealth realms and Head of the Commonwealth by Elizabeth II.
28 April The British Commonwealth Occupation Force is officially disbanded, having transferred control of Far Eastern forces to British Commonwealth Forces Korea.
20 October Sir Evelyn Baring, Governor of Kenya, declares a state of emergency, recognising the severity of the Mau Mau Uprising.
28 November Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Economic Conference convenes in London to discuss proposals to expand trade within the Commonwealth.
1953 3 June The sixth Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference convenes in London.[2]
1954 30 July The British Empire Games are renamed the 'British Empire and Commonwealth Games', with the opening of the 1954 Games in Vancouver, Canada.
1955 26 January The seventh Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference convenes in London.[2]
1956 27 June The eighth Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference convenes in London.[2]
1957 6 March Ghana, previously the Gold Coast, joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom, becoming the first majority-ruled African member.
26 June The ninth Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference convenes in London. The new Canadian prime minister, John Diefenbaker, proposes the intensification of trade relations within the Commonwealth. His call for an Empire Trade Conference are resisted by the British government which has an eye towards the UK developing stronger trade relations with Europe and the newly formed European Economic Community. However, a Commonwealth Trade and Economic Conference is called for the next year.[2]
31 August The Federation of Malaya joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom. It is the first monarchy in the Commonwealth except for the Commonwealth realms.[3]
1958 3 January The Federation of the West Indies is formed from the British West Indies as a self-governing colony.
30 July The 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games open in Cardiff, the United Kingdom.
28 September The Commonwealth Trade and Economic Conference concludes with a communique agreeing that the pound sterling should be made fully convertible and that trade barriers within the Commonwealth should be progressively removed

1960s[edit]

Year Date Event
1960 3 February British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan issues his 'Wind of Change' speech to the Parliament of South Africa.
3 May The tenth Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference convenes in London; Malaya demands South Africa's expulsion from the Commonwealth due to its racial policies.[2]
1 October Nigeria joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
1961 8 March The eleventh Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference convenes in London.[2] South Africa's application to request to remain in the Commonwealth upon becoming a republic is rejected due to the country's policy of apartheid.
13 March Cyprus joins the Commonwealth,[4] having gained independence from the United Kingdom the previous year. Heavily opposed by the United Kingdom, it is the first small country to join.[3]
27 April Sierra Leone joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
31 May South Africa becomes a republic, withdrawing from the Commonwealth.
9 December Tanganyika, now part of Tanzania, joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
1962 31 May The Federation of the West Indies collapses. Its constituent states revert to being colonies of the United Kingdom, and preparations begin to grant them separate independence within the Commonwealth.
6 August Jamaica joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
31 August Trinidad and Tobago joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
10 September The twelfth Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference convenes in London. Concerns of Commonwealth countries about the implications for trade and economic relations in regards to Britain's possible entry into the European Common Market is the main topic of discussion.[2]
9 October Uganda joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
22 November The 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games open in Perth, Australia.
1963 10 December Zanzibar, now part of Tanzania, joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom. It is, albeit briefly, the first hereditary monarchy in the Commonwealth except for the Commonwealth realms.
12 December Kenya joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
1964 26 April Two Commonwealth members, Tanganyika and Zanzibar, merge to form the United Republic of Tanzania, which joins the Commonwealth.
6 July Malawi, previously Nyasaland, joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
8 July The thirteenth Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference convenes in London. The leaders agree to a communique declaring the Commonwealth's commitment to racial equality and an end to discrimination. The idea of a Commonwealth Secretariat is proposed. The government of the colony of Southern Rhodesia, whose prime ministers had frequently attended Imperial and Commonwealth conferences since 1930, is excluded due to a decision to confine attendance at meetings to leaders of independent states.[2]
21 September Malta joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
24 October Zambia, previously Northern Rhodesia, joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
1965 18 February The Gambia joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
17 June The fourteenth Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference convenes in London.[2] The Conference approves the creation of the Commonwealth Secretariat. The meeting also discusses the crisis in Rhodesia, relations with South Africa and Portuguese colonies in Africa, and opposition by Asian and African Commonwealth countries to British, Australian and New Zealand's support for American intervention in the Vietnam War. The Commonwealth reaffirms its declaration that all Commonwealth states should work for societies based on racial equality.
1 July The Commonwealth Secretariat is founded. The first Secretary-General is Canada's Arnold Smith.
15 August India and Pakistan begin the second Indo-Pakistani War, over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu.
6 August Singapore joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by Malaysia.
23 September India and Pakistan sign a cease-fire, ending the second Indo-Pakistani War.
11 November Rhodesia issues a Unilateral Declaration of Independence, which is rejected by the United Kingdom, sparking a 15-year crisis in the Commonwealth.[5]
12 December The United Kingdom imposes full economic sanctions on Rhodesia.[5]
1966 10 January The fifteenth Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference convenes in Lagos, Nigeria to discuss the Rhodesian crisis. It was the first Conference held outside London.[2]
10 March The Commonwealth Secretariat Act 1966 is passed, coming into effect retroactively on 1 July 1965, the date of the Secretariat's foundation, granting the Secretariat legal immunity in the United Kingdom.
26 May Guyana, previously British Guiana, joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
4 August The 1966 British Empire and Commonwealth Games open in Kingston, Jamaica. It was the first time the Games were held outside the so-called 'White Commonwealth', and the last time the Games included the British Empire in their name.
6 September The sixteenth Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference convenes in London.[2] Discussion is again dominated by Rhodesia with the United Kingdom announcing NIBMAR policy towards the rogue colony: refusing independence until the Black majority is given the vote.
30 September Botswana joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
4 October Lesotho, formerly Basutoland, joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
30 November Barbados joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
1968 31 January Nauru joins the Commonwealth as a 'Special Member' upon being granted independence from a joint Australia-New Zealand-United Kingdom trusteeship. It is the first microstate to join.[3]
12 March Mauritius joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
6 September Swaziland joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
1969 7 January The seventeenth and last Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference convenes in London and is again dominated by discussion of how to bring white minority rule in Rhodesia to an end. Also discussed is the Biafra crisis in Nigeria and discrimination against South Asian communities living in Africa and Black and Asian immigrants living in the UK.[2]

1970s[edit]

Year Date Event
1970 2 March Rhodesia declares itself a republic and a new constitution takes effect.[5]
4 June Tonga joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
1 July Arnold Smith begins his second term as Commonwealth Secretary-General.
16 July The 1970 British Commonwealth Games open in Edinburgh, the United Kingdom. It was the first time the Games use the metric system.
28 August Western Samoa joins the Commonwealth, having gained independence from New Zealand in 1962.
10 October Fiji joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
1971 14 January The first Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in Singapore.[2]
22 January At the conclusion of the first CHOGM, the assembled Commonwealth Heads of Government issue the Singapore Declaration, setting out the core political values of the Commonwealth. It is considered, along with the 1991 Harare Declaration, one of the two most important documents of the Commonwealth's constitution.
26 March East Pakistan declares its independence as Bangladesh.
3 December India intervenes in Bangladesh, sparking the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
16 December Pakistan surrenders to India, ending the war.
1972 18 April Bangladesh joins the Commonwealth, having gained independence from Pakistan the previous year.[6]
1973 10 July The Bahamas joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
2 August The second Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in Ottawa, Canada.[2]
1974 24 January The 1974 British Commonwealth Games open in Christchurch, New Zealand. It is the last time that the Games' name includes reference to "British".
7 February Grenada joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
1975 29 April The third Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in Kingston, Jamaica.[2]
1 July Guyana's Shridath Ramphal succeeds Arnold Smith as Commonwealth Secretary-General.
16 September Papua New Guinea joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by Australia.
1976 29 June Seychelles joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
1977 8 June The fourth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in London, the United Kingdom.[2]
1978 7 July The Solomon Islands joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
3 August The 1978 Commonwealth Games open in Edmonton, Canada. It is the first time that the Games are held under the current name.
1 October Tuvalu joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
3 November Dominica joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
1979 12 July Kiribati joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
1 August The fifth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in Lusaka, Zambia.[2]
7 August At the conclusion of the fifth CHOGM, the assembled Commonwealth Heads of Government issue the Lusaka Declaration, reaffirming the Commonwealth's opposition to racism and demanding legal equality for all people of the Commonwealth.
27 October Saint Vincent and the Grenadines joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
12 December Zimbabwe Rhodesia dissolves itself, returning power to the United Kingdom (formally as Southern Rhodesia) in preparation for recognised independence.[5]
21 December The Lancaster House Agreement is reached, setting the terms of independence for Southern Rhodesia.[5]

1980s[edit]

Year Date Event
1980 1 July Shridath Ramphal begins his second term as Commonwealth Secretary-General.
1 October Zimbabwe, formerly Southern Rhodesia, joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
30 July Vanuatu joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence from a joint France-United Kingdom condominium.
1981 21 September Belize joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
30 September The sixth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in Melbourne, Australia.[2]
1 November Antigua and Barbuda joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
1982 30 September The 1982 Commonwealth Games open in Brisbane, Australia.
9 July Maldives joins the Commonwealth as a 'Special Member', having been granted independence by the United Kingdom in 1965.[7]
1983 19 September Saint Kitts and Nevis joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
23 November The seventh Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in New Delhi, India.[2]
1984 1 January Brunei joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by the United Kingdom.
1985 1 July Shridath Ramphal begins his third term as Commonwealth Secretary-General. He becomes the first, and (so far) only, Secretary-General to serve three terms.
20 July Maldives becomes a full member of the Commonwealth, having joined as a 'Special Member' in 1982.[7]
16 October The eighth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in Nassau, The Bahamas.[2]
1986 24 July The 1986 Commonwealth Games open in Edinburgh, the United Kingdom. The Games are boycotted by 32 countries, including almost all African, Caribbean, and Asian nations, to protest against the British government's attitude to sport in apartheid-era South Africa.
3 August The ninth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in London, the United Kingdom.
1987 13 October The tenth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in Vancouver, Canada. It is the first meeting held outside the host country's capital city.[2]
15 October Fiji is suspended from the Commonwealth of Nations by decision of the assembled Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, after two coups d'état.
1989 29 September Cameroon applies for observer status in the Commonwealth, paving the way for its membership six years later.[8]
1 October Pakistan suspension from the Commonwealth ends.
18 October The eleventh Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.[2]
21 October At the conclusion of the eleventh CHOGM, the assembled Commonwealth Heads of Government issue the Langkawi Declaration, committing Commonwealth members to environmental sustainability.

1990s[edit]

Year Date Event
1990 24 January The 1990 Commonwealth Games open in Auckland, New Zealand.
21 March Namibia joins the Commonwealth upon being granted independence by South Africa.
1 July Nigeria's Chief Emeka Anyaoku succeeds Shridath Ramphal as Commonwealth Secretary-General.
1991 16 October The twelfth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in Harare, Zimbabwe.[2]
20 October At the conclusion of the twelfth CHOGM, the assembled Commonwealth Heads of Government issue the Harare Declaration, establishing the core principles and values of the Commonwealth, detailing membership criteria, and redefining and reinforcing its purpose. It is considered, along with the 1971 Singapore Declaration, one of the two most important documents of the Commonwealth's constitution.
1993 21 October The thirteenth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in Limassol, Cyprus.[2]
1994 18 August The 1994 Commonwealth Games open in Victoria, Canada. The event marked South Africa's return to the Games after a 36 years absence.
1995 1 July Chief Emeka Anyaoku begins his second term as Commonwealth Secretary-General.
10 November The fourteenth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in Auckland, New Zealand.[2]
12 November The assembled Commonwealth Heads of Government agree to the Millbrook Commonwealth Action Programme on the Harare Declaration, designed to implement the Harare Declaration's affirmation of the Commonwealth's principles and membership criteria.
13 November Cameroon joins the Commonwealth, having been granted independence by France in 1960, and joined by the former British colony of Southern Cameroons in 1961.[8]
Mozambique joins the Commonwealth. It is the first country to join the Commonwealth without having had constitutional ties to an existing member.[9]
1997 1 October Fiji's suspension from the Commonwealth ends.
24 October The fifteenth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in Edinburgh, the United Kingdom.[2]
27 October At the conclusion of the sixteenth CHOGM, the assembled Commonwealth Heads of Government issue the Edinburgh Declaration, codifying the Commonwealth's membership criteria.
1998 11 September The 1998 Commonwealth Games open in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is the first Games to be held in Asia, and the first to be held outside the so-called 'White Commonwealth' since 1966.
1999 29 May The Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group lifts Nigeria's suspension from the Commonwealth.[10]
18 October The Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group suspends Pakistan from the Commonwealth with immediate effect.[11]
12 November The sixteenth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in Durban, South Africa.[2] Thabo Mbeki becomes the first Commonwealth Chairperson-in-Office.

2000s[edit]

Year Date Event
2000 1 April New Zealand's Don McKinnon succeeds Chief Emeka Anyaoku as Commonwealth Secretary-General.[12]
6 June The Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group partially suspends Fiji from the Commonwealth with immediate effect.[12]
2001 28 September The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting that was due to convene on 6 October is cancelled in the aftermath of the 11 September terrorist attacks on the United States.[13]
6 October The seventeenth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting was due to convene in Brisbane, Australia.[13]
20 December The Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group lifts Fiji's suspension from the Commonwealth, but keeps it on the agenda until the Supreme Court rules on the government's constitutionality.[14]
2002 30 January The Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group approves Pervez Musharraf's roadmap for the October general election.[14]
2 March The seventeenth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in Coolum, Australia.[2] John Howard becomes Commonwealth Chairperson-in-Office.
19 March After Commonwealth election observers report that Zimbabwe's presidential election was rife with fraud and intimidation, the troika, led by John Howard, announces Zimbabwe's immediate suspension from the Commonwealth.[14]
25 July The 2002 Commonwealth Games open in Manchester, the United Kingdom.
2003 5 December The eighteenth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in Abuja, Nigeria.[2] Olusegun Obasanjo becomes Commonwealth Chairperson-in-Office.
New Zealand's Don McKinnon is re-elected as Commonwealth Secretary-General in a surprise competitive election by forty votes to eleven against Sri Lanka's Lakshman Kadirgamar.[15]
7 December Robert Mugabe personally announces Zimbabwe's immediate withdrawal from the Commonwealth, in wake of his failure to have his country's suspension lifted.[15]
8 December At the conclusion of the eighteenth CHOGM, the assembled Commonwealth Heads of Government issue the Aso Rock Declaration, reaffirming the Commonwealth's commitment to the Harare Declaration.[16]
2004 1 April Don McKinnon begins his second term as Commonwealth Secretary-General.
22 May The Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group lifts Pakistan's suspension from the Commonwealth with immediate effect.[17]
2005 7 April The International Organisations Act 2005 is passed in the United Kingdom, amending the Commonwealth Secretariat Act 1966.[18]
25 November The nineteenth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in Valletta, Malta.[2] Lawrence Gonzi becomes Commonwealth Chairperson-in-Office.
2006 15 March The 2006 Commonwealth Games open in Melbourne, Australia.
8 December The Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group suspends Fiji from the Commonwealth with immediate effect.[19]
2007 24 October The Committee on Commonwealth Membership makes recommendations on changes to the membership criteria of the Commonwealth.
22 November The Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group suspends Pakistan from the Commonwealth with immediate effect.[20]
23 November The twentieth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in Kampala, Uganda.[2] Yoweri Museveni becomes Commonwealth Chairperson-in-Office.
2008 1 April India's Kamalesh Sharma succeeds Don McKinnon as Commonwealth Secretary-General.[21]
22 May The Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group lifts Pakistan's suspension from the Commonwealth with immediate effect.[21]
2009 1 September Fiji's suspension is increased to a full suspension, following a failure to commit to the restoration of electoral government by 2010.
27 November The twenty-first Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.[2] Patrick Manning becomes Commonwealth Chairperson-in-Office.
2010 26 May Kamla Persad-Bissessar becomes Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago, and thus succeeds Patrick Manning as Commonwealth Chairperson-in-Office.[22]
3 October The 2010 Commonwealth Games open in Delhi, India.
2011 28 October The twenty-second Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting convenes in Perth, Australia.[2] Julia Gillard becomes Commonwealth Chairperson-in-Office. Perth Agreement.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Marshall, Sir Peter (September 2001). "The Balfour Formula and the Evolution of the Commonwealth". The Round Table 90 (361): pp. 541–53. doi:10.1080/00358530120082823. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al "List of Meetings". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 22 December 2008. 
  3. ^ a b c McIntyre, W. David (April 2008). "The Expansion of the Commonwealth and the Criteria for Membership". Round Table 97 (395): 273–85. doi:10.1080/00358530801962089. "Malaya's joining as an indigenous monarchy in 1957" 
  4. ^ McIntyre, W. David (January 2000). "Britain and the creation of the Commonwealth Secretariat". Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 28 (1): pp. 135–158. doi:10.1080/03086530008583082. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Chronology: Rhodesia UDI: Road to Settlement". London School of Economics. Retrieved 23 December 2008. 
  6. ^ Kohen, Marcelo G. (2006). Secession. London: Cambridge University Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-521-84928-9. 
  7. ^ a b "The Maldives and the Commonwealth". Republic of Maldives. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 
  8. ^ a b Pondi, Jean-Emmanuel (October 1997). "Cameroon and the Commonwealth of Nations". The Round Table 86 (344): pp. 563–70. doi:10.1080/00358539708454389. 
  9. ^ Ingram, Derek (April 1996). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 85 (338): pp. 153–165. doi:10.1080/00358539608454302. 
  10. ^ Ingram, Derek (October 1999). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 88 (352): pp. 547–567. doi:10.1080/003585399107758. 
  11. ^ Ingram, Derek (January 2000). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 89 (353): pp. 45–57. doi:10.1080/750459452. 
  12. ^ a b Ingram, Derek (July 2000). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 89 (355): pp. 311–55. doi:10.1080/00358530050083406. 
  13. ^ a b Ingram, Derek (January 2002). "Brisbane Notebook". The Round Table 91 (363): pp. 37–39. doi:10.1080/00358530220118516. 
  14. ^ a b c Ingram, Derek (April 2002). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 91 (364): pp. 131–59. doi:10.1080/00358530220144148. 
  15. ^ a b "Editorial: CHOGM 2003, Abuja, Nigeria". The Round Table 93 (373): pp. 3–6. January 2004. doi:10.1080/0035853042000188139. 
  16. ^ "Our Work". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 
  17. ^ Ingram, Derek (July 2004). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 93 (375): pp. 311–42. doi:10.1080/0035853042000249933. 
  18. ^ "International Organisations Act 2005". Office of Public Sector Information. 7 April 2005. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  19. ^ Ingram, Derek; Soal, Judith (February 2007). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 96 (388): pp. 2–28. doi:10.1080/00358530701189734. 
  20. ^ Gruenbaum, Oren (February 2008). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 97 (394): pp. 3–17. doi:10.1080/00358530701864963. 
  21. ^ a b Gruenbaum, Oren (June 2008). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 97 (396): pp. 341–54. doi:10.1080/00358530802159347. 
  22. ^ Staff writer (29 May 2010). "Kamla now Commonwealth Chair". Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. Retrieved 29 May 2010. "The position she has inherited from former prime minister Patrick Manning following the nation's hosting of the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in November, 2009."