Timeline of Jainism
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Origins of Jainism
The views regarding Origins of Jainism are disputed among various scholars. Jains believe their religion to be ever-existing, having no origin and end. It is occasionally forgotten by humans and revived by a succession of tirthankara.
The existence of Mahavira, the last tirthankara, is known because of his mention by Jaina and Buddhist scriptures. Kailash Chandra Jain states that Mahavira was a reformer of Jain faith which was probably founded by Pārśva.
Evidence for the existence of the first twenty-two tirthankara is scanty. The Bhagavata Purana, an ancient Hindu text, mentions Rishabha, the first Jain tirthankara as the avatar of Vishnu. Various seals from Indus Valley Civilization bear resemblance to Rishabha and extensive use of the symbol of Bull might show the prevalence of Jainism in Indus Valley Civilization. The presence of Jainism in ancient India is supported by scholars like Dr. Radha Kumud Mookerji, Gustav Roth, Prof. A. Chakravarti, Prof. Ram Prasad Chanda, T. N. Ramchandran, I. Mahadevan and Kamta Prasad Jain. Recently, Acarya Vidyanaji claimed the prevalence of Jainism in ancient India c. 3000 BCE through detailed research on various artifacts, seals and other relics from Indus Valley Civilization. Another noted indologist, Herman Jacobi writes:
There is nothing to prove that Parshva was the founder of Jainism. Jain tradition is unanimous in making Rishabha the first tirthankara as its founder and there may be something historical in the tradition which makes him the first tirthankara.
Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, scholar and second President of India, was of the opinion that Jainism was in existence long before the Vedas were composed. Scholars like Dr. Radhakrishnan, Hiralal Jain, Zimmer, Jacobi, Vincent Smith and furlong have established that Jainism is, without doubt, an ancient religion of India which is not a sect or sub-sect of any other religion.
Jain scriptures are filled with mythology along with the historical facts. The Jaina accounts of their history is therefore unreliable. Glasenapp notes that Jains know the names of these tirthankara and have many stories about them, however, their validity is in question. The depiction of nude male figures in standing meditative positions was prevalent in the Indus Valley Civilisation, showing connections with Jainism. Ram Prasad Chanda, who supervised Indus Valley Civilisation excavations, states:
Not only the seated deities on some of the Indus seals are in yoga posture and bear witness to the prevalence of Yoga in the Indus Valley Civilisation in that remote age, the standing deities on the seals also show Kayotsarga (a standing or sitting posture of meditation) position. The Kayotsarga posture is peculiarly Jain. It is a posture not of sitting but of standing. In the Adi Purana Book XV III, the Kayotsarga posture is described in connection with the penance of Rishabha.
Figures of nude male deities excavated at Indus Valley civilization are interpreted as Jain yogi. The archeological evidences are, however, problematic. Shah writes that if one accepts these interpretations, then Jainism can be traced back to as far as c. 7th millennium BCE.
Jain doctrine teaches that Jainism has always existed and will always exist, although historians date the foundation of the organized or present form of Jainism to sometime between the 9th and the 6th century BC. Some scholars claim Jainism has its roots in the Indus Valley Civilization, reflecting native spirituality prior to the Indo-Aryan migration into India. Other scholars suggested the shramana traditions were separate and contemporaneous with Indo-Aryan religious practices of the historical Vedic religion.
Indus Valley Civilization
Contemporary historians like Ram Prasad Chandra, Vilas Sangave, Heinrich Zimmer, John Marshall, Thomas McEvilley, P.R. Deshmukh and Mircea Eliade are of the opinion that there exists some link between the first Jain Tirthankar Rishabha and the Indus valley civilization.
Ram Prasad Chanda, who supervised Indus Valley Civilisation excavations, states that, “Not only the seated deities on some of the Indus seals are in Yoga posture and bear witness to the prevalence of Yoga in the Indus Valley Civilisation in that remote age, the standing deities on the seals also show Kayotsarga (a standing or sitting posture of meditation) position. The Kayotsarga posture is peculiarly Jain. It is a posture not of sitting but of standing. In the Adi Purana Book XV III, the Kayotsarga posture is described in connection with the penance of Rsabha, also known as Vrsabha.”
Christopher Key Chappel also notes some other possible links with Jainism. Seal 420, unearthed at Mohenjodaro portrays a person with 3 or possibly 4 faces. Jain iconography frequently depicts its Tirthankaras with four faces, symbolizing their presence in all four directions. In addition, Depictions of a bull appear repeatedly in the artifacts of the Indus Valley. Richard Lannoy, Thomas McEvilley and Padmanabh Jaini have all suggested that the abundant use of the bull image in the Indus Valley civilization indicates a link with Rsabha, whose companion animal is the bull. This seal can be interpreted in many ways, and authors such as Christopher Key Chappel and Richard Lannoy support the Jain interpretation. Hindu's strongly believe that the bull is a symbol of lord Shiva's companion, which is widely known in India. Also, seals with sitting meditation positions were considered to be lord Shiva.
Geographical spread and influence
It is generally accepted that Jainism started spreading in south India from the 3rd century BC. i.e. since the time when Badrabahu, a preacher of this religion and the head of the monks' community, came to Karnataka from Bihar.
Kalinga (modern Orissa) was home to many Jains in the past. Rishabha, the first Tirthankar, was revered and worshiped in the ancient city Pithunda, capital of Kalinga. This was destroyed by Mahapadma Nanda when he conquered Kalinga and brought the statue of Rishabha to his capital in Magadh. Rishabha is revered as the Kalinga Jina. Ashoka's invasion and his Buddhist policy also subjugated Jains greatly in Kalinga. However, in the first century BCE Emperor Kharvela conquered Magadha and brought Rishabha's statue back and installed it in Udaygiri, near his capital, Shishupalgadh. The Khandagiri and Udaygiri caves near Bhubaneswar are the only surviving stone Jain monuments in Orissa. Earlier buildings were made of wood and were destroyed.
Deciphering of the Brahmi script by James Prinsep in 1788 enabled the reading of ancient inscriptions in India and established the antiquity of Jainism. The discovery of Jain manuscripts has added significantly to retracing Jain history. Archaeologists have encountered Jain remains and artifacts at Maurya, Sunga, Kishan, Gupta, Kalachuries, Rashtrakut, Chalukya, Chandel and Rajput as well as later sites. Several Western and Indian scholars have contributed to the reconstruction of Jain history. Western historians like Bühler, Jacobi, and Indian scholars like Iravatham Mahadevan, worked on Tamil Brahmi inscriptions.
This pervasive influence of Jain culture and philosophy in ancient Bihar gave rise to Buddhism. The Buddhists have always maintained that during the time of Buddha and Mahavira (who, according to the Pali canon, were contemporaries), Jainism was already an ancient, deeply entrenched faith and culture there. Over several thousand years, Jain influence on Hindu rituals has been observed and similarly the concept of non-violence has been incorporated into Hinduism. Certain Vedic Hindu holy books contain narrations about various Jain Tirthankaras (e.g. Lord Rushabdev). In the history of mankind, there have been no wars fought in the name of Jainism.
With 5.5 million followers, Jainism is among the smallest of the major world religions, but in India its influence is much greater than these numbers would suggest. Jains live throughout India. Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Gujarat have the largest Jain populations among Indian states. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Bundelkhand and Madhya Pradesh have relatively large Jain populations. There is a large following in Punjab, especially in Ludhiana and Patiala, and there used to be many Jains in Lahore (Punjab's historic capital) and other cities before the Partition of 1947, after which many fled to India. There are many Jain communities in different parts of India and around the world. They may speak local languages or follow different rituals but essentially they follow the same principles.
Outside India, the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda) have large Jain communities. The first Jain temple to be built outside India was constructed and consecrated in the 1960s in Mombasa, Kenya by the local Gujarati Jain community, although Jainism in the West mostly came about after the Oswal and Jain diaspora spread to the West in the late 1970s and 1980s. Jainism is presently a strong faith in the United States, and several dozen Jain temples have been built there, primarily by the Gujarati community. American Jainism accommodates all the sects. Smaller Jain communities exist in Nepal, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, Fiji, and Suriname. In Belgium, the very successful Indian diamond community in Antwerp, almost all of whom are Jain, opened the largest Jain temple outside India in 2010, to strengthen Jain values in and across Western Europe.
Before common era (BCE)
- 877–777 BCE: Parshva, 23rd Tirthankar of Jainism. He is the earliest Jain leader who can be reliably dated.
- 599–527 BCE: Mahavira, 24th and last Tirthankar of this era.
- 5th century BCE: Siddhasen Diwakar
- d. 507 BCE: Ganahar Sudharma Swami
- d. 357 BCE: Acharya Bhadrabahu
- d. 162 BCE: Hathigumpha inscription mentions the Navkar Mantra and Jain monarch Kharvela.
- 2nd century BCE: Navakar Mantra epigraphically attested in Maharashtra
Common era (CE)
- 1st century CE: Acharya Kundkund born
- 87 CE: Pushpadanta starts to write Shatkhandagam
- 156 CE: Bhutbali completes writing of Shatkhandagam
- 454 CE: Devardhigani compiles Jain Agams
- 5th century CE: first mention of the Mula Sangh order
- 7th century CE: 8000 Tamil Jains massacred in Madurai
- 9th century
- 982: Monolithic statue of Bahubali erected at Shravana belagola
- 1172: Acharya Hemachandra
- 12th century: Kashtha Sangh
- 1194: Tristutik
- 1229: Tapa Gachchha
- 1476: Lonka Shaha schism
- 1664: Digambar Terapanth
- 1658: Digambara Jain Lal Mandir temple in Delhi built.
- 1760: Swetembar Terapanth
- 1780: Sthanakvasi and Terapanthi orders
- 1868: Jain temple in Mumbai
- 1880s: reform movement of Acharya Rajendrasuri
- 1893: Virachand Gandhi participates in Chicago's World Parliament of Religions& Won Silver Medal.
- 1904: Jain temple at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
- 1927: Madras High Court in Gateppa v. Eramma and others recognizes "Jainism as a distinct religion"
- 1970s: significant presence of Jainism in the United States
- 1975: Monolithic statue of Bahubali is installed at Dharmasthala, Karnataka, India under the auspices of D. Rathnavarma Heggade and Mathrushree D. Rathnamma Heggade, members of Dharmasthala's Jaina lineage who also manage the local Shivaite temple. Carving work began in 1966 under the sculptor Rejala Gopalkrishna Shenoy of Karkala.
- 1976: In Arya Samaj Education Trust, Delhi & Others v. The Director of Education, Delhi Administration, Delhi & Others (AIR 1976 Delhi 207), the Court referred to Heinrich Zimmer's Philosophies of India describing Jainism as "a heterodox Indian religion" and J. N. Farquhar's Modern Religious Movements in India describing Jainism as "a rival of Hinduism."
- 1981: First Jain convention in Los Angeles
- 1983: Formal organization of JAINA (Jain Associations in North America)
- 1990: Temple Pratishtha, The Jain Sangh Cherry Hill, New Jersey
- 1990: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Society of Metropolitan Washington
- 1991: Founding of Siddhachalam, the Jain tirtha
- 1991: Death of Jain Acharya Shri Ramchandra Surishwarji
- 1993: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Society of Metropolitan Chicago
- 1995: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Center of Cincinnati and Dayton
- 1998: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Society of Greater Detroit
- 2000: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Center of Northern California (JCNC)
- 2000: Jain Vishwa Bharati Orlando
- 2005: the Supreme Court of India declined to grant Jains the status of a religious minority throughout India, leaving it to the respective states to decide on the minority status of Jainis.
- 2006: the Supreme Court opined that "Jain Religion is indisputably not a part of the Hindu Religion." (Para 25, Committee of Management Kanya Junior High School Bal Vidya Mandir, Etah, U.P. v. Sachiv, U.P. Basic Shiksha Parishad, Allahabad, U.P. and Ors., Per Dalveer Bhandari J., Civil Appeal No. 9595 of 2003, decided On: 21.08.2006, Supreme Court of India.)
- 2008: Delhi city government declares Jain community as a minority as per the Supreme Court Orders.
- Charpentier, Jarl (1922). "The History of the Jains". The Cambridge History of India 1. Cambridge. p. 153.
- Ghatage, A.M. (1951). "Jainism". In Majumdar, R.C. and A.D. Pusalker. The Age of Imperial Unity. Bombay. pp. 411–412.
- Deo 1956, pp. 59–60
- Fisher 1997, p. 115
- Jain 1991, p. 5
- Sangave 2001, p. 109
- Sangave 2001, p. 131
- Shah 2004a, p. 7
- Shah 2004a, p. 8
- Glasenapp 1999, p. 15
- Rankin 2010, p. 44
- Sangave 2001, pp. 107–108
- Chatterjee 1932, p. 159
- Shah 2004a, p. 9
- Shah 2004a, p. 10
- Helmuth von Glasenapp,Shridhar B. Shrotri. 1999. Jainism: an Indian religion of salvation. P.15 "Jainas consider that religion is eternal and imperishable. It is without beginning and it will never cease to exist. The darkness of error enveloping the truth in certain, periodically occurring aeons clears up again and again so that the brightness of the Jaina-faith can sparkle again anew."
- Dundas, Paul. 2002. The Jains. P.12 "Jainism is believed by its followers to be everlasting, without beginning or end..."
- Varni, Jinendra; Ed. Prof. Sagarmal Jain, Translated Justice T.K. Tukol and Dr. Narendra Bhandari. Samaṇ Suttaṁ. New Delhi: Bhagwan Mahavir memorial Samiti. “The Historians have so far fully recognized the truth that Tirthankara Mahavira was not the founder of the religion. He was preceded by many tirthankaras. He merely reiterated and rejuvenated that religion. It is correct that history has not been able to trace the origin of the Jaina religion; but historical evidence now available and the result of dispassionate researches in literature have established that Jainism is undoubtedly an ancient religion.” Pp. xii – xiii of introduction by Justice T.K.Tutkol and Dr. K.K. Dixit.
- Helmuth von Glasenapp,Shridhar B. Shrotri. 1999. Jainism: an Indian religion of salvation. P.24. "Thus not only nothing, from the philosophical and the historical point of view, comes in the way of the supposition that Jainism was established by Parsva around 800 BC, but it is rather confirmed in everything that we know of the spiritual life of that period."
- Dundas, Paul. 2002. The Jains. P.17. "Jainism, then, was in origin merely one component of a north Indian ascetic culture that flourished in the Ganges basin from around the eighth or seventh centuries BC."
- Larson, Gerald James (1995) India’s Agony over religion SUNY Press ISBN 0-7914-2412-X. “There is some evidence that Jain traditions may be even older than the Buddhist traditions, possibly going back to the time of the Indus valley civilization, and that Vardhamana rather than being a “founder” per se was, rather, simply a primary spokesman for much older tradition. Page 27”
- Joel Diederik Beversluis (2000) In: Sourcebook of the World's Religions: An Interfaith Guide to Religion and Spirituality, New World Library : Novato, CA ISBN 1-57731-121-3 Originating on the Indian sub-continent, Jainism is one of the oldest religion of its homeland and indeed the world, having pre-historic origins before 3000 BC and the propagation of Indo-Aryan culture.... p. 81
- Jainism by Mrs. N.R. Guseva p.44
- Long, Jeffrey D. (2009). Jainism: An Introduction. New York: I.B. Tauris. pp. 45–56. ISBN 978-1-84511-626-2.
- Dr. Vilas Sangave (2001) In : Facets of Jainology: Selected Research Papers on Jain Society, Religion, and Culture. Popular Prakashan: Mumbai ISBN 81-7154-839-3
- Heinrich Zimmer (1969) Joseph Campbell ed. In: Philosophies of India, Princeton University Press NY, ISBN 0-691-01758-1
- Thomas McEvilley (2002) The Shape of Ancient Thought: Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies. Allworth Communications, Inc. 816 pages; ISBN 1-58115-203-5
- Deshmukh, P. R. (1982) Indus Civilisation, Rigveda, and Hindu Culture, Nagpur : Saroj Prakashan
- In his article "Mohen-jo-Daro: Sindh 5000 Years Ago" in Modern Review (August, 1932)
- Patil, Bal In: Jaya Gommatesa, Hindi Granth Karyalay : Mumbai, 2006 ISBN 81-88769-10-X
- Christopher Key Chappel (1993), Nonviolence to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions SUNY Press ISBN 0-7914-1497-3 Pp. 6-9
- Jainism by Mrs. N.R. Guseva, p.51
- "Wolfram Alpha: Jainism : country, population, types, central figure, ...". Wolfram Alpha. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
- Fisher, Mary Pat (1997). Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths. London: I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-148-2. p. 115
- "Parshvanatha". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-22.
- Bowker, John (2000). "Parsva". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-10-22.
- Deo, Shantaram Bhalchandra (1956). History of Jaina monachism from inscriptions and literature. Poona [Pune, India]: Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute. pp. 59–60.
- "Mahavira." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2006. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2009. http://www.answers.com/topic/mahavira
- Rapson, "Catalogue of the Indian coins of the British Museum. Andhras etc...", p XVII.
- Full text of the Hathigumpha Inscription in English
- Glasenapp, Helmuth Von (1999), Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1376-6
- Sangave, Vilas Adinath (2001), Facets of Jainology: Selected Research Papers on Jain Society, Religion, and Culture, Mumbai: Popular Prakashan, ISBN 978-81-7154-839-2
- Shah, Natubhai (2004a), Jainism, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1938-2