Timeline of Korean history
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a timeline of the history of Korea. Some dates prior to the 6th century CE are speculative or approximate.
- 35th century BC: Appearance of Pit-Comb Ware culture, beginning of the Middle Jeulmun pottery period.
- 1500 BC: Beginning of the Mumun pottery period.
- 800 BC: Beginning of the Liaoning bronze dagger culture.
- 300 BC: Establishment of Jin in southern Korean peninsula.
Proto-Three Kingdoms 
- 238 BC: Establishment of Buyeo.
- 200 BC: Establishment of Samhan confederacies.
- 195 BC: Establishment of Wiman Joseon.
- 108 BC: Han Dynasty destroys Wiman Joseon, establishing four commanderies in northern Korean Peninsula!
Three Kingdoms 
- 8: Baekje annexes much of the Mahan confederacy.
- 53: Goguryeo becomes a centralized kingdom under Taejo's reign.
- 105: Baekje and Silla sign peace treaty.
- 122: Goguryeo allies with the Mahan confederacy to attack Han China in Liaodong.
- 167: Baekje attacks Silla for harboring a Baekje court traitor.
- 188: Baekje expands into Silla territory, capturing several castles.
- 234: Baekje becomes a centralized kingdom under Goi's reign.
- 250: Goguryeo attacks Silla, signs truce.
- 313: Goguryeo destroys China's Lelang commandery.
- 346: Baekje's Geunchogo ascends to the throne, beginning the peak of Baekje's power.
- 356: Silla becomes a centralized kingdom under Naemul's reign.
- 369: Baekje completes absorption of the Mahan confederacy.
- 384: Asin of Baekje officially adopts Buddhism.
- 392: Gwanggaeto the Great of Goguryeo begins his reign, expanding Goguryeo into a major regional power.
- 400: Goguryeo supports Silla with 50,000 troops to repel Wae of Japan.
- 433: Baekje and Silla form an alliance against Goguryeo's aggression.
- 475: Goguryeo attacks Baekje and captures Hanseong (modern day Seoul). Baekje moves its capital south to Ungjin (modern day Gongju), and again to Sabi (modern day Buyeo) in 523.
- 522: Silla begins absorption of Gaya.
- 527: Silla formally adopts Buddhism
- 540: Silla establishes the Hwarang, a military and religious order of youth.
- 551: Silla-Baekje forces attack Goguryeo, Silla captures Seoul.
- 553: Silla attacks Baekje, breaking the alliance.
- 562: Silla completes annexation of Gaya.
- 598: First of a series of major Sui Dynasty attacks in the Goguryeo-Sui Wars, which ends in 614 in a costly defeat for Sui.
- 612: Goguryeo repulses second Sui invasion at the Salsu.
- 648: Silla establishes alliance with Tang.
- 660: Baekje falls to the Silla-Tang forces.
- 668: Goguryeo falls to the Silla-Tang forces.
Unified Silla and Balhae 
- 676: Silla repels Chinese alliance forces from Korean peninsula, completes unification of much of the Three Kingdoms.
- 698: Former Goguryeo general Dae Joyeong repels Chinese forces from remainder of former Goguryeo territory, founding Balhae as a successor state.
- 892: Silla begins to lose control of parts of the peninsula as the brief Later Three Kingdoms period begins.
- 900: Hubaekje ("Later Baekje") established in the southwest of the peninsula.
- 901: Taebong ("Later Goguryeo") established in the northwest of the peninsula.
- 926: Balhae falls to Khitan forces!
- 935: Silla formally surrenders to Goryeo.
- 936: Hubaekje formally surrenders to Goryeo.
- 936: Goryeo completes the reunification of the Later Three Kingdoms, absorbing the remainder of Hubaekje and parts of Balhae territory.
- 956: Emperor Gwangjong forces major land and slavery reforms, and in 958 implements civil service examinations.
- 1010: The Second Goryeo-Khitan War ravages the northern border.
- 1018: The Third Goryeo-Khitan War, Khitan successfully repelled.
- 1033: Goryeo builds the Cheonri Jangseong, a massive wall running along the northern border.
- 1170: A violent coup results in a military junta effectively controlling the Goryeo court for the next 88 years.
- 1231: The Mongol invasions of Korea begin.
- 1234: Choi Yun-ui's Sangjeong Gogeum Yemun is published, world's first metal-block printed text.
- 1251: Goryeo completes the Tripitaka Koreana, the most comprehensive and oldest intact version of the Buddhist canon in Chinese script.
- 1270: Goryeo signs a peace treaty with the Mongols, beginning an 80-year period of suzereignty. The Sambyeolcho Rebellion lasts for three more years.
- 1388: General Yi Seonggye, ordered to engage China in a border dispute, turns his troops against the Goryeo court.
- 1396: Capital moved to Hanyang (modern day Seoul)
- 1402: Paper currency initiated
- 1408: High military service examination system created
- 1420: Hall of Worthies (집현전,集賢殿) established
- 1424: History of Goryeo compiled.
- 1592: The Japanese invasion of Korea begins under the command of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The Japanese invasion is called "Im-Jin-Whae-Ran". Admiral Yi Sun-Sin employs the Turtle ship to repel Japanese forces.
- 1627: The first Manchu invasion takes place (정묘호란,丁卯胡亂).
- 1636: The second Manchu invasion takes place (병자호란,丙子胡亂).
- 1762: The tragedy of Crown Prince Sado (son of King Yeongjo)
- 1791: Persecution of Catholicism begins
- 1866: French campaign into Korean territory.
- 1871: United States Asiatic Squadron has first military encounter with Korea in the Sinmi Yangyo.
- 1876: Korea's ports are formally opened under the Treaty of Ganghwa (강화도조약,江華島條約).
- 1884: Kim Okgyun leads the Gapsin Jeongbyeon. In 3 days, Chinese forces are able to overwhelm the Progressives and their Japanese supporters.
- 1895: China recognizes Korean independence in the Treaty of Shimonoseki(시모노세키[하완] 조약,下関條約). Queen Min was murdered by Japanese assassins.
- 1896: 11 February. King Gojong flees to the Russian legation in Seoul.
The Korean Empire 
-For a more descriptive timeline, look at the Timeline of the Gwangmu Reform.
- 1897: 20 February. King Gojong returns to the palace after 1 year of refuge at the Russian legation.
- 1907: June. The Hague Secret Emissary Affair.
- 1907: July 18. Gojong was forced to abdicate in favour of his son, Sunjong.
- 1909: October. Ito Hirobumi (the first Resident-General) is assassinated by Korean independence leader An Jung-geun.
- 1910: August. The Japan-Korea Treaty of 1910 started the annexation of the Korean Empire by Japan.
Japanese Colonial rule 
- 1919: March 1st Movement. Spurred by the sudden and mysterious death of Gojong. Declaration of Korean Independence. Nation-wide peaceful demonstrations are crushed by Japanese military and police forces after two months. Governor-General Hasegawa resigns.
- 1919: The establishment of The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in Shanghai.
- 1919: Saito Makoto appointed as third Governor-General of Korea. The period of "cultural policy" begins.
- 1920: Battle of Cheongsanri, Korean independence Army victory.
- 1926: 10 June Manse Independence Movement.
- 1932: Korean independence activist Lee Bong Chang fails in his attempt to assassinate Emperor Hirohito in Tokyo.
- 1932: Korean independence activist Yun Bong Gil bombs Japanese Military gathering in Shanghai.
- 1938: Beginning of the Soshi-kamei policy.
- 1945: The Empire of Japan surrenders to the Allies. According to the terms of Potsdam Declaration, Korea becomes independent.
Korea Divided (The Two Koreas) 
- 1945: After the surrender of Japan, the Korean peninsula is divided between Soviet and American occupation forces at the 38th parallel.
- 1945: South Korea created a franchise to raise money and funds to recover.
- 1945: 6 September, Establishment of Peoples Republic of Korea with Yuh Woon-Hyung, but 1946 February, US Army breaks it and Yuh Woon Hyung is murdered.
- 1946: US-USSR Joint-Commission on the formation of a Korean Government reaches an impasse. The Joint-commission is dissolved as the Cold War begins.
- 1948: 10 May. UN sponsored elections are held in South Korea.
- 1948: 25 August. Establishment of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea with Kim Il-sung as Premier.
- 1949: The murder of Kim Gu. Kim Gu was a Korean Nationalist who believed in, and fought for, a unified Korea. He strongly objected to the formation of a separate South Korean state. He was shot in his home by a South Korean Army lieutenant.
- 1950: 25 June. The Korean War begins.
- 1950: August. UN Forces are driven back to South-east corner of the Korean Peninsula (The Pusan Perimeter).
- 1950: September. UN Troops make an Amphibious Landing at Inchon.
- 1950: November. Chinese Forces enter the war
- 1953: The Korean War is halted by the Korean Armistice Agreement that has remained in force until now.
- 1960: A student uprising begins the April Revolution which overthrows the autocratic First Republic of South Korea. Syngman Rhee resigns and goes into exile.
- 1961: 16 May. Military forces, headed by General Park Chung Hee, overthrow the Second Republic of South Korea in what is known as the Military Coup d'état of 16 May
- 1961: 12 November. Summit conference for normalization of Kor-Japanese relations
- 1962: start of the first Five-year plans of South Korea
- 1964: South Korea joined Vietnam War
- 1965: 22 June. Signing of Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea. Earned both much controversy and procurement of budgets for later economic developments.
- 1967: start of the second Five-year plans of South Korea
- 1968: 21 January. An unsuccessful attempt of North Korean commandos to assassinate president Park Chung Hee- the Blue House Raid.
- 1968: 1 April. Establishment of the Pohang Iron and Steel Company
- 1968: 5 December. Proclamation of the National Education Charter
- 1970: 22 April. Start of the government-operated New Community Movement
- 1970: Gyeongbu Expressway (Seoul – Busan) is completed and opened to traffic.
- 1972: start of the third Five-year plans of South Korea
- 1972: 12 August. The first Red Cross talks between North and South Korea are held.
- 1972: President Park Chung Hee declares Emergency Martial Law and changes Constitution in August, which may allow him to become the permanent ruler. This is similar to Gojong of the Korean Empire stating his country's governmental system as 'autocratic' in the constitution- for greater leadership and less opposition.
- 1974: 15 August. Assassination of first lady Yuk Young-soo by self-proclaimed North Korean Mun Segwang.
- 1976: 18 August. The Axe Murder Incident in Panmunjom, Joint Security Area. Triggers former North Korean leader Kim il-sung's first official apology to the South.
- 1976: 12 October: Discontinuation of rice imports, accomplishment of total self-sufficiency in rice by the 'Unification Rice'
- 1977: start of the fourth Five-year plans of South Korea
- 1977: 22 December. Celebration of achievement of 10 billion dollars gained by exports.
- 1978: 26 October. Detection of 3rd underground tunnel. Made by North Korea to attack South Korea.
- 1978: 10 December. Achievement of 1,117 US dollars as GNP.
- 1979: American president Jimmy Carter visits Korea. Threatens Park by stating he would reduce the US forces in Korea if he does not stop the ongoing Nuclear Weapons Development project.
- 1979: 26 October, President Park Chung Hee is assassinated by chief of KCIA, Kim Jaegyu(Assassination of Park Chung Hee).
- 1980: The Gwangju Uprising. Martial Law is declared throughout the nation. The city of Gwangju becomes a battleground between dissenters and the Armed Forces (18–27 May). Some reports claim over 100 casualties.
- 1987: A student uprising begins the June Democracy Movement, which overthrows the autocratic Fifth Republic of South Korea. The ruling party of Fifth Republic, Democratic Justice Party, declares democratic elections.
- 1988: 24th Olympic Games held in Seoul
- 1990: 11 September: South Korea and the USSR establish diplomatic relations.
- 1991: 17 September: North Korea (DPRK) and South Korea join the United Nations (UN).
- 1992: 24 August: South Korea and the People's Republic of China (PRC) establish diplomatic relations.
- 1993: Test of Rodong-1, a single stage, mobile liquid propellant medium range ballistic missile by the DPRK.
- 1994: Kim Jong Il takes control of North Korea upon the death of his father Kim Il-Sung. Start of the Arduous March.
- 1998: Taepodong-1, a two-stage intermediate-range ballistic missile is developed and tested by the DPRK. End of the Arduous March. It is possible that up to 3.5 million people did not survive the 'march'.
- 1999: The DPRK promises to freeze long-range missile tests.
- 2002: The 2002 FIFA World Cup jointly held by Korea & Japan. The Korean National Team makes it to the semi-finals for the first time in Korean history. The DPRK pledges to extend moratorium on missile tests beyond 2003.
- 2004: The DPRK reaffirms moratorium.
- 2005: The DPRK fires short-range missile into the Sea of Japan (East Sea).
- 2006: Test of Taepodong-2 by DPRK, a successor of Taepodong-1.There is a nuclear test in the DPRK. US officials assert it might have been a misfire.
- 2007: The second summit between DPRK and ROK leaders is held, with Roh Moo-hyun representing the south and Kim Jong Il the north. The DPRK fires short-range missile into the Sea of Japan.
- 2008: A South Korean tourist, a women in about her 50s, is shot down by a DPRK soldier for 'going into military territory' at 4 am, in Keumgang Mountain Tourist Region. This causes immediate uproar and all tourism into North Korea is suspended after the incident.
- 2009: North Korea launches a rocket (Unha), supposedly for space exploration. This move affects relationships with Japan, the United States and South Korea. The DPRK conducts another nuclear test.
- 2010: North Korea launches missile and attacks Korean Pohang class corvette, ROKS Cheonan. 46 Korean soldiers die because of the attack. At November, North Korean army rains artillery fire on Yeon-Pyeong-Do island. The DPRK conducts, yet again, another nuclear test.
- 2011: Kim Jong Il dies, Kim Jong un takes over as the Supreme Leader of North Korea. The National Intelligence Service discovers Communist spies who have been working underground for the DPRK for almost 10 years. One of the members was a former Democratic Party representative. Their mission was to influence the party named above and extract military secret information.
- 2012: 13 April: The Kim Regime of the DPRK tested a rocket, officially called "Unha-3", an expendable launch system developed from the Soviet Scud rockets. The rocket was to send a satellite, called "Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3", into orbit. The rocket failed to launch the satellite and fell into the Yellow Sea. The mission ultimately ended in complete failure.
- 2012: 12 December: DPRK has successful launch of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2 it was launched from the Sohae Satellite Launching Ground. A South Korean military official cited 3 stage success. DPRK confirmed.
- 2012: 19 December: Park Geun-hye daughter of Park Chung-hee, is elected as first female and the 11th president of South Korea.
2013: North Korea threatens to send rocket over to the U.S
See also 
- List of Korea-related topics
- Timeline of the Gwangmu Reform
- History of Korea
- Military history of Korea
- List of Korean monarchs
- Timeline of Seoul history
- Carter J. Eckert, el., "Korea, Old and New: History", 1990, pp. 2
- Mary E. Connor, "The Korea, A global studies handbook", 2002, pp. 9