Timeline of fundamental physics discoveries

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This table provides an overview of the scientific relevant discoveries which would have to be predicted in its entirety by a theory of everything, in order to claim itself as a success.

Advances in the knowledge of the laws of nature consisting either of experimental discoveries or theoretical proposals that were confirmed experimentally.
250 BCE Archimedes principle: Archimedes
1514 Heliocentrism: Nicholas Copernicus
1589 Galileo's Leaning Tower of Pisa experiment: Galileo Galilei
1600 Earth's magnetic field discovered : William Gilbert
1613 Inertia: Galileo Galilei
1621 Snell's law: Willebrord Snellius
1660 Pascal's Principle: Blaise Pascal
1660 Hooke's law: Robert Hooke
1687 Laws of motion and law of gravity: Newton
1780
1782 Conservation of matter: Lavoisier
1785 Inverse square law for electric charges confirmed: Coulomb
1801 Wave theory of light: Young
1803 Atomic theory of matter: Dalton
1805
1806 Kinetic energy: Young
1814 Wave theory of light, interference: Fresnel
1820 Evidence for electromagnetic interactions: Ampère, Biot, Savart
1824 Ideal gas cycle analysis, internal combustion engine: Sadi Carnot
1827 Electrical resistance, etc.: Ohm
1830
1838 Lines of force, fields: Michael Faraday
1838 Earth's magnetic field: Weber
1842–3 Conservation of energy: Mayer, Kelvin
1842 Doppler effect: Kelvin
1845 Faraday rotation (light and electromagnetic): Faraday
1847 Conservation of energy 2: Joule, Helmholtz
1850–1 Second law of thermodynamics: Clausius, Kelvin
1855
1857–9 Kinetic theory: Clausius, Maxwell
1861 Black body: Kirchhoff
1863 Entropy: Clausius
1864 dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field: Maxwell
1867 Dynamic theory of gases, Maxwell
1880
1871–89 Statistical mechanics: Boltzmann, Gibbs
1884 Boltzmann derives Stefan radiation law
1887 Electromagnetic waves: Hertz
1893 radiation law: Wien
1895 X-rays: Röntgen
1896 Radioactivity: Becquerel
1897 Electron: Thomson
1900 formula for Black body radiation: Planck
1905
1905 Special relativity: Einstein
Photoelectric effect: Einstein
Brownian motion: Einstein
1911 Equivalence principle
Discovery of the Atomic nucleus: Rutherford
Superconductivity: Kamerlingh Onnes
1913 Bohr model of the atom: Bohr
1916 General relativity: Einstein
1919 Light bending confirmed
1922 Friedmann proposes expanding universe
1923 Stern–Gerlach experiment
Matter waves
Galaxies
Particle nature of photons confirmed
1925–7 Quantum mechanics
1925 Stellar structure understood
1927 Big Bang: Lemaître
1928 Antimatter predicted: Dirac
1929 expansion of universe confirmed: Hubble
1930
1932 Antimatter discovered: Anderson
Neutron discovered: Chadwick
1933 Invention of the electron microscope: Ernst Ruska
1937 Muon discovered: Anderson & Neddermeyer
1938 Superfluidity discovered
Energy production in stars understood
1939 Uranium fission discovered
1944 Theory of magnetism in 2D: Ising model
1947 Pion discovered
1948 Quantum electrodynamics
1955
1948 Invention of the Maser and Laser - Charles Townes
1956 Electron neutrino discovered
1956–7 Parity found violated
1957 Superconductivity explained
1959–60 Role of topology in quantum physics, predicted and confirmed
1962 SU(3) theory of strong interactions
Muon neutrino found
1963 Quarks predicted = Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig
1967 Unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions
Solar neutrino problem found
Pulsars (neutron stars) discovered
1968 Experimental evidence for quarks found
1968 Dark Matter theories - Vera Rubin
1970–3 Standard model of elementary particles invented
1971 Helium 3 superfluidity
1974 Black hole radiation predicted
Renormalization group
Charmed quark found
1975 Tau lepton found
1977 Bottom quark found
1980
1980 Quantum Hall effect
1981 Theory of cosmic inflation proposed
1982 Fractional quantum Hall effect
1995 Bose–Einstein condensate found : Wolfgang Ketterle
1995 Top quark found
1998 Accelerating expansion of universe found
1999 Slow light experimentally demonstrated : Lene Vestergaard Hau
2000 Tau neutrino found
2003 WMAP observations of Cosmic microwave background
2005
2012 Higgs Boson found
2014 Gravitational waves detected from Cosmic microwave background

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References[edit]