Timeline of Indonesian history

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This is a timeline of Indonesian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Indonesia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Indonesia. See also the list of Presidents of Indonesia.

Millennia: 1st BC · 1st–2nd · 3rd
Centuries: 4th BC · 2nd BC · 1st BC

4th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
400 BC The prehistoric clay pottery Buni culture (near present-day Bekasi) were flourished in coastal northern West Java.[1] (to 100)

2nd century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
200 BC "Dvipantara" or "Yawadvipa" Hindu kingdom is thought to have existed in Java or Sumatra as it was mentioned in India's earliest epic, the Ramayana; Sugriva, the chief of Rama's army dispatched his men to Yawadvipa in search of Sita.[2]

Centuries: 4th · 5th · 7th · 8th · 9th · 10th · 11th · 12th · 13th · 14th · 15th · 16th · 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th

4th century AD[edit]

Year Date Event
350 The Kutai Martadipura phase in East Kalimantan produced the earliest known stone inscriptions in Indonesia.[3] (to 400)

5th century AD[edit]

Year Date Event
450 Several stone inscriptions were edicted in West Java. Among other the Tugu inscription announce decrees of Purnavarman, the king of Tarumanagara, one of the earliest Hindu kingdom in Java.[4] (to 669)

7th century[edit]

Year Date Event
664 A Tang dynasty Chinese source written by I-tsing, mentioned about Holing (Kalingga) kingdom, located somewhere in the northern coast of Central Java.[5]
671 I-tsing visited Srivijaya and Malayu in Sumatra and Kedah in Malay peninsula on his way to Nalanda, India.[6]
683 Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa performed Siddhayatra as the journey to expand his influence. The event mentioned in several inscriptions such as Telaga Batu inscription, Talang Tuwo inscription and Kedukan Bukit Inscription. The beginning of Srivijaya hegemony over the maritime region around Malacca strait and Sunda Strait.[7]
686 Srivijaya launch naval invasion against Java, mentioned in Kota Kapur Inscription. Probably contributed to the end of Tarumanagara kingdom.[8]
687 I-tsing returned to Srivijaya in on his way back from India to China. In his record he reported that the kingdom of Malayu was captured by Srivijaya.[9]
700 The Sumatra-based Srivijaya naval kingdom flourishes and declines.[10] (to 1500)
Wet-field rice cultivation, small towns and kingdoms flourish. Trade links are established with China and India.[11]
Sojomerto inscription possibly dated around late 7th century discovered in Batang, Central Java, mentioned about Dapunta Selendra, possibly the ancestor of Sailendra dynasty. The inscription was written in old Malay suggested Srivijayan link to this family.[12]

8th century[edit]

Year Date Event
718 Sri Indravarman King of Srivijaya send a letter to the Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz of the Umayyad Caliphate in Damascus, signing early ancient Indonesian official contact with Islamic world in the Middle East.[13]
732 The Sanjaya dynasty is founded around this time according to the Canggal inscription.[14]
752 The Hindu Medang (Mataram) kingdom flourishes and declines.[15] (to 1045)
760 The construction of Borobudur started.[16]
770's to 780's Java launched series of naval raids on ports of Dai Viet, Champa and Cambodia; Sontay in Tonkin (767); Nha Trang (774); captured Indrapura in Cambodia (770); Phan Rang (787). The naval raids was probably launched by Sailendran-Srivijayan Maharaja Dharmasetu or Dharanindra.[17]
778 Kalasan temple constructed according to Kalasan inscription.
792 The Manjusrigrha (Sewu) temple is completed according to Manjusrigrha inscription.
800 The agriculturally based Buddhist Sailendra kingdom flourishes and declines.[14] (to 832)

9th century[edit]

Year Date Event
825 Borobudur is completed during the reign of Samaratungga.[18][19]
856 Prambanan is completed.[14] According to Shivagrha inscription Rakai Pikatan — the husband of Pramodhawardhani — defeated Balaputra.
860 Balaputra the Maharaja of Suvarnadvipa and the ruler of Srivijaya, constructs the buddhist temple and monastery in Nalanda India, on the land given by King Devapaladeva of Pala in Benggala, according to the Nalanda inscription.[20]

10th century[edit]

Year Date Event
907 Sumbing volcano erupted, according to Rukam inscription.
King Balitung edicted Mantyasih inscription containing the list of Medang kings, moved the capital from Mamrati to Poh Pitu, and expanded Prambanan temple.
914 The Warmadewa dynasty rules Bali.[21] (to 1080)
928 During the reign of King Wawa, the capital of Medang Kingdom in Mataram was devastated, probably by the massive eruption of Mount Merapi.
929 Mpu Sindok moved the seat of power of the Medang Kingdom from Mataram in Central Java to Tamwlang in East Java and established Isyana Dynasty. The shift was probably as a result of the eruption of Mount Merapi and/or invasion from Srivijaya.[22]
937 Mpu Sindok moved the capital again from Tamwlang to Watugaluh, both near bank of Brantas River in modern Jombang in East Java.
c. 980's Dynastic marriage between princess Mahendradatta of Javanese Isyanas and king Udayana of Balinese Warmadewas.
990 King Dharmawangsa of Medang kingdom launches a naval invasion on Palembang in an unsuccessful attempt to conquer Srivijaya.[17] (to 1006)
Airlangga, son of King Udayana and Queen Mahendradatta was born in Bali.
996 Dharmawangsa commissioned the translation of the Mahabharata into Old Javanese.[23]

11th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1006 King Dharmawangsa's Medang kingdom falls under invasion of King Wurawari from Lwaram (highly possible Srivijayan ally in Java).[21]
1019 Airlangga establishes the Kingdom of Kahuripan.[24]
1025 Rajendra Chola, the Chola king from Cholamandala in South India, conquered Pannai and Kadaram from Srivijaya and occupied it for some time. The Cholas continued a series of raids and conquests of parts Srivijayan empire in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula.[25]
1030 Sanghyang Tapak inscription in the Cicatih River bank in Cibadak, Sukabumi, West Java, mentioned about the establishment of sacred forest and Kingdom of Sunda. (to 1579)
1041 Airlangga divided Kahuripan into two kingdoms Janggala and Kadiri and abdicated in favour of his successors.[26]

12th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1104 King Jayawarsa of Kadiri ascends to the throne.[citation needed]
1115 King Kamesvara of Kadiri ascends to the throne. Janggala ceases to exist and united under Kadiri domination, highly possible under royal marriage. During his reign Mpu Dharmaja writes Kakawin Smaradahana, a eulogy for the king and become the inspiration of Panji cycle, the tales that spreads across Southeast Asia.[26]
1130 King Jayabaya of Kadiri ascends to the throne.[citation needed]

13th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1222 Battle of Ganter, Ken Arok defeated Kertajaya, the last king of Kediri, thus established Singhasari kingdom[27] Ken Arok ended the reign of Isyana Dynasty and started his own Rajasa dynasty.
1257 Baab Mashur Malamo established The Kingdom of Ternate in Maluku.
1275 King Kertanegara of Singhasari launched Pamalayu expedition against Melayu Kingdom in Sumatra. (to 1292)
1284 King Kertanegara launched Pabali expedition to Bali, which integrated Bali into the Singhasari territory.
1289 Kertanegara insult the envoy of Kublai Khan that demand Java to pay the tribute to Yuan Dynasty.[28][29]
1292 Jayakatwang, duke of Kediri, rebelled and killed Kertanegara, ended the Singhasari kingdom.
Marco Polo, on his voyage from China to Persia visited Sumatra and reported that on the northern part of Sumatra there were six trading ports including Ferlec, Samudera and Lambri.[30]
1293 Mongol invasion of Java,[31] Kublai Khan of Yuan dynasty China, sent punitive attack against Kertanegara of Singhasari. The Mongol forces were repelled.
10 November The coronation of Nararya Sangramawijaya as the monarch of Majapahit kingdom, marked the foundation of Hindu Majapahit kingdom in eastern Java.
1300 Islam is thought to have become established in the Aceh region.
1300 Aji Batara Agung Dewa Sakti founded Sultanate of Kutai in the Tepian Batu or Kutai Lama.

14th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1309 King Jayanegara succeeds Kertarajasa Jayawardhana as ruler of Majapahit.[32]
1318 an Italian Franciscan monk, Mattiussi visited Sumatra, Java, and Banjarmasin in Borneo. In his record he described Majapahit kingdom. (to 1330)
1328 Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi succeeds Jayanegara as ruler of Majapahit.
1347 Adityawarman moved the capital of Dharmasraya and established the kingdom of Malayupura in Pagarruyung, West Sumatra.[33]
1350 Hayam Wuruk, styled Sri Rajasanagara succeeds Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi as ruler of Majapahit; his reign is considered the empire's 'Golden Age'.[32]
Under its military commander Gajah Mada, Majapahit stretches over much of modern day Indonesia.
1357 In the Battle of Bubat, the Sundanese royal family were massacred by the Majapahit army under the order of Gajah Mada. This event led to the death of Sundanese King Lingga Buana and the princess Dyah Pitaloka Citraresmi that committed suicide.[34]
1365 The Old Javanese text Nagarakertagama is written.[32]
1377 Majapahit sends a punitive expedition against Palembang in Sumatra. Palembang's prince, Parameswara (later Iskandar Syah) flees, eventually finding his way to Malacca and establishing it as a major international port.[32]
1389 Wikramawardhana succeeds Sri Rajasanagara as ruler of Majapahit.[32]

15th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1405 Paregreg war, Majapahit civil war of succession between Wikramawardhana against Wirabhumi. (to 1406)
1405—1407 The first voyage of Zheng He, a massive Ming dynasty naval expedition visited Java, Palembang, Malacca, Aru, Samudera and Lambri.[35] (to 1433)
1429 Queen Suhita succeeds Wikramawardhana as ruler of Majapahit.[32]
1447 Wijayaparakramawardhana, succeeds Suhita as ruler of Majapahit.[32]
1451 Rajasawardhana, born Bhre Pamotan, styled Brawijaya II succeeds Wijayaparakramawardhana as ruler of Majapahit.[32]
1453 Reign of Rajasawardhana ends.[32]
1456 Girindrawardhana, styled Brawijaya VI becomes ruler of Majapahit.[32]
1466 Singhawikramawardhana, succeeds Girindrawardhana as ruler of Majapahit.[32]
1478 Reign of Singhawikramawardhana ends.[32]
1500 Islam becomes Indonesia's dominant religion.[citation needed]
Around late 15th century Bujangga Manik manuscript was composed, tell the story of Jaya Pakuan Bujangga Manik, a Sundanese Hindu hermit journeys throughout Java and Bali.[36]

16th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1509 The Portuguese king sends Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to find Malacca, the eastern terminus of Asian trade. After initially receiving Sequeira, Sultan Mahmud Syah captures and/or kills several of his men and attempts an assault on the four Portuguese ships, which escape.[37] The Javanese fleet is also destroyed in Malacca.
1511 August Afonso de Albuquerque after sailing from Portuguese Goa conquers the Sultanate of Malacca with a force of 1,200 and seventeen or eighteen ships.[37]
1512 The first Portuguese exploratory expedition was sent eastward from Malacca to search for the 'Spice Islands' (Maluku) led by Francisco Serrão. Serrao is shipwrecked but struggles on to Hitu (northern Ambon) and wins the favour of the local rulers.[38]
1520 The Portuguese established a trading post in the village of Lamakera on the eastern side of Solor as a transit harbour between Maluku and Malacca.
Sultan Ali Mughayat Shah of Aceh begins an expansionist campaign capturing Daya on the west Sumatran coast, and the pepper and gold producing lands on the east coast.
1521 November Ferdinand Magellan's expedition reaches Maluku and after trade with Ternate returns to Europe with a load of cloves.
1522 The Portuguese ally themselves with the rulers of Ternate and begin construction of a fort.[38]
August Luso Sundanese Treaty signed between Portugal and Sunda Kingdom granted Portuguese permit to build fortress in Sunda Kelapa
1535 The Portuguese in Ternate depose Sultan Tabariji (or Tabarija) and send him to Portuguese Goa where he converts to Christianity and bequeaths his Portuguese godfather Jordao de Freitas the island of Ambon.[39]
1546 Francis Xavier works among the peoples of Ambon, Ternate and Morotai (Moro) laying the foundations for a permanent mission. (to 1547)
1559 Sultan Khairun of Ternate protesting the Portuguese's Christianisation activities in his lands. Hostilities between Ternate and the Portuguese.
1562 Portuguese Dominican priests build a palm-trunk fortress which Javanese Muslims burned down the following year. The fort was rebuilt from more durable materials and the Dominicans commenced the Christianisation of the local population.[39]
1569 Peace treaty was signed by Sultan Khairun of Ternate and Governor Lopez De Mesquita of Portuguese.
1570 Sultan Hairun of Ternate is killed by the Portuguese.[39] The reign of Sultan Baabullah.
1575 Following a five-year war, the Ternateans under Sultan Baabullah defeated the Portuguese.
1578 The Portuguese establish a fort on Tidore but the main centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku becomes Ambon.[39]
1579 The British navigator Sir Francis Drake passes through Maluku and transit in Ternate on his circumnavigation of the world. The Portuguese establish a fort on Tidore but the main centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku becomes Ambon.[40]
1583 Death of Sultan Baabullah of Ternate.
1595 First Dutch expedition to Indonesia sets sail for the East Indies with two hundred and forty-nine men and sixty-four cannons led by Cornelis de Houtman.[41]
1596 June de Houtman’s expedition reaches Banten the main pepper port of West Java where they clash with both the Portuguese and Indonesians. It then sails east along the north coast of Java losing twelve crew to a Javanese attack at Sidayu and killing a local ruler in Madura.[41]
1597 de Houtman’s expedition returns to the Netherlands with enough spices to make a considerable profit.[41]
1598 The Portuguese require an armada of 90 ships to put down a Solorese uprising.[39] (to 1599)
More Dutch fleets leave for Indonesia and most are profitable.[41]
1599 The van Neck expedition returns to Europe. The expedition makes a 400 per cent profit.[41] (to 1600)
March Leaving Europe the previous year, a fleet of eight ships under Jacob van Neck was the first Dutch fleet to reach the ‘Spice Islands’ of Maluku.[41]
1600 The Portuguese win a major naval battle in the bay of Ambon.[42] Later in the year, the Dutch join forces with the local Hituese in an anti-Portuguese alliance, in return for which the Dutch would have the sole right to purchase spices from Hitu.[42]
Elizabeth I grants a charter to the British East India Company beginning the English advance in Asia.

17th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1602 The Portuguese send a major (and last) expeditionary force from Malacca which succeeded in reimposing a degree of Portuguese control.
The Dutch East India Company (VOC) is established by merging competing Dutch trading companies.[42]
June British East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrives in Aceh and sails on to Bantam where he is allowed to build trading post which becomes the centre of British trade in Indonesia until 1682.[43]
1603 First permanent Dutch trading post is established in Banten, West Java.[43]
1604 A second English East India Company voyage commanded by Sir Henry Middleton reaches Ternate, Tidore, Ambon and Banda. Fierce VOC hostility is encountered in Banda thus beginning Anglo-Dutch competition for access to spices[43]
1605 February The VOC in alliance with Hitu prepare to attack a Portuguese fort in Ambon but the Portuguese surrender.[42]
1606 A Spanish fleet occupies Ternate and Tidore.[42]
1608 Iskandar Muda of Aceh Sultanate launched series of naval conquest on coastal Sumatran and Malay peninsula states. (to 1637)
1610 The VOC establishes the post of Governor General to enable firmer control of their affairs in Asia.[42]
1611 The English establish trading posts at Sukadana (southwest Kalimantan), Makassar, Jayakarta and Jepara in Java, and Aceh, Pariaman and Jambi in (Sumatra) threatening Dutch ambitions for a monopoly on East Indies trade.[43]
The Dutch establish a post at Jayakarta (later 'Batavia' and then 'Jakarta').
1613 The Dutch expel the Portuguese from their Solor fort.
1619 Jan Pieterszoon Coen appointed Governor-General of the VOC who would show he had no scruples about using brute force to establish the VOC on a firm footing.
30 May Coen, backed by a force of nineteen ships, storms the Jayakarta driving out the Banten forces, and from the ashes of Jayakarta, establishes Batavia as the VOC headquarters.
1620 Almost the entire native population of Banda Islands was deported, driven away, starved to death or killed in an attempt to replace them with Dutch colonial slave labour.
Diplomatic agreements in Europe commence a three-year period of cooperation between the Dutch and the English over the spice trade.[43]
1623 In a notorious but disputed incident, known as the 'Amboyna massacre', ten English and ten Japanese traders are arrested, tried and beheaded for conspiracy against the Dutch Government.[44] The English quietly withdraw from most of their Indonesian activities (except trading in Bantam) and focus on other Asian interests.
1628—1629 Sultan Agung of Mataram launched a failed campaign to conquer Dutch Batavia.
1629 Iskandar Muda of Aceh Sultanate launched a failed attempt to took Portuguese Malacca.
1636 The Portuguese are expelled again from their Solor fort by the Dutch following a reoccupation.
1646 Sultan Agung of Mataram dies – and is buried at his graveyard at Imogiri
1667 As a result of the Treaty of Breda between Dutch and England, the Dutch secured a worldwide monopoly on nutmeg by forcing England to give up their claim on Run, the most remote of the Banda Islands. While the Dutch did not press their claims on New Netherland.
1700 With the decline of the spice trade, textiles are now the most important trade item in the Dutch East Indies.[45]

18th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1704 First Javanese War of Succession.[46]
1712 The first shipment of coffee from Java reaches Amsterdam.[47]
1717 Surabaya rebels against the VOC.[48]
1719 Second Javanese War of Succession.[48]
1735 Governor-General Dirk van Cloon dies, one of many victims of disease in Batavia.[49]
1740 9 October A massacre of Batavia's ethnic Chinese begins after they are suspected by the VOC of planning a rebellion. Approximately 10,000 are killed and the Chinese quarter is burned.[50]
1743 The capital Kartasura fell under Geger Pecinan uprising — Raden Mas Garendi (Sunan Kuning) led Chinese mercenaries revolted against Pakubuwono II.
1745 17 February Pakubuwono II established a new kraton in Sala village and established Surakarta Sunanate.
1755 13 February The Treaty of Giyanti is signed, effectively partitioning the Mataram Sultanate. The VOC recognizes Mangkubumi as Sultan Hamengkubuwana I, who rules half of Central Java. Hamengkubuwana I then established Yogyakarta Sultanate, moves to Yogya and renames the city Yogyakarta[51]
1757 17 March Salatiga treaty between Prince Sambernyawa with Pakubuwono III and Hamengkubuwono I further partitioning the remnant of Mataram Sultanate, the Mangkunegaran Grand Duchy was established.
1769 French expeditions capture clove plants in Ambon, ending the VOC monopoly of the plant.[52] (to 1772)
1770 Captain James Cook stops at Onrust Island in the Bay of Batavia for repairs to his ship Endeavour on his round the world voyage.[53]
1778 24 April Royal Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences was established by a group of Dutch intellectuals.[54] This institution is the pioneer of scientific efforts in Indonesia and the founder of National Museum of Indonesia.
1792 March Hamengkubuwana I dies.[55]
1800 1 January The bankrupt Dutch East India Company (VOC) is formally dissolved and the nationalised Dutch East Indies is established.[56]

19th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1803 First phase of Padri War. (to 1825)
1808 Herman Willem Daendels the Governor-general of the Dutch East Indies (1808–1811) begin the construction of Java Great Post Road.[57]
1815 April Mount Tambora in Sumbawa island erupted, it was the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history that wiped Tambora culture and killed at least 71,000 people in total (including the aftermath). The eruption created global climate anomalies known as "volcanic winter".[58]
1825 Java War. (to 1830)
1831 Second phase of Padri War. (to 1838)
1864 June The first railway track in Indonesia was laid between Semarang and Tanggung, Central Java by the Dutch colonial government.[59]
1868 The Batavian Museum (today National Museum of Indonesia) was officially opened by Dutch East Indies government.
1870 Official dismantling of the Cultivation System and beginning of a 'Liberal Policy' of deregulated exploitation of the Netherlands East Indies.[60]
1873 The beginning of the bloody Aceh War for Dutch occupation of the province.[60]
1879 21 April Kartini was born in Jepara, today the date is commemorated as women's emancipation day in Indonesia.
1883 August Mount Krakatoa in Sunda Strait erupted, killed 36,417 people.
1888 Founding of the shipping line Koninklijke Paketvaart-Maatschappij (KPM) that supported the unification and development of the colonial economy.[60]
1894 Lombok War[60] The Dutch looted and destroyed the Cakranegara palace of Mataram.[61] J. L. A. Brandes, a Dutch philologist discovered and secured Nagarakretagama manuscript in Lombok royal library.
1898 General van Heutz becomes chief of staff of Aceh campaign. Wilhelmina becomes queen of the Netherlands.[60]

20th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1901 Ethical Policy is proclaimed.[60]
1903 Aceh declared conquered.[60]
1904 Van Heutz becomes Governor General.[60] Kartini established a school for women in Rembang, just like Dewi Sartika, she was considered as the pioneer of women's rights in Indonesia.
16 January Dewi Sartika established the first school for women in Dutch East Indies in Bandung, she was considered as the pioneer of women's rights in Indonesia.
1906 The Dutch intervention in Bali (1906) destroyed the southern Bali kingdom of Badung and Tabanan.
1907 Tirto Adhi Suryo founds civil servants' association Sarekat Priyayi.[60]
1908 Budi Utomo is proclaimed as the first official nationalist movement. During Dutch intervention in Bali (1908), the last Balinese rulers wiped out in puputan ('suicidal battle to death').[60]
1911 Tirto Adhi Suryo founds the Islamic Traders' League.[60]
1912 Islamic League (Sarekat Islam) becomes the first mass-based nationalist party.[60]
18 November The modernist Islamic organization Muhammadiyah was established by Ahmad Dahlan in Yogyakarta.
1914 World War I breaks out; the Netherlands is a neutral country in the war.[60]
1917 East Indies trade with Europe cut off by the war. Russian Revolution[60]
1918 Tirto Adhi Suryo dies.[60]
1919 May Mt Kelud in East Java erupts with a deathtoll of around 5,000 people.
1920 Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) is founded. Economic downturn.[60]
1925 Birth of Pramoedya Ananta Toer. A sharp rise in world commodity prices brings prosperity to the Indies.[60]
1926 31 January Nahdlatul Ulama was established by Hasyim Asy'ari as the reaction to the modernist Muhammadiyah organization.
1929 Great Depression in America.[60] affected the economy of Dutch East Indies.
1930 Sukarno's famous nationalist speech, 'Indonesia Accuses', given as defence in his political trial.[62]
1941 8 December Netherlands declared war on Japan.[63]
1942 27 February Battle of the Java Sea, Imperial Japanese Navy defeated Allied force and sealed the fate of Netherlands East Indies, afterwards Imperial Japan occupies Indonesia during World War II, over throwing the Dutch East Indies and install their own imperial structure.
1945 28 May First meeting of the Investigatory Commission for Indonesian Independence.[64]
1 June Sukarno's Pancasila speech[64]
16 July Draft of constitution for the Republic completed.[64]
August Republican government established in Jakarta and constitution adopted. Central Indonesian National Committee (KNIP) established.
August Euphoria of revolution spreads across the country, while local Japanese commanders and their troops often abandoned urban areas to avoid confrontation. Many discreetly allowed Indonesian youths to acquire arms. Republican youths take over infrastructure facilities in large Javan cities and mass pro-Republic rallies are held. (to September)
15 August Japanese surrender to Allied powers.[62]
17 August "Proclamation of Indonesian Independence," signed by Sukarno-Hatta.[62]
3 November Vice President Hatta proclaims right of the people to form political parties.
10 November Battle of Surabaya.[62]
1946 Social revolutions, including the Three Regions (Tiga Daerah) Revolt.[62]
Federal states, including the State of East Indonesia are set up by Dutch in the outer islands.[62]
1947 25 March Linggadjati Agreement, first ceasfire.[62]
20 July Major Dutch military offensive to resolve differences by force.[62]
1948 Darul Islam rebellions begin in West Java, spread to other provinces but conclude with the execution of its leader Kartosoewiryo.[65] (to 1962)
19 January Renville Agreement establishes the Van Mook line between Republican and Dutch held territories.[62]
August Fall of Amir Syarifuddin government[62] largely from Renville Agreement fallout.
18 September Madiun Affair: Communist leaders launch a revolt in Central Java in an attempt to take over the Revolution but are suppressed by Republican troops.[62]
19 December Dutch undertake second military offensive capturing Republican capital at Yogyakarta and most of the Republican cabinet. Amir Syarifuddin executed by fleeing Republicans.[62]
1949 February Tan Malaka executed by Republican Army.[62]
1 August Official ceasefire.[62]
December International pressure leads Netherlands Government to transfer power to the United States of Indonesia (RUSI) at the Dutch-Indonesian Round Table Conference.[62]
1950 Military articulation of doctrines dwifungsi and hankamrata: a military role in sociopolitical development as well as security; a requirement that the resources of the people be at the call of the armed forces.[66] (to 1960)
29 January General Sudirman, commander of Indonesia's armed forces, dies aged 34
25 April The Republic of South Moluccas (RMS) is proclaimed in Ambon
17 August Following RUSI endorsement of a new constitution, the federation is dissolved and Sukarno proclaims a unitary state, the 'Republic of Indonesia'.[62]
6 September The first cabinet of the unitary state is established. It is led by Prime Minister Mohammad Natsir.[67]
27 September Indonesia becomes the 60th member of the United Nations.[67]
1951 21 March The Natsir cabinet falls[68]
26 April The composition of the new cabinet is announced. The new Prime Minister is Dr. Sukiman Wirjosanjojo.[67]
1952 25 February Amid bitter disputes over the signing of a Mutual Security Agreement with the US, the Sukiman cabinet resigns.[68]
3 April The new cabinet, led by Prime Minister Wilopo is inaugurated.[67]
17 October Army-organized demonstrations take place in Jakarta to demand the dissolution of the legislature. Tank guns and machine guns are trained on the presidential palace.[68] This leads to the suspension of General Nasution as army chief of staff following army indiscipline over command and support that threatens the government.[65]
1953 2 June The Wilopo cabinet resigns.[68]
31 July After lengthy negotiations, the composition of the new cabinet is announced. Serving his first term as prime minister is Ali Sastroamidjojo.[68]
1955 March Regional rebellions in Sumatra and Sulawesi. (to August 1961)
24 March The second cabinet to be led by Ali Sastroamidjojo takes office.[67]
18 April The city of Bandung hosts the Asia-Africa Conference. It is the first meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement and is attended by world leaders including China's Zhou Enlai, India's Nehru, Egypt's Nasser and Yugoslavia's Tito.[66] (to 25 April)
24 July After a dispute with the Army over appointments, the cabinet resigns.[68]
12 August Led by Prime Minister Burhanuddin Harahap, the new cabinet is sworn in.[67]
29 September Indonesia holds general parliamentary elections;[62] the last free national elections until 1999; support for the parties is widely distributed with four parties each gaining 16–22 per cent and the remaining votes split between 24 parties.[66]
15 December Elections are held for the Constitutional Assembly[68]
1956 3 March The cabinet falls as a result of its policy toward the Dutch.[68]
3 May Indonesia unilaterally abrogates the Round Table Agreement signed with the Dutch in 1949.[67]
1 December Hatta resigns as vice-president.[67]
1957 21 February President Sukarno announces his "Conception" (Konsepsi) of the nature of Indonesia. This will eventually lead to Guided Democracy[67][68]
March Regional rebellions in Sumatra and Sulawesi.[66] (to August 1961)
14 March Martial Law is proclaimed. On the same day, the cabinet resigns.[68]
9 April Sukarno appoints a "Working Cabinet" with Djuanda as prime minister.[67]
30 November An attempt is made to assassinate President Sukarno. Grenades are thrown at him as he visits a school in Cikini, Jakarta.[67]
1958 18 May US Air Force pilot Allen Pope is shot down over Ambon, revealing covert American support of regional rebellions, and ends the Dulles brothers', Allen and John, failure to subvert the Sukarno government.[66]
1959 5 July With armed forces support, Sukarno issues a decree dissolving the Constituent Assembly and reintroducing the Constitution of 1945 with strong presidential powers, and assumes the additional role of Prime Minister, which completes the structure of 'Guided Democracy'.[66]
10 July President Sukarno appoints a "Working Cabinet" with himself as prime minister.[69]
1960 18 February President Sukarno reshuffles the cabinet and appoints the second "Working Cabinet".[69]
9 March Second Lieutenant Daniel Alexander Maukar of the Indonesian Air Force uses a MiG-17 fighter to strafe the Presidential Palace in Jakarta, oil tanks at Tanjung Priok in North Jakarta and then the Bogor Palace.[67][70]
24 June The House of Representatives-Mutual cooperation (DPR-GR), composed of members chosen by President Sukarno is established.[67]
17 August Indonesia severs diplomatic links with [the Netherlands in protest over its refusal to hand over Netherlands New Guinea.[67]
30 September President Sukarno addresses the United Nations General Assembly.[67]
1961 4 March An agreement is signed in Jakarta with the Soviet Union to buy arms with long term loans.[67]
17 August Building officially starts on the Monas National Monument in the center of Jakarta.[67]
1962 2 January The Mandala Command to "free" Western (Netherlands) New Guinea from the Dutch is established. Its commander is Brigadier general Suharto.[67]
15 January Deputy chief of staff of the Indonesian Navy Commodore Yos Sudarso is killed in a Dutch air attack on the motor torpedo boat (MTB) force he is commanding.[67]
8 March President Sukarno again reshuffles his cabinet.[69]
15 August The New York Agreement, transferring Western New Guinea to Indonesia, is signed at the United Nations.[67]
24 August Jakarta hosts the Fourth Asian Games.[67] (to 4 September)
1963 Sole years of American Peace Corps program in Indonesia.[66]
Sukarno leads the Konfrontasi campaign against the newly created Malaysia.[62][66] (to 1965)
1 May Following pressure from the United Nations and the American government of President John F. Kennedy, the Netherlands yields Western New Guinea to temporary UN supervision.[66][67]
18 May Parliament elects Sukarno 'President-for-life'.[66]
27 July Sukarno declared Indonesian policy to oppose the creation of Malaysia which incorporate North Borneo, marking the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation.
18 September Following demonstrations in Jakarta to protest at the creation of Malaysia, the British Embassy is burned by a mob.[67]
13 November President Sukarno conducts the final reshuffle of the "Working Cabinet".[67]
1964 17 August During his Independence Day speech, Sukarno for the first time publicly denounce the United States, and over the following months an anti-American campaign attacked American interests.
27 August President Sukarno appoints the Dwikora Cabinet
1965 7 January Indonesia withdraws from membership of the UN.[66][71]
14 January The Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) calls for workers and peasants to be armed.[71]
11 April The Third Session of the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly is held in Bandung.[71] (to 16 April)
26 May Foreign Minister Subandrio reports to President Sukarno the existence of the Gilchrist Document, a letter purporting to be from the British ambassador which discusses western military involvement in Indonesia.[71]
30 September An abortive coup in Jakarta results in the murder of six army generals, and disposal of bodies at Lubang Buaya.[66]
October A violent anti-communist purge leads to the killing of approximately 1/2 million Indonesians.[66] (to March 1966)
1 October A counter coup led by General Suharto that leads to the Overthrow of Sukarno
14 October President Sukarno appoints Major General Suharto Minister/Commander of the Army.[71]
16 October The Jakarta Military Command temporarily suspends the activities of the PKI and its organizations in the Jakarta region.[71]
13 December The rupiah is devalued by a factor of 1,000 in an effort to control inflation.[71]
1966 10 January Anti-communist organizations grouped under the Pancasila Front issue the "Three Demands of the People" (Tritura), namely the dissolution of the PKI, the cleansing of the cabinet of elements involved in the 30 September Movement, and lower prices and economic improvements.[71]
14 February The Extraordinary Military Court trials of people allegedly involved in the 30 September Movement begin.[71]
24 February President Sukarno reshuffles his cabinet, creating what becomes known as the "cabinet of 100 ministers".[71]
11 March Sukarno delegates key presidential powers to Suharto by signing the Supersemar. The following day Suharto dissolves the Indonesian Communist Party.[66][72]
18 March A total of 14 cabinet ministers are taken into "protective custody".[71]
2 May Following large scale demonstrations, the leadership of the Mutual-Assistance House of Representatives (DPR-GR) is replaced.[71]
20 June The Fourth Session of the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly is held in Jakarta. It raises the status of the Supersemar into a decree, meaning Sukarno cannot revoke it, bans the PKI and its teachings and rejects President Sukarno's accountability speech.[71] (to 5 July)
11 August Indonesia and Malaysia agree to normalize diplomatic relations.[71]
28 September Indonesia rejoins the United Nations.[71]
1967 10 January New investment laws designed to bring in foreign capital are passed; restrictions are introduced regarding status of Indonesian Chinese, their names and their religions.[66][71]
22 February In a ceremony at the presidential palace, Sukarno hands over authority to Suharto.[71]
7 March A Special Session of the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly strips Sukarno of his powers and appoints Suharto acting president.[71] (to 12 March)
8 August ASEAN established in Bangkok by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.[73]
1 October Diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China are suspended.[71]
1968 Soedjatmoko is Indonesian ambassador to the United States; bilateral relations warm.[66] (to 1971)
March Parliament confers full presidential title on Suharto; Sukarno is under effective house arrest.[66]
1969 Papuan representatives agree to join Indonesia in the Act of Free Choice.[66]
1970 Nurcholish Madjid, a young Muslim modernist, begins to lay out religious developmental principles for Indonesia—'Islam, yes; Islamic party, no'.[66]
21 June Sukarno dies.[72] He is buried at Blitar, East Java.[66]
1971 Suharto's wife inspired by a visit to Disneyland, conceives a national cultural theme park.[74]
3 July Indonesia's second parliamentary election and the first under the New Order is held. Golkar wins an outright majority.[71]
1973 Government forces fusion of political parties; Nationalist and Christian parties are merged into the Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI) and Muslim parties into the United Development Party (PPP). The new three party system is dominated by Golkar.[74]
1974 The 'Malari' uprising in Jakarta against Japanese penetration of the economy, Chinese Indonesian influence, and official corruption.[74]
1975 April Mrs Suharto dedicates the vast 'Beautiful Indonesia-in-Miniature Park' (Taman Mini) on the outskirts of Jakarta.[74]
April Civil war breaks out in the former Portuguese colony of East Timor.[74]
6 December U.S. President Gerald Ford and Secretary of State Kissinger, returning from China, make a hastily rescheduled one-day visit to Jakarta.[74]
7 December Indonesia launches an invasion of East Timor.[72]
1976 March General Ibnu Sutowo is 'dismissed with honour' after a decade as head of Pertamina, the state oil corporation.[74]
8 July Palapa A1, Indonesia's first communication satellite launched from Cape Canaveral.[75]
17 July Suharto signs a bill integrating East Timor into Indonesia as its 27th province.[74]
19 November UN General Assembly rejects Indonesia's annexation of East Timor.[74]
1977 The United States surpasses Japan as Indonesia's biggest oil customer.[74]
October Sawito Kartowibowo's trial for 'subversion' begins.[74]
1978 The People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) elevates Pancasila to the status of compulsory moral education of youth and government officials.[74] Suharto appoints B.J. Habibie as state minister for research and technology.[74]
22 February Suharto inaugurated Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta, the Indonesian national mosque.[76]
1979 21 September Jakarta host the 10th SEA Games, it was the first time Indonesia host Southeast Asian Games. (to 30 September)
December Writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer is released after fourteen years imprisonment with hard labour on Buru Island.[74]
1980 May The Petition of Fifty—a statement of concern to parliament about the use of government power, propaganda, and presidential personality cult—is begun.[74]
1982 The height of Petrus ('mysterious shootings') of thousands of suspected criminals by government security forces.[72][74] (to 1983)
1983 Prabowo Subianto, then a major in ABRI marries Suharto's daughter Titiek at Taman Mini.[74]
1984 12 September Muslim concerned protesting over alleged insensitivities to Islam at Tanjung Priok; a riot ensues resulting in many deaths. Clamp down on Islamic political leaders.[72]
December Abdurrahman Wahid (Gus Dur) is elected chairman of Nahdlatul Ulama a position previously held by both his father and grandfather.[74]
1985 The Indonesian government require all organisations of any kind to adopt Pancasila as their sole basis.[74]
1987 Sukarno's daughter Megawati Sukarnoputri becomes a member of parliament; Suharto prohibits display of images of Sukarno although they appear frequently nonetheless.[77]
9 September Jakarta host the 14th SEA Games. (to 20 September)
1988 Suharto is elected to a fifth term as president.,[77] Lilies Handayani, Nurfitriyana Saiman and Kusuma Wardhani won Indonesia's first medal in Olympic Games, a silver medal for women's team archery in 1988 Summer Olympics Seoul.
1989 The Free Aceh Movement (GAM) reemerges following its 1976 founding; suppression of its guerilla activities leads to 2,000 deaths by 1991 in Aceh.[77]
1991 Indonesia wins presidency of the Non-Aligned Movement.[77]
12 November ABRI troops fire on demonstrative funeral procession in Dili, East Timor. TV images of the killings put East Timor high on the international human rights agenda.[77]
1992 Suharto successfully defies Dutch efforts to link human rights to aid administerd since 1967 by the International Governmental Group on Indonesia (IGGI).[77] Susi Susanti won Indonesia's first Olympic gold medal in 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain.[78]
East Timorese resistance leader Xanana Gusmão is captured by Prabowo and is tried and sentenced.[77] (to 1993)
1993 Suharto seeks a sixth term and is easily re-elected.[77]
1994 June Suharto shuts down Tempo and two other publications for critical reporting of Habibie’s purchase of the former East German navy.[77]
1996 The Free Papua Movement (OPM) kidnaps fourteen scientists and foresters in Iran Jaya garnering international attention. After four months, the abductees are rescued in a bloody operation led by Prabowo.[77]
April Ibu Tien Suharto, the president’s wife of 48 years, dies of a heart attack.[77]
July Military-backed thugs burst into headquarters of PDI, Megawati's party, and evict her supporters in a violent climax to government efforts to vitiate her party’s popularity.[77]
1997 Severe social unrest breaks out across Indonesian cities against Chinese Indonesians, Christians, symbols of wealth, the police and bureaucracy.[77] (to 1998)
February Alarmed at a dukun's prediction that 'the nail of Java has come loose', Suharto commands a massive Ruwat Dunia ceremony ('Cleansing of the world') near Borobudur.[77]
June Pacific Ocean trade winds shift heralding the onset of the El Niño; severe drought across much of Indonesia follows in the ensuing months accompanied by highly destructive forest fires.[77]
July The collapse of the Thai baht starts the East Asian financial crisis and over the ensuing months Indonesia is the country hardest hit.[77]
11 October Jakarta host the 19th SEA Games. (to 19 October)
1998 March Largely peaceful student demonstrations against the regime rise to national prominence.[79]
11 March Suharto unanimously elected by the MPR to his seventh presidential term.[79]
12 May Four student demonstrators at Trisakti University are shot dead by bullets unproven but thought likely to have been from army sources.[79]
13 May Memorial services for killed students leads to riots; vandalism, arson, looting and rape by roving mobs which continue unchecked by security forces for two days leaving 1,200 dead.[79]
20 May For National Awakening Day, Amien Rais pledges to bring a million protestors into the streets to demonstrate against at the National Monument in Jakarta. Faced with barbed wire and massed troops he calls off the rally fearing bloodshed.[79]
21 May After being deserted by his cabinet, Suharto resigns the presidency. Habibie assumes presidency.[79]
August General Wiranto announces the discharge of Lieutenant General Prabowo from active duty, with full pension benefits—and without court-martial for allegations of abduction and torture of student activist (some of whom remain missing as of 2003).[79]
10 November Megawati, Rais, and the sultan of Yogya, meet at Wahid's home in Ciganjur, and issue a series of statements including a demand for the military to end their role in politics within six years.[79]
13 November On the last day of the MPR sessions, soldiers open fire on demonstrating students killing at least fifteen and injuring hundreds.[79]
1999 19 January An petty argument between in the city of Ambon triggers Christian-Muslim clashes that last for three years across Maluku. As many as 10,000 are killed and 700,000 or one third of the region are displaced.[79]
7 June Indonesia's first free and fair national elections since 1955 take place with almost no disruption and wide participation. Votes however are distributed across forty-eight parties with no party achieving a majority.[79]
September East Timor votes to secede from Indonesia in a referendum conducted under UN auspices. Four-fifths of voters choose independence for East Timor over integration with Indonesia. Pro-integration militias trained and paid by ABRI immediately resort to a scorched earth policy that leaves 1,000 dead and most of the territory's infrastructure ruined.[79]
13 September President Habibie relents to international pressure and allows a UN peacekeeping force known as 'INTERFET' to enter East Timor and restore order.[79]
October The Indonesian parliament rejects President Habibie's accountability speech. Wahid whose party received one eighth of the popular vote is elected president by the MPR. Megawati whose party received one third of the vote (the highest) is elected vice president.[80]
2000 President Wahid's administration is marred by failures to stabilise the economy, patterns of political favouritism, economic corruption (although Wahid himself is not accused of corruption), inability to reform the military, personal eccentricity and pettiness, ineffectiveness in dealing with major religious violence in Maluku and Sulawesi, major ethnic violence (Dayaks vs. Madurese) in Kalimantan, and separatisms in Aceh and Irian Jaya.[80]
24 December In a coordinated attack involving more than three dozen sites across the country, churches are bombed and eighteen people killed. It is later proven to have been planned by Jemaah Islamiyah in retaliation for Christian killings of Muslims in the Maluku conflict.[80]

21st century[edit]

Year Date Event
2001 Ethnic violence in Kalimantan as indigenous Dayaks force out Madurese transmigrants. Mass political demonstrations by Wahid's supporters and opponents. IMF stops further loans citing lack of progress in tackling corruption.[81]
July President Wahid is impeached chiefly on grounds of incompetence. The parliament elects Megawati president by 592 votes to 0. Hamzah Haz defeats Akbar Tandjung and Lieutenant General (ret.) Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.[80]
September President Megawati visits President George Bush a week after the 9/11 terrorist attacks and welcomes American investment. On her return to Indonesia, the Islamic right criticises her cooperation with America's war in Afghanistan, and the nationalist left criticises here for being too suppliant to foreign investors.[80]
2002 Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah, the largest Muslim organisations in Indonesia, issue joint statements critical of militant Islamists.[80]
February Peace talks in Malino, South Sulawesi appear to end three years of Christian-Muslim violence in Maluku and Poso.[80]
July Tommy Suharto is sentenced to fifteen years jail for illegal possession of arms, contempt of law, and masterminding the assassination of a Supreme Court judge who had convicted him for graft.[80]
September House Speaker Akbar Tandjung is sentenced to three years jail for corruption.[80]
12 October Bombs in the Kuta nightclub district in Bali kill 202 people, the world's deadliest terrorist attack since 11 September 2001. Indonesian police, aided by ten nations, track down Jemaah Islamiyah operatives.[80]
November Eurico Guterres is sentenced to ten years prison for crimes committed following the 1999 ballot in East Timor.[80]
December The Indonesian government and GAM sign a peace accord aimed at ending decades of violence in Aceh. The deal breaks down the following year.[80]
2003 August Jemaah Islamiyah bomb Jakarta's Marriott hotel killing twelve. All but one of those killed are Indonesians.
2004 April Parliamentary and local elections: Golkar party of former President Suharto wins greatest share of vote, with Megawati Sukarnoputri's PDI-P coming second.[81]
9 September A bomb blast outside the Australian embassy in Jakarta kills 11 and injures up to 100 people.
October Indonesia's first direct presidential election elects Bambang Yudhoyono following popular disillusionment with incumbent Megawati.
26 December An earthquake-triggered tsunami kills an estimated 170,000 in Aceh and causes widespread devastation.
2005 15 August Government and Free Aceh Movement separatists sign a peace deal providing for rebel disarmament and the withdrawal of government soldiers from the province. Rebels begin handing in weapons in September; government completes troop pull-out in December.[81]
1 October Bombings in Bali kill 20 people.
2006 May A powerful earthquake kills thousands of people in the Yogyakarta region in central Java.[81]
2007 Adam Air Flight 574 crashes into the sea off Sulawesi, killing all 102 on board.
2008 Suharto dies from multiple organ failure.[82] He is buried in the family Mausoleum near Solo.[83]
Jemaah Islamiyah Operatives are executed when found guilty for the 2002 bombings after numerous appeals from their families.
2009 8 July Incumbent President Susilo Bambang Yudhyono won Indonesian presidential election.[84]
17 July Jemaah Islamiyah bomb two hotels in Jakarta, including the Marriott that was attacked in 2003.
17 September Noordin Muhammad Top, the head of Jemaah Islamiyah, is shot in Solo
30 December Abdurrahman Wahid, the 4th president of Indonesia died because of complications from kidney disorders, heart disease and diabetes.[85]
2010 25 October Merapi volcano erupted, over 350,000 people were evacuated, 353 people were killed,[86] Borobudur was covered in volcanic ash.[87] (to 17 November)
2011 7 May Jakarta host 18th ASEAN Summit, mark the beginning of Indonesian chairmanship in ASEAN 2011.[88][89] (to 8 May)
11 November Opening ceremony of the 26th Southeast Asian Games was held in Palembang. The largest multi-event sports in the region was held in Jakarta and Palembang.[90] (to 22 November)
2012 9 May Russian Sukhoi Superjet 100 crashed against Mount Salak, West Java, killing 45 people abroad during a demonstrational flight.[91]
2013 5-7 October Indonesia host the APEC Summit 2013 in Nusa Dua, Bali.[92]
2014 9 April Indonesia held their legislative election, PDI-P dominate the People's Representative Council, followed closely by Golkar and Gerindra.[93]
9 July Indonesia held their presidential election, according to quick count Jakarta's Governor Joko Widodo won against former military general Prabowo Subianto, however both sides claims victory.[94]
22 July Indonesian Election Commission announced Joko Widodo wins Indonesian presidential election with 53.15% of the vote with his rival, ex-general Prabowo Subianto, on 46.85%.[95]
20 October Joko Widodo and Jusuf Kalla sworn in as Indonesian President and Vice President for the period of 2014-2019 in a plenary session of the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR).[96] Thousands of people celebrating the inauguration ceremony by attending parade along Sudirman and Thamrin avenue, followed by a concert in Merdeka Square featuring Slank, Arkarna, and various bands.[97]

See also[edit]

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