Timeline of LGBT history

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The following is a timeline of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) history.

Pre-history[edit]

9660 to 5000 BCE[edit]

  • Mesolithic rock art in Sicily depicts phallic male figures in pairs that have been interpreted variously, including as hunters, acrobats, religious initiates and depictions of male homosexual intercourse.[1]

7000 to 1700 BCE[edit]

  • Among the sexual depictions in Neolithic and Bronze Age drawings and figurines from the Mediterranean are, as one author describes it, a "third sex" human figure having female breasts and male genitals or without distinguishing sex characteristics. In Neolithic Italy, female images are found in a domestic context, while images that combine sexual characteristics appear in burials or religious settings; in Neolithic Greece and Cyprus, figures are often dual-sexed or without identifying sexual characteristics.[2]

Antiquity[edit]

22nd century BCE[edit]

  • Between 2900 and 2500 BCE in a burial of a suburb of Prague, Czech Republic, a man is buried in the outfit usually reserved for women. Archaeologists speculate that the burial corresponds to a transgender person or someone of the third sex.[3]

7th century BCE[edit]

  • ca. 630 BCE – Dorian aristocrats in Crete adopt formal relations between adult aristocrats and adolescent boys; an inscription from Crete is the oldest record of the social institution of paiderastia among the Greeks[6] (see Cretan pederasty). Marriage between men in Greece was not legally recognized, but men might form life-long relationships originating in paiderastia ("pederasty," without the pejorative connotations of the English word). These partnerships were not dissimilar to heterosexual marriages except that the older person served as educator or mentor.[7]
  • Sappho, a Greek lyric poet born on the island of Lesbos, was born between 630-612 BCE, and died around 570 BCE. The Alexandrians included her in the list of nine lyric poets. She was famous for her lesbian themes, giving her name and and that of her homeland to the very definition of lesbianism (and the lesser used term of "sapphism"). She was exiled c. 600 BCE.

6th century BCE[edit]

  • ca. 540–530 BCE – Wall paintings from the Etruscan Tomb of the Bulls (Italian: Tomba dei Tori), found in 1892 in the Monterozzi necropolis, Tarquinia, depict homosexual intercourse. The tomb is named for the pair of bulls who watch human sex scenes, one between a man and a woman, and the other between two men; these may be apotropaic, or embody aspects of the cycle of regeneration and the afterlife. The three-chamber tomb was inscribed with the name of the deceased for whom it was originally built, Aranth Spurianas or Arath Spuriana, and also depicts Achilles killing the Trojan prince Troilus, along with indications of Apollo cult.[8]

4th century BCE[edit]

  • 385 BCE – Plato publishes Symposium in which Phaedrus, Eryixmachus, Aristophanes and other Greek intellectuals argue that love between males is the highest form, while sex with women is lustful and utilitarian.[9] Socrates, however, differs.[10] He demonstrates extreme self-control when seduced by the beautiful Alcibiades.[11]
  • 350 BCE – Plato publishes Laws in which the Athenian stranger and his companions criticize homosexuality as being lustful and wrong for society because it does not further the species and may lead to irresponsible citizenry.[12]
  • 346 BCE - Aeschines speech Against Timarchus on trial for male prostitution, reveals Athenian attitudes to homosexuality.[13]
  • 338 BCE – The Sacred Band of Thebes, an undefeated elite battalion made up of one hundred and fifty pederastic couples, is destroyed by the forces of Philip II of Macedon who bemoans their loss and praises their honour.[14]
  • 326 BCE – Military leader Alexander the Great completes conquest of most of the then known Western world, launching the Hellenistic Age in which millions of people are converted to a Hellenistic culture that views homosexual relationships positively.

2nd century BCE[edit]

1st century BCE[edit]

  • 57 BCE – 54 BC – Catullus writes the Carmina, including love poems to Juventius, boasting of sexual prowess with youth and violent invectives against passive sodomites.
  • 42 BCE – 39 BC – Virgil writes the Eclogues, with Eclogue 2 a notable example of homoerotic Latin literature.
  • 26, 25 and 18 BCE – Tibullus writes his elegies, with references to homosexuality.

1st century CE[edit]

  • 1st century AD  - The Warren Cup is made - a Roman silver drinking cup decorated in relief with two images of male same-sex acts.
Wall painting of female couple from the Suburban Baths at Pompeii
  • 98 – Trajan, one of the most beloved of Roman emperors, begins his reign. Trajan was well known for his homosexuality and fondness for young males. This was used to advantage by the king of Edessa, Abgar VII, who, after incurring the anger of Trajan for some misdeed, sent his handsome young son to make his apologies, thereby obtaining pardon.[19]

2nd century[edit]

  • 130 -- Antinous, a 19-year-old boy who was the Roman Emperor Hadrian's favorite dies under mysterious circumstances in the Roman Province of Egypt (Aegyptus), and Hadrian creates a cult giving Antinous the status of a god, commissioning numerous sculptures of him throughout the Roman Empire.
  • 165 – Christian martyr Giustino writes: "We have learned that is an evil thing to show newborns, since we see that almost everyone, not only the girls but boys too, are forced into prostitution".[20]

3rd century[edit]

4th century[edit]

  • 305- 306 – Council of Elvira (now Granada, Spain). This council was representative of the Western European Church and among other things, it barred pederasts the right to Communion.
  • 314 – Council of Ancyra (now Ankara, Turkey). This council was representative of the Eastern European Church and it excluded the Sacraments for 15 years to unmarried men under the age of 20 who were caught in homosexual acts, and excluded the man for life if he was married and over the age of 50.
  • 342 – The first law against same-sex marriage was promulgated by the Christian emperors Constantius II and Constans.[22]
  • 390 – In the year 390, the Christian emperors Valentinian II, Theodosius I and Arcadius declared homosexual sex to be illegal and those who were guilty of it were condemned to be burned alive in front of the public.[23]
  • 390- 405 – Nonnus' Dionysiaca is the last known piece of literature for nearly 1,000 years to celebrate homosexual passion.[12]

5th century[edit]

  • 498 – In spite of the laws against gay sex, the Christian emperors continued to collect taxes on male prostitutes until the reign of Anastasius I, who finally abolishes the tax.[24]

6th century[edit]

7th century[edit]

  • 693 – In Iberia, Visigothic ruler Egica of Hispania and Septimania, demanded that a Church council confront the occurrence of homosexuality in the Kingdom. The Sixteenth Council of Toledo issued a statement in response, which was adopted by Egica, stating that homosexual acts be punished by castration, exclusion from Communion, hair shearing, one hundred stripes of the lash, and banishment into exile.[27]

9th century[edit]

10th century[edit]

  • 966 – Foundation of Poland, which never criminalized homosexuality throughout its history (see 1835 and 1932).[29][citation needed]

11th century[edit]

  • 1007 – The Decretum of Burchard of Worms equates homosexual acts with other sexual transgressions such as adultery and argues, therefore, that it should have the same penance (generally fasting).[12]
  • 1051 – Peter Damian writes the treatise Liber Gomorrhianus, in which he argues for stricter punishments for clerics failing their duty against "vices of nature."[30]
  • 1100 – Ivo of Chartres tries to convince Pope Urban II about homosexuality risks. Ivo accused Rodolfo, archbishop of Tours, of convincing the King of France to appoint a certain Giovanni as bishop of Orléans. Giovanni was well known as Rodolfo's lover and had relations with the king himself, a fact of which the king openly boasted. Pope Urban, however, didn't consider this as a decisive fact: Giovanni ruled as bishop for almost forty years, and Rodolfo continued to be well known and respected.[31]

12th century[edit]

13th century[edit]

  • 1232 – Pope Gregory IX starts the Inquisition in the Italian City-States. Some cities called for banishment and/or amputation as punishments for 1st- and 2nd-offending sodomites and burning for the 3rd or habitual offenders.[citation needed]
  • 1260 – In France, first-offending sodomites lost their testicles, second offenders lost their member, and third offenders were burned. Women caught in same-sex acts could be mutilated and executed as well.[12]
  • 1265 – Thomas Aquinas argues that sodomy is second only to murder in the ranking of sins.[12]
  • 1283 – The French Civil Code dictated that convicted sodomites should not only be burned but also that their property would be forfeited.

14th century[edit]

  • 1308-14 – Philip IV of France orders the arrest of all Templars on charges of heresy, idolatry and sodomy, but these charges are only a pretext to seize the riches of the order. Order leaders are sentenced to death and burned at the stake on March 18, 1314 by Notre Dame.
  • 1321 – Dante's Inferno places sodomites in the Seventh Circle.
  • 1327 – The deposed King Edward II of England is killed, allegedly by forcing a red-hot poker through his rectum. Edward II had a history of conflict with the nobility, who repeatedly banished his former lover Piers Gaveston, the Earl of Cornwall.[citation needed]
  • 1347 – Rolandino Roncaglia is tried for sodomy, an event that caused a sensation in Italy. He confessed he "had never had sexual intercourse, neither with his wife nor with any other woman, because he had never felt any carnal appetite, nor could he ever have an erection of his virile member". After his wife died of plague, Rolandino started to prostitute himself, wearing female dresses because "since he has female look, voice and movements – although he does not have a female orifice, but has a male member and testicles – many persons considered him to be a woman because of his appearance".[32]
  • 1370s – Jan van Aersdone and Willem Case were two men executed in Antwerp in the 1370s. The charge against them was same gender intercourse which was illegal and strenuously vilified in medieval Europe.[citation needed] Aersdone and Case stand out because records of their names have survived. One other couple still known by name from the 14th century were Giovanni Braganza and Nicoleto Marmagna of Venice.[33]
  • 1395 – John Rykener, known also as Johannes Richer and Eleanor, was a transvestite prostitute working mainly in London (near Cheapside), but also active in Oxford. He was arrested in 1395 for cross-dressing and interrogated.

15th century[edit]

  • 1424 – Bernardino of Siena preached for three days in Florence, Italy against homosexuality and other forms of lust, culminating in a pyre in which burned cosmetics, wigs and all sorts of articles for the beautification. He calls for sodomites to be ostracized from society, and these sermons alongside measures by other clergy of the time strengthens opinion against homosexuals and encourages the authorities to increase the measures of persecution[34]
  • 1432 – In Florence the first organization specifically intended to prosecute sodomy is established, the "Night Officials", which over the next 70 years arrest about 10,000 men and boys, succeeding in getting about 2,000 convicted, with most then paying fines.
  • 1451 – Pope Nicholas V enables the papal Inquisition to persecute men who practice sodomy.
  • 1475 – In Peru, a chronicle written under the Capac Yupanqui government describes the persecution of homosexuals with public burnings and destruction of homes (a practice usually reserved for conquered tribes).
  • 1476 – Florentine court records of 1476 show that Leonardo da Vinci and three other young men were charged with sodomy twice, and acquitted.[35]
  • 1483 – The Spanish Inquisition begins. Sodomites were stoned, castrated, and burned. Between 1540 and 1700, more than 1,600 people were prosecuted for sodomy.[12]
  • 1492 – Desiderius Erasmus writes a series of love letters to a fellow monk while at a monastery in Steyn in the Netherlands.[36]
  • 1494 – Girolamo Savonarola criticizes the population of Florence for its "horrible sins" (mainly homosexuality and gambling) and exhorts them to give up their young and beardless lovers.
  • 1497 – In Spain the Ferdinand and Isabella strengthen the sodomy laws hitherto applied only in the cities. An increase is made in the severity of the crime equating to treason or heresy, and the amount of evidence required for conviction is lowered, with torture permitted to extract confession. The property of the defendant is also confiscated.

16th century[edit]

  • 1502 – A charge is brought against the Italian artist Sandro Botticelli on the grounds of sodomy.[37]
  • 1523 – First of several charges of sodomy brought against the Florentine artist Benvenuto Cellini.[38]
  • 1532 – Holy Roman Empire makes sodomy punishable by death.[12]
  • 1532 – The Florentine artist Michelangelo begins writing over 300 love poems dedicated to Tomasso dei Cavalieri.[39]
  • 1533 – King Henry VIII passes the Buggery Act 1533 making anal intercourse punishable by death throughout England.[40]
  • 1542 – Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca documents same sex marriages and men "who dress like women and perform the office of women, but use the bow and carry big loads" among a native american tribe in his publication, "The Journey of Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca and His Companions from Florida to the Pacific 1528-1536".
  • 1543 – Henry VIII gives royal assent to the Laws in Wales Act 1542, extending the buggery law into Wales.
  • 1553 – Mary Tudor ascends the English throne and removes all of the laws that had been passed by Henry VIII during the English Reformation of the 1530s.
  • 1558–1563 – Elizabeth I reinstates Henry VIII's old laws, including the Buggery Act 1533.[12]

17th century[edit]

18th century[edit]

  • 1785 – Jeremy Bentham is one of the first people to argue for the decriminalization of sodomy in England.[12]
  • 1791 – Revolutionary France (and Andorra) adopts a new penal code which no longer criminalizes sodomy. France thus becomes the first West European country to decriminalize homosexual acts between consenting adults.[46]

19th century[edit]

Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825–1895), a pioneer of LGBT rights

20th century[edit]

1901–1909[edit]

  • 1903 – In New York on 21 February 1903, New York police conducted the first United States recorded raid on a gay bathhouse, the Ariston Hotel Baths. 26 men were arrested and 12 brought to trial on sodomy charges; 7 men received sentences ranging from 4 to 20 years in prison.[51]
  • 1906 – Potentially the first openly gay American novel with a happy ending, Imre, is published.[12]
  • 1907 – Adolf Brand, the activist leader of the Gemeinschaft der Eigenen, working to overturn Paragraph 175, publishes a piece "outing" the imperial chancellor of Germany, Prince Bernhard von Bülow. The Prince sues Brand for libel and clears his name; Brand is sentenced to 18 months in prison.[52]
  • 1907–1909 – Harden-Eulenburg Affair in Germany[53]

1910s[edit]

  • 1910 – Emma Goldman first begins speaking publicly in favor of homosexual rights. Magnus Hirschfeld later wrote "she was the first and only woman, indeed the first and only American, to take up the defense of homosexual love before the general public."[54]
    14 May 1928 issue of German lesbian periodical Die Freundin (Friedrich Radszuweit)
    [55]
  • 1912 – The first explicit reference to lesbianism in a Mormon magazine occurred when the "Young Woman's Journal" paid tribute to "Sappho of Lesbos[49] "; the Scientific Humanitarian Committee of the Netherlands (NWHK), the first Dutch organization to campaign against anti-homosexual discrimination, is established by Dr. Jacob Schorer.
  • 1913 – The word faggot is first used in print in reference to gays in a vocabulary of criminal slang published in Portland, Oregon: "All the fagots [sic] (sissies) will be dressed in drag at the ball tonight".
  • Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time is published in France, marking the first time a modern Western author treats homosexuality openly in literature.
  • 1917 – The October Revolution in Russia repeals the previous criminal code in its entirety—including Article 995.[56][57] Bolshevik leaders reportedly say that "homosexual relationships and heterosexual relationships are treated exactly the same by the law."
  • 1919 – In Berlin, Germany, Doctor Magnus Hirschfeld co-founds the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft (Institute for Sex Research), a pioneering private research institute and counseling office. Its library of thousands of books was destroyed by Nazis in May 1933.[58][59][60]
  • 1919 - Different From the Others, one of the first explicitly gay films, is released. Magnus Hirschfeld has a cameo in the film and partially funded its production.

1920s[edit]

  • 1921 – In England an attempt to make lesbianism illegal for the first time in Britain's history fails.[61]
  • 1922 – A new criminal code comes into force in the USSR officially decriminalizing homosexual acts.
  • 1923 – The word fag is first used in print in reference to gays in Nels Anderson's The Hobo: "Fairies or Fags are men or boys who exploit sex for profit."
  • 1923 – Lesbian Elsa Gidlow, born in England, published the first volume of openly lesbian love poetry in the United States, titled "On A Grey Thread."[62]
  • 1924 – The first homosexual rights organization in America is founded by Henry Gerber in Chicago— the Society for Human Rights.[63] The group exists for a few months before disbanding under police pressure.[64] Panama, Paraguay and Peru legalize homosexuality.
  • 1926 – The New York Times is the first major publication to use the word "homosexuality".[12]
  • 1927 - Karol Szymanowski, Poland's openly gay composer, is appointed chief of Poland's state-owned national music school, the Fryderyk Chopin Music Academy.
  • 1928 – The Well of Loneliness by Radclyffe Hall is published in the UK and later in the United States. This sparks great legal controversy and brings the topic of homosexuality to public conversation.
  • 1929 – On 22 May, Katharine Lee Bates, author of America the Beautiful dies. On 16 October, a Reichstag Committee votes to repeal Paragraph 175; the Nazis' rise to power prevents the implementation of the vote.

1930s[edit]

  • 1931 - Mädchen in Uniform, one of the first explicitly lesbian films and the first pro-lesbian film, is released.
  • 1932 – Poland codifies the homosexual and heterosexual age of consent equally at 15. Polish law had never criminalized homosexuality, although occupying powers had outlawed it in 1835.[29]
  • 1933 – New Danish penalty law decriminalizes homosexuality.
  • 1933 – The National Socialist German Workers Party bans homosexual groups. Homosexuals are sent to concentration camps. Nazis burn the library of Magnus Hirschfeld's Institute for Sexual Research, and destroy the Institute; Denmark and Philippines decriminalizes homosexuality. Homosexual acts are recriminalized in the USSR. (Certain persons, including Scott Lively (presently charged with Crimes against humanity[65]), assert that the Nazi opposition to homosexuality was 'selective'. In order to persecute other 'types' of people, the Nazi party used homosexual behavior as a convenient excuse. The faithful Nazis, who were themselves blatant homosexuals, were tolerated.[66]) Scholars and historians in general reject this allegation and Lively is named a holocaust revisionist both the Southern Poverty Law Center and by the ADL [67][68][69]
  • 1934 – Uruguay decriminalizes homosexuality. The USSR once again criminalizes muzhelozhstvo (specific Russian definition of “male sexual intercourse with male”, literally “man lying with man”), punishable by up to 5 years in prison – more for the coercion or involvement of minors.[70]
  • 1936 – Mona's 440 Club, the first lesbian bar in America, opened in San Francisco in 1936.[71][72] Mona's waitresses and female performers wore tuxedos and patrons dressed their roles.[72]
  • 1936 – Federico García Lorca, Spanish poet, is shot at the beginning of the civil war.
  • 1937 – The first use of the pink triangle for gay men in Nazi concentration camps.
  • 1938 – The word Gay is used for the first time in reference to homosexuality.[73]
  • 1939 – Frances V. Rummell, an educator and a teacher of French at Stephens College, published an autobiography under the title Diana: A Strange Autobiography; it was the first explicitly lesbian autobiography in which two women end up happily together.[74] This autobiography was published with a note saying, "The publishers wish it expressly understood that this is a true story, the first of its kind ever offered to the general reading public".[74]

1940s[edit]

  • 1940 – Iceland decriminalizes homosexuality; the NWHK is disbanded in the Netherlands in May due to the German invasion, and most of its archive is voluntarily destroyed, while the rest is confiscated by Nazi soldiers.
  • 1941 – Transsexuality was first used in reference to homosexuality and bisexuality.
  • 1942 – Switzerland decriminalizes homosexuality, with the age of consent set at 20.
  • 1944 – Sweden decriminalizes homosexuality, with the age of consent set at 20 and Suriname legalizes homosexuality.
  • 1945 – Upon the liberation of Nazi concentration camps by Allied forces, those interned for homosexuality are not freed, but required to serve out the full term of their sentences under Paragraph 175; Portugal decriminalises homosexuality for the second time in its history. Four honourably discharged gay veterans form the Veterans Benevolent Association, the first LGBT veterans' group.[75] Gay bar Yanagi opened in Japan.[76]
  • 1946 – "COC" (Dutch acronym for "Center for Culture and Recreation"), one of the earliest homophile organizations, is founded in the Netherlands. It is the oldest surviving LGBT organization.
  • 1947 – Vice Versa, the first North American lesbian publication, is written and self-published by Lisa Ben (real name Edith Eyde) in Los Angeles.
  • 1948 – "Forbundet af 1948" ("League of 1948"), a homosexual group, is formed in Denmark.
  • 1948 – The communist authorities of Poland make 15 the age of consent for all sexual acts, homosexual or heterosexual.

1950s[edit]

Main article: 1950s in LGBT rights
Mattachine Review published by the Mattachine Society
  • 1950 – The Organization for Sexual Equality, now Swedish Federation for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Rights (RFSL), is formed in Sweden; East Germany partially abrogates the Nazis' emendations to Paragraph 175; The Mattachine Society, the first sustained American homosexual group, is founded in Los Angeles (11 November); 190 individuals in the United States are dismissed from government employment for their sexual orientation, commencing the Lavender scare.
  • 1951 – Greece decriminalizes homosexuality.
  • 1951 – Jordan In 1951, a revision of the Jordanian Criminal Code legalized private, adult, non-commercial, and consensual sodomy, with the age of consent set at 16.
  • 1952 – "Spring Fire," the first lesbian paperback novel, and the beginning of the lesbian pulp fiction genre, was published in 1952 and sold 1.5 million copies.[77][78] It was written by lesbian Marijane Meaker under the false name Vin Packer.[77]
  • 1952 – In the spring of 1952, Dale Jennings was arrested in Los Angeles for allegedly soliciting a police officer in a bathroom in Westlake Park, now known as MacArthur Park. His trial drew national attention to the Mattachine Society, and membership increased drastically after Jennings contested the charges, resulting in a hung jury.[79]
  • 1952 – Christine Jorgensen(George William Jorgensen, Jr.) becomes the first widely publicized person to have undergone sex reassignment surgery, in this case, male to female, creating a world-wide sensation.
  • 1952 – In Japan it was "Adonis" launched. Mishima Yukio was Contributed to this magazine.
  • 1954 – 7 June–Mathematical and computer genius Alan Turing commits suicide by cyanide poisoning, 18 months after being given a choice between two years in prison or libido-reducing hormone treatment for a year as a punishment for homosexuality.[80] A succession of well-known men, including Lord Montagu, Michael Pitt-Rivers and Peter Wildeblood, were convicted of homosexual offences as British police pursued a McCarthy-like purge of Society homosexuals.[81] Arcadie, the first homosexual group in France, is formed.
  • 1955 – The Daughters of Bilitis (DOB) was founded in San Francisco in 1955 by four lesbian couples (including Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon) and was the first national lesbian political and social organization in the United States.[82] The group's name came from "Songs of Bilitis," a lesbian-themed song cycle by French poet Pierre Louÿs, which described the fictional Bilitis as a resident of the Isle of Lesbos alongside Sappho.[82] DOB's activities included hosting public forums on homosexuality, offering support to isolated, married, and mothering lesbians, and participating in research activities.[82] Mattachine Society New York chapter founded.
  • 1956 – Thailand decriminalizes homosexual acts.
  • 1957 – The word "Transsexual" is coined by U.S. physician Harry Benjamin; The Wolfenden Committee's report recommends decriminalizing consensual homosexual behaviour between adults in the United Kingdom; Psychologist Evelyn Hooker publishes a study showing that homosexual men are as well adjusted as non-homosexual men, which becomes a major factor in the American Psychiatric Association removing homosexuality from its handbook of disorders in 1973. Homoerotic artist Tom of Finland first published on the cover of Physique Pictorial magazine from Los Angeles.[83]
  • 1958 – The Homosexual Law Reform Society is founded in the United Kingdom; Barbara Gittings founds the New York chapter of Daughters of Bilitis.
  • 1958 – The United States Supreme Court rules in favor of the First Amendment rights of a gay and lesbian magazine, marking the first time the United States Supreme Court had ruled on a case involving homosexuality.
  • 1959 – ITV, at the time the UK's only national commercial broadcaster, broadcasts the first gay drama, South, starring Peter Wyngarde.[84] The first homosexual uprising in the world, at Cooper’s Doughnuts in Los Angeles, USA, rioters arrested by LAPD.[85]

1960s[edit]

Main article: 1960s in LGBT rights
  • 1960 – Cpls. Fannie Mae Clackum and Grace Garner, U.S. Air Force reservists in the late 1940s and early 1950s, became the first people to successfully challenge their discharges from the U.S. military for being gay, although the ruling turned on the fact that there wasn’t enough evidence to show the women were lesbians — rather than that there was nothing wrong with it if they were.[86]
  • 1961 – Czechoslovakia and Hungary decriminalize sodomy; the Vatican declares that anyone who is "affected by the perverse inclination" towards homosexuality should not be allowed to take religious vows or be ordained within the Roman Catholic Church; The Rejected, the first documentary on homosexuality, is broadcast on KQED TV in San Francisco on 11 September 1961; José Sarria becomes the first openly gay candidate for public office in the United States when he runs for the San Francisco Board of Supervisors.[87]
  • 1961 – Illinois becomes the first U.S. state to remove sodomy law from its criminal code through passage of the American Law Institute's Model Penal Code. While the adopted code did not penalize private sexual relations, it criminalized acts of "Open Lewdness." [88][89]
  • 1963 – Israel de facto decriminalizes sodomy and sexual acts between men by judicial decision against the enforcement of the relevant section in the old British-mandate law from 1936 (which in fact was never enforced).[citation needed]
  • 1964 – Canada sees its first gay-positive organization, ASK, and first gay magazines: ASK Newsletter (in Vancouver), and Gay (by Gay Publishing Company of Toronto). Gay was the first periodical to use the term 'Gay' in the title and expanded quickly, including outstripping the distribution of American publications under the name Gay International. These were quickly followed by Two (by Gayboy (later Kamp) Publishing Company of Toronto).[90][91]
  • 1964 – Canada March 1964, ted northe founds the 'Imperial Court of Canada' a monarchist society compromised primarily of drag personalities and becomes a driving force in the effort to achieve equality in Canada. The Courts of Canada now have over 14 chapters across the country and is the oldest, continuously running, GLBT Organization in Canada.
  • 1964 – The first photograph of lesbians on the cover of lesbian magazine The Ladder was done in September 1964, showing two women from the back, on a beach looking out to sea.
  • 1965 – Everett George Klippert, the last person imprisoned in Canada for homosexuality, is arrested for private, consensual sex with men. After being assessed "incurably homosexual", he is sentenced to an indefinite "preventive detention" as a dangerous sexual offender. This was considered by many Canadians to be extremely homophobic, and prompted sympathetic articles in Maclean's and The Toronto Star, eventually leading to increased calls for legal reform in Canada which passed in 1969.[citation needed] Conservatively dressed gays and lesbians demonstrate outside Independence Hall in Philadelphia on 4 July 1965. This was the first in a series of Annual Reminders that took place through 1969.
  • 1966 – The Mattachine Society stages a "Sip-In" at Julius Bar in New York City challenging a New York State Liquor Authority prohibiting serving alcohol to gays; the National Planning Conference of Homophile Organizations is established (to became NACHO—North American Conference of Homophile Organizations later that year); the Compton's Cafeteria Riot occurred in August 1966 by transgender women and Vanguard members in the Tenderloin district of San Francisco. This incident was one of the first recorded transgender riots in United States history, preceding the more famous 1969 Stonewall Riots in New York City by three years. Vanguard was founded to demonstrate for equal rights.
  • 1966 – The first lesbian to appear on the cover of the lesbian magazine The Ladder with her face showing was Lilli Vincenz in January 1966. A coalition of Homosexual organizations organized demonstrations for Armed Forces Day to protest the exclusion of LGBT from the U.S. armed services. The Los Angeles group held a 15-car motorcade, which has been identified as the nation’s first gay pride parade.[92]
  • 1967 – The Black Cat Tavern in the Silver Lake neighborhood of Los Angeles is raided on New Year's day by 12 plainclothes police officers who beat and arrested employees and patrons. The raid prompted a series of protests that began on 5 January 1967, organized by P.R.I.D.E. (Personal Rights in Defense and Education). It's the first use of the term "Pride" that came to be associated with LGBT rights.
  • 1967 – The Advocate was first published in September as "The Los Angeles Advocate," a local newsletter alerting gay men to police raids in Los Angeles gay bars.
  • 1967 – The Sexual Offences Act decriminalised homosexual acts between two men over 21 years of age in private in England and Wales.;[93] The act did not apply to Scotland, Northern Ireland nor the Channel Islands; The book Homosexual Behavior Among Males by Wainwright Churchill breaks ground as a scientific study approaching homosexuality as a fact of life and introduces the term "homoerotophobia", a possible precursor to "homophobia"; The Oscar Wilde Bookshop, the world's first homosexual-oriented bookstore, opens in New York City; "Our World" ("Nuestro Mundo"), the first Latino-American homosexual group, is created in Argentina; A raid on the Black Cat Tavern in Los Angeles, California promotes homosexual rights activity. The Student Homophile League at Columbia University is the first institutionally recognized gay student group in the United States.[citation needed]
  • 1968 – Paragraph 175 is eased in East Germany decriminalizing homosexual acts over the age of 18; Bulgaria decriminalizes adult homosexual relations. In Los Angeles, following the arrest of two patrons in a raid, The Patch owner Lee Glaze organized the other patrons to move on the police station. After buying out a nearby flower shop, the demonstrators caravanned to the station, festooned it with the flowers and bailed out the arrested men.[92]
  • 1969 – The Stonewall riots occur in New York; Paragraph 175 is eased in West Germany; Bill C-150 is passed, decriminalizing homosexuality in Canada. Pierre Trudeau, the Canadian Prime Minister is quoted as having said: "The state has no place in the bedrooms of the nation."; Poland decriminalizes homosexual prostitution; An Australian arm of the Daughters of Bilitis forms in Melbourne and is considered Australia's first homosexual rights organisation.[citation needed]
  • 1969 – On 31 December 1969, the Cockettes perform for the first time at the Palace Theatre on Union and Columbus in the North Beach neighborhood of San Francisco.

1970s[edit]

Main article: 1970s in LGBT rights
  • 1972 – Sweden becomes first country in the world to allow transsexuals to legally change their sex, and provides free hormone therapy;[101] Hawaii legalizes homosexuality; In South Australia, a consenting adults in private-type legal defence was introduced; Norway decriminalizes homosexuality; East Lansing, Michigan and Ann Arbor, Michigan and San Francisco, California become the first cities in United States to pass a homosexual rights ordinance. Jim Foster, San Francisco and Madeline Davis, Buffalo, New York, first gay and lesbian delegates to the Democratic Convention, Miami, McGovern; give the first speeches advocating a gay rights plank in the Democratic Party Platform. "Stonewall Nation" first gay anthem is written and recorded by Madeline Davis and is produced on 45 rpm record by the Mattachine Society of the Niagara Frontier. Lesbianism 101, first lesbianism course in the U.S. taught at the University of Buffalo by Margaret Small and Madeline Davis.[citation needed]Queens, NY schoolteacher Jeanne Manford marched with her gay son, gay rights activist Morty Manford, in New York's Christopher Street Liberation Day march. This was the origin of the straight ally movement and of PFLAG - (originally Parents of Gays, then Parents, Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays, now simply PFLAG.[102] Nancy Wechsler became the first openly gay or lesbian person in political office in America; she was elected to the Ann Arbor City Council in 1972 as a member of the Human Rights Party and came out as a lesbian during her first and only term there.[103] Also in 1972, Camille Mitchell became the first open lesbian to be awarded custody of her children in a divorce case, although the judge restricted the arrangement by precluding Ms. Mitchell's lover from moving in with her and the children.[104] Freda Smith became the first openly lesbian minister in the Metropolitan Community Church (she was also their first female minister).[105][106] Beth Chayim Chadashim was founded in 1972 as the world's first lesbian and gay synagogue recognized by the Reform Jewish community.[107] A Quaker group, the Committee of Friends on Bisexuality, issued the “Ithaca Statement on Bisexuality” supporting bisexuals.[108]

    The Statement, which may have been "the first public declaration of the bisexual movement" and "was certainly the first statement on bisexuality issued by an American religious assembly," appeared in the Quaker Friends Journal and The Advocate in 1972.[109][110][111]

Today Quakers have varying opinions on LGBT people and rights, with some Quaker groups more accepting than others.[112]

  • 1973 – On the 15 October the the Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatry Federal Council declares homosexuality not an illness – the first such body in the world to do so; in December the American Psychiatric Association removes homosexuality from its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-II), based largely on the research and advocacy of Evelyn Hooker. The first formal meeting of PFLAG took place on March 26, 1973 at the Metropolitan-Duane Methodist Church in Greenwich Village (now the Church of the Village). Approximately 20 people attended, including founder Jeanne Manford, her husband Jules, son Morty, Dick and Amy Ashworth, Metropolitan Community Church founder Reverend Troy Perry, and more.[102] Malta legalizes homosexuality; In West Germany, the age of consent is reduced for homosexuals to 18 (though it is 14 for heterosexuals).[citation needed]; Sally Miller Gearhart became the first open lesbian to obtain a tenure-track faculty position when she was hired by San Francisco State University, where she helped establish one of the first women and gender study programs in the country.[113]
  • 1975 – Homosexuality is legalized in California due to the Consenting Adult Sex Bill, authored by and successfully lobbied for in the state legislature by State Assemblyman from San Francisco Willie Brown; Leonard Matlovich, a Technical Sergeant in the United States Air Force, becomes the first U.S. gay service member to purposely out himself to fight their ban; South Australia becomes the first state in Australia to make homosexuality legal between consenting adults in private. Panama is the second country in the world to allow transsexuals who have gone through gender reassignment surgery to get their personal documents reflecting their new sex;[citation needed] UK journal Gay Left begins publication;[117] Minneapolis becomes the first city in the United States to pass trans-inclusive civil rights protection legislation;[118] Clela Rorex, a clerk in Boulder County, Colorado, issues the first same-sex marriage licenses in the United States, issuing the very first of them to Dave McCord and Dave Zamora, on March 26, 1975.[119] Six same-sex marriages were performed as a result of her giving out licenses, but all of the marriages were overturned later that year.[119]
Gay rights protesters in New York City, protesting at the United States' 1976 Democratic National Convention
  • 1978 – San Francisco Supervisor Harvey Milk and Mayor George Moscone are assassinated by former Supervisor Dan White; the first Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras is held, with 2000 people attending and 53 subsequently arrested and some seriously beaten by police. ; The rainbow flag is first used as a symbol of homosexual pride; Sweden establishes a uniform age of consent. Samois the earliest known lesbian-feminist BDSM organization is founded in San Francisco; well-known members of the group include Patrick Califia and Gayle Rubin; the group is among the very earliest advocates of what came to be known as sex-positive feminism[citation needed]; The International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA) is established.[130] Robin Tyler became the first out lesbian on U.S. national television, appearing on a Showtime comedy special hosted by Phyllis Diller. The same year she released her comedy album, Always a Bridesmaid, Never a Groom, the first comedy album by an out lesbian.[131]

1980s[edit]

  • 1980 – The United States Democratic Party becomes the first major political party in the U.S. to endorse a homosexual rights platform plank; Scotland decriminalizes homosexuality; David McReynolds becomes the first openly LGBT individual to run for President of the United States, appearing on the Socialist Party U S A ticket; The Human Rights Campaign Fund is founded by Steve Endean; The Human Rights Campaign is America’s largest civil rights organization working to achieve lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender equality.[132]
  • 1981 – The European Court of Human Rights in Dudgeon v. United Kingdom strikes down Northern Ireland's criminalisation of homosexual acts between consenting adults, leading to Northern Ireland decriminalising homosexual sex the following year; Victoria (Australia) and Colombia decriminalize homosexuality with a uniform age of consent; The Moral Majority starts its anti-homosexual crusade; Norway becomes the first country in the world to enact a law to prevent discrimination against homosexuals; Hong Kong's first sex-change operation is performed. The first official documentation of the condition to be known as AIDS was published by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on 5 June 1981.[133] Tennis player Billie Jean King became the first prominent professional athlete to come out as a lesbian, when her relationship with her secretary Marilyn Barnett became public in a May 1981 "palimony" lawsuit filed by Barnett.[134] Due to this she lost all of her endorsements.[135] Mary C. Morgan became the first openly gay or lesbian judge in America when she was appointed by California Governor Jerry Brown to the San Francisco Municipal Court.[136]
  • 1982 – Laguna Beach, CA elects the first openly gay mayor in United States history; France equalizes the age of consent; The first Gay Games is held in San Francisco, attracting 1,600 participants; Northern Ireland decriminalizes homosexuality; Wisconsin becomes the first US state to ban discrimination against homosexuals; New South Wales becomes the first Australian state to outlaw discrimination on the basis of actual or perceived homosexuality. The condition to be known as AIDS had acquired a number of names – GRID5 (gay-related immune deficiency), ‘gay cancer’, ‘community-acquired immune dysfunction’ and ‘gay compromise syndrome’[137] The CDC used the term AIDS for the first time in September 1982, when it reported that an average of one to two cases of AIDS were being diagnosed in America every day.[138] Ken Togo is founding the Deracine Party in Japan.
  • 1983 – Massachusetts Representative Gerry Studds reveals he is gay on the floor of the House, becoming the first openly gay member of Congress; Guernsey (Including Alderney, Herm and Sark) decriminalizes homosexuality; Portugal decriminalizes homosexuality for the third time in its history; AIDS is described as a "gay plague" by Reverend Jerry Falwell.
  • 1984 – The lesbian and gay association "Ten Percent Club" is formed in Hong Kong; Massachusetts voters reelect representative Gerry Studds, despite his revealing himself as homosexual the year before; New South Wales and the Northern Territory in Australia make homosexual acts legal; Chris Smith, newly elected to the UK parliament declares: "My name is Chris Smith. I'm the Labour MP for Islington South and Finsbury, and I'm gay", making him the first openly out homosexual politician in the UK parliament. The Argentine Homosexual Community (Comunidad Homosexual Argentina, CHA) is formed uniting several different and preexisting groups. Berkeley, California becomes the first city in the U.S. to adopt a program of domestic partnership health benefits for city employees; West Hollywood, CA is founded and becomes the first known city to elect a city council where a majority of the members are openly gay or lesbian. Reconstructionist Judaism became the first Jewish denomination to allow openly lesbian rabbis and cantors.[139] ILGA Japan is founded in Japan. On Our Backs, the first women-run erotica magazine and the first magazine to feature lesbian erotica for a lesbian audience in the United States, was first published in 1984 by Debi Sundahl and Myrna Elana, with the contributions of Susie Bright, Nan Kinney, Honey Lee Cottrell, Dawn Lewis, Happy Hyder, Tee Corinne, Jewelle Gomez, Judith Stein, Joan Nestle, and Patrick Califia.[140]
  • 1985 – France prohibits discrimination based on lifestyle (moeurs) in employment and services; the first memorial to gay Holocaust victims is dedicated; Belgium equalizes the age of consent; the Restoration Church of Jesus Christ (informally called the Gay Mormon Church) is founded by Antonio A. Feliz.[141] Actor Rock Hudson dies of AIDS. He is the first major public figure known to have died from an AIDS-related illness.[142] The Reconstructionist Rabbinical College ordained Deborah Brin as the first openly gay or lesbian rabbi in Judaism.[143] Terry Sweeney becomes Saturday Night Live's first openly gay male cast member; Sweeney was "out" prior to being hired as a cast member.[144] The Bisexual Resource Center (BRC) in Massachusetts has served the bisexual community since 1985.
  • 1986 – Homosexual Law Reform Act passed in New Zealand, legalizing sex between males over 16; Haiti decriminalizes homosexuality, June in Bowers v. Hardwick case, U.S. Supreme Court upholds Georgia law forbidding oral or anal sex, ruling that the constitutional right to privacy does not extend to homosexual relations, but it does not state whether the law can be enforced against heterosexuals. Becky Smith and Annie Afleck became the first openly lesbian couple in America granted legal, joint adoption of a child.[145] From 1 till 3 May, the 1986, ILGA Asia Conference took place in Japan's capital Tokyo.[146]
  • 1987 – AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power(ACT-UP) founded in the US in response to the US government’s slow response in dealing with the AIDS crisis.[147] ACT UP stages its first major demonstration, seventeen protesters are arrested; U.S. Congressman Barney Frank comes out. Boulder, CO citizens pass the first referendum to ban discrimination based on sexual orientation.[148][149] In New York City a group of Bisexual LGBT rights activist including Brenda Howard found the New York Area Bisexual Network (NYABN); Homomonument, a memorial to persecuted homosexuals, opens in Amsterdam. David Norris is the first openly gay person to be elected to public office in the Republic of Ireland. A group of 75 bisexuals marched in the 1987 March On Washington For Gay and Lesbian Rights, which was the first nationwide bisexual gathering. The article "The Bisexual Movement: Are We Visible Yet?", by Lani Ka'ahumanu, appeared in the official Civil Disobedience Handbook for the March. It was the first article about bisexuals and the emerging bisexual movement to be published in a national lesbian or gay publication.[150]
  • 1988 – Sweden is the first country to pass laws protecting homosexual regarding social services, taxes, and inheritances. The anti-gay Section 28 passes in England and Wales; Scotland enacts almost identical legislation; Canadian MP Svend Robinson comes out; Canada lowers the age of consent for sodomy to 18; Belize and Israel decriminalize (de jure) sodomy and sexual acts between men (the relevant section in the old British-mandate law from 1936 was never enforced in Israel). After losing an Irish High Court case (1980) and an Irish Supreme Court case (1983), David Norris takes his case (Norris v. Ireland) to the European Court of Human Rights. The European Court strikes down the Irish law criminalising male-to-male sex on the grounds of privacy. Stacy Offner became the first openly lesbian rabbi hired by a mainstream Jewish congregation, Shir Tikvah Congregation of Minneapolis (a Reform Jewish congregation).[151][152]
  • 1989 – Western Australia decriminalizes male homosexuality (but the age of consent is set at 21); Liechtenstein legalizes homosexuality; Denmark is the first country in the world to enact registered partnership laws (like a civil union) for same-sex couples, with most of the same rights as marriage (excluding the right to adoption (until June 2010) and the right to marriage in a church).

1990s[edit]

(See individual year page for more info)

  • 1990
    • Equalization of age of consent: Czechoslovakia (see Czech Republic, Slovakia)
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: UK Crown Dependency of Jersey and the Australian state of Queensland
    • LGBT Organizations founded: BiNet USA (USA), OutRage! (UK) and Queer Nation (USA)
    • Other: Justin Fashanu is the first professional footballer to come out in the press.
    • Reform Judaism decided to allow openly lesbian and gay rabbis and cantors.[153]
    • Dale McCormick became the first open lesbian elected to a state Senate (she was elected to the Maine Senate).[154]
    • In 1990, the Union for Reform Judaism announced a national policy declaring lesbian and gay Jews to be full and equal members of the religious community. Its principal body, the Central Conference of American Rabbis (CCAR), officially endorsed a report of their committee on homosexuality and rabbis. They concluded that "all rabbis, regardless of sexual orientation, be accorded the opportunity to fulfill the sacred vocation that they have chosen" and that "all Jews are religiously equal regardless of their sexual orientation."
  • 1991
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: Bahamas, Hong Kong and Ukraine
    • AIDS Related: The red ribbon is first used as a symbol of the campaign against HIV/AIDS.
    • Sherry Harris was elected to the City Council in Seattle, Washington, making her the first openly lesbian African-American elected official.[155]
    • The first lesbian kiss on television occurred; it was on "L.A. Law" between the fictional characters of C.J. Lamb (played by Amanda Donohoe) and Abby (Michele Greene).[156]
  • 1993
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
      • Passed and Came into effect: Norway (without adoption until 2002, replaced with same-sex marriage in 2008/09)
    • Repeal of Sodomy laws: Australian Territory of Norfolk Island
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: Belarus, UK Crown Dependency of Gibraltar, Ireland, Lithuania, Russia (with the exception of the Chechen Republic);
    • Anti-discrimination legislation: US state of Minnesota (gender identity), New Zealand parliament passes the Human Rights Amendment Act which outlaws discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation or HIV.
    • Ban on gays serving openly in the military: USA (see Don't ask, don't tell, repealed 2010)
    • End to ban on gay people in the military: New Zealand
    • Significant LGBT Murders: Brandon Teena
    • Melissa Etheridge came out as a lesbian.
    • The Triangle Ball was held; it was the first inaugural ball in America to ever be held in honor of gays and lesbians.
    • The first Dyke March (a march for lesbians and their straight female allies, planned by the Lesbian Avengers) was held, with 20,000 women marching.[158][159]
    • Roberta Achtenberg became the first openly gay or lesbian person to be nominated by the president and confirmed by the U.S. Senate when she was appointed to the position of Assistant Secretary for Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity by President Bill Clinton.[160]
  • 1994
    • Unregistered Cohabitation recognition:
      • Passed and Came into effect: Israel (without adoption, without step-adoption until 2005)
    • Anti-discrimination legislation: South Africa (sexual orientation, interim constitution)
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: Bermuda, Germany, UK Crown Dependency of Isle of Man and Serbia
    • Equalization of age of consent:
      • Partial: UK reduces the age of consent for homosexual men to 18;
    • Homosexuality no longer an illness: American Medical Association
    • LGBT Organizations founded: National Coalition for Gay and Lesbian Equality (South Africa)
    • Other : Canada grants refugee status to homosexuals fearing for their well-being in their native country; Toonen v. Australia decided by UN Human Rights Committee; fear of persecution due to sexual orientation becomes grounds for asylum in the United States.[161]
    • Deborah Batts became the first openly gay or lesbian federal judge; she was appointed to the U.S. District Court in New York.[162][163]
    • Gay Parade was held in Japan. (8.1994)
    • Susan Stryker's essay "My Words to Victor Frankenstein Above the Village of Chamounix" became the first article to be published in a peer-reviewed academic journal by an openly transgender author.[164]
  • 1995
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
      • Passed and Came into effect: Sweden (with adoption, replaced with same-sex marriage in Apr 2009)
    • Anti-discrimination legislation: Canada (sexual orientation)
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: Albania and Moldova
    • AIDS Related: Triple combination therapy of drugs such as 3TC, AZT and ddC shown to be effective in treating HIV, the virus responsible for AIDS[165]
    • Other : The Human Rights Campaign drops the word "Fund" from their title and broadens their mission to promote "an America where gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people are ensured equality and embraced as full members of the American family at home, at work and in every community;"
    • LGBT Organizations founded: Gay Advice Darlington/Durham was founded by local gay and bisexual men, and has developed into a Charity that work with and for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Community of County Durham and Darlington.
    • Rachel Maddow became the first openly gay or lesbian American to win an international Rhodes scholarship.
  • 1996
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
      • Passed and Came into effect: Iceland (with step-adoption, without joint adoption until 2006, replaced with same-sex marriage in 2010)
    • Unregistered Cohabitation recognition:
      • Passed and Came into effect: Hungary (replaced with registered partnerships in 2009)
    • Restriction of LGBT partnership rights: USA, (federal, see DOMA)
    • Equalization of age of consent: Burkina Faso
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: Romania, Macedonia, Macau
    • The first lesbian wedding on television occurred, held for fictional characters Carol (played by Jane Sibbett) and Susan (played by Jessica Hecht) on the TV show "Friends".[166]
  • 1997
    • Anti-discrimination legislation: Fiji (sexual orientation, constitution) and South Africa (sexual orientation, constitution)
    • Equalization of age of consent: Russia
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: Ecuador, Venezuela and the Australian state of Tasmania
    • Other : Israeli President Ezer Weizman compares homosexuality to alcoholism in front of high school students.[167] The UK extends immigration rights to same-sex couples akin to marriage; Ellen DeGeneres came out as a lesbian, one of the first celebrities to do so.[168] Furthermore, later that year her character Ellen Morgan came out as a lesbian on the TV show "Ellen", making Ellen DeGeneres the first openly lesbian actress to play an openly lesbian character on television.[169]
  • Patria Jiménez became the first openly gay person to win a position in the Mexican Congress, doing so for the Party of the Democratic Revolution.[170]
  • 1999
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
      • Passed and Came into effect: US State of California (without adoption, without step adoption until 2001, same-sex marriage in Jun 2008-Nov 2008)
      • Passed and Came into effect: France
    • Equalization of age of consent: Finland (without adoption)
    • LGBT Organizations founded: "Queer Youth Alliance" (UK)
    • Other: Israel’s supreme court recognizes a lesbian partner as another legal mother of her partner’s biological son; South Africa grants spousal immigration benefits to same-sex partners.
    • Steven Greenberg publicly came out as gay in an article in the Israeli newspaper Maariv. As he has a rabbinic ordination from the Orthodox rabbinical seminary of Yeshiva University (RIETS), he is generally described as the first openly gay Orthodox Jewish rabbi.[179] However, some Orthodox Jews, including many rabbis, dispute his being an Orthodox rabbi.[180]
    • In 1999, the first Celebrate Bisexuality Day was organized by Michael Page, Gigi Raven Wilbur, and Wendy Curry.[181]

2000[edit]

21st century[edit]

2001–2009[edit]

Worldwide laws regarding homosexual
relationships and expression
     Same-sex marriage      Restricted freedom of expression
     Other type of partnership or unregistered cohabitation      Unenforced penalty
     Marriage recognized but not performed      Imprisonment
     Marriage recognized federally but not performed      Up to life in prison
     Same-sex unions not recognized      Death penalty
Click on map to view an enlarged version where rings in various locations become visible. These indicate places with local and/or case-by-case applications of law.

(See individual year page for more info)

  • 2001
    • Same-sex marriages laws:
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
      • Came into effect: Germany (without joint adoption until Oct 2004, then with step-adoption)
      • Passed: Finland (without joint adoption until May 2009, then with step-adoption)
    • Limited Partnership laws:
      • Passed and Came into effect: Portugal (without joint adoption) (replaced with marriage 2009)
      • Came into effect: Swiss canton of Geneva (without joint adoption)
    • Anti-discrimination legislation: US states of Rhode Island (private sector, gender identity) and Maryland (private sector, sexual orientation)
    • Equalization of age of consent: Albania, Estonia and Liechtenstein, United Kingdom.
    • Repeal of Sodomy laws: US state of Arizona
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: the rest of the United Kingdom's territories[citation needed]
    • Homosexuality no longer an illness: China
    • Marches and Prides: Protesters disrupt the first Pride march in the Serbian city of Belgrade
  • 2004
    • Same-sex marriage laws:
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
    • Limited Partnership laws:
    • Same-sex couple adoption legalisation: Germany (Step Adoption)
    • Banning of Same-sex marriage: Australia, US states of Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Oregon and Utah
    • Banning of Same-sex marriage and civil unions: US states of Arkansas, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Virginia and Wisconsin
    • Anti-discrimination legislation: Portugal, US States of Indiana (public sector, gender identity), Louisiana (public sector, sexual orientation) and Maine
    • Equalization of age of consent: Lithuania
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: Cape Verde, Marshall Islands and San Marino
    • Other: UK Gender Recognition Bill, James McGreevey becomes the first openly gay Governor in U.S. history.[citation needed]
    • The first all-transgender performance of the Vagina Monologues was held. The monologues were read by eighteen notable transgender women, and a new monologue revolving around the experiences and struggles of transgender women was included.[188]
    • Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon became the first same-sex couple to be legally married in the United States,[189] when San Francisco mayor Gavin Newsom allowed city hall to grant marriage licenses to same-sex couples.[190] However, all same-sex marriages done in 2004 in California were annulled.[191] After the California Supreme Court decision in 2008 that granted same-sex couples in California the right to marry, Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon remarried, and were again the first same-sex couple in the state to marry.[192][193] Later in 2008 Prop 8 illegalized same-sex marriage in California,[194] but the marriages that occurred between the California Supreme Court decision legalizing same-sex marriage and the approval of Prop 8 illegalizing it are still considered valid, including the marriage of Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon.[195] However, Del Martin died in 2008.[196]
    • James McGreevey, then governor of New Jersey, came out as gay, thus becoming the first openly gay state governor in United States history.[197] He resigned soon after.[197]
    • Bisi Alimi became the first Nigerian to declare his homosexuality on television.[198]
  • 2005
    • Same-sex marriage laws:
      • Passed and Came into effect: Canada, Spain (with joint adoption)
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
    • Same-sex couple adoption legalisation: UK Subdivisions of England and Wales
    • Banning of Same-sex marriage: Latvia and Uganda
    • Banning of Same-sex marriage and civil unions: US states of Kansas and Texas
    • Anti-discrimination legislation: US States of Illinois (private sector, sexual orientation and gender identity) and Maine (private sector, sexual orientation and gender identity)[citation needed]
    • Repeal of Sodomy laws: Puerto Rico
    • Other: two gay male teenagers, Mahmoud Asgari and Ayaz Marhoni, are executed in Iran, André Boisclair is chosen leader of the Parti Québécois, becoming the first openly gay man elected as the leader of a major political party in North America. Bonnie Bleskachek became the first openly lesbian fire chief of a major metropolitan area in the United States (specifically, Minneapolis.) The Roman Catholic Church issues an instruction prohibiting any individuals who "present deep-seated homosexual tendencies or support the so-called 'gay culture'" from joining the priesthood.[200]
    • The Simpsons became the first cartoon series to dedicate an entire episode to the topic of same-sex marriage.[201]
  • 2006
In 2006 Kim Coco Iwamoto became the first transgender official to win statewide office in Hawaii.
  • 2007
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
    • Limited Partnership laws:
    • Anti-discrimination legislation: United Kingdom[210] (sexual orientation) and US states of Colorado (private sector, sexual orientation and gender identity), Iowa (private sector, sexual orientation and gender identity), Kansas (public sector, sexual orientation and gender identity), Michigan (public sector, gender identity), Ohio (public sector, sexual orientation and gender identity), Oregon (private sector, sexual orientation and gender identity) and Vermont (private sector, gender identity)
    • Equalization of age of consent: Portugal, South Africa, UK territory of Jersey,[211][212] Vanuatu
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: Nepal and New Zealand territories of Niue and Tokelau
    • Marches and Prides: the first ever gay pride parade in a Muslim country is held in Istanbul, Turkey;[213]
    • Other: on 9 August 2007, the Logo cable channel hosts the first presidential forum in the United States focusing specifically on LGBT issues. Six Democratic Party candidates participate in the event. GOP candidates were asked to attend but turned it down. On 29 November, the first foreign gay wedding was held in Hanoi, Vietnam between a Japanese and an Irish national. The wedding raised much attention in the gay and lesbian community in Vietnam.[214]
    • From 2007 to 2008 actress Candis Cayne played Carmelita Rainer, a transgender woman having an affair with married New York Attorney General Patrick Darling (played by William Baldwin), on the ABC prime time drama Dirty Sexy Money.[215][216][217] The role made Cayne the first openly transgender actress to play a recurring transgender character in prime time.[215][216][217]
    • On 29 November, the first foreign gay wedding was held in Hanoi, Vietnam between a Japanese and an Irish national. The wedding raised much attention in the gay and lesbian community in Vietnam.[214]
    • Jalda Rebling, a German woman born in the Netherlands and ordained in America, became the first openly lesbian cantor ordained by the Jewish Renewal movement.
    • Rabbi Toba Spitzer became the first openly lesbian or gay person to head a rabbinical assembly when she was elected president of the Reconstructionist Rabbinical Assembly at the group's annual convention, held in Scottsdale, Arizona.[218]
    • Joy Ladin became the first openly transgender professor at an Orthodox institution (Stern College for Women of Yeshiva University).[219][220]
  • Amaranta Gómez Regalado (for México Posible) became the first transsexual person to appear in the Mexican Congress.
  • Ellen DeGeneres became the first open lesbian to host the Academy Awards.[221]
  • 2008
    • Same-sex marriage laws:
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
    • Limited Partnership laws:
    • Banning of Same-sex marriage: US states of Arizona and California
    • Banning of Same-sex marriage and civil unions: US state of Florida
    • Same-sex couple adoption legalisation: Uruguay
    • Banning of Same-sex adoption: Arkansas (struck down by the Arkansas Supreme Court in 2011)
    • Anti-discrimination legislation: California[citation needed]
    • Equalization of age of consent: Nicaragua, Panama
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: Nicaragua and Panama
    • Marches and Prides: the first ever gay pride parade in Bulgaria
    • Other: Kosovo declares itself to be an independent country with a new constitution that includes mention of "sexual orientation", the first of its kind in Eastern Europe,[citation needed] Portland voters elect Sam Adams (Oregon politician) mayor, making it the largest city in the US with an openly gay mayor (the next largest is Providence, Rhode Island), 3 June the first two same-sex civil marriages (two men and two women)take place in Greece on the island of Tilos, the supreme court prosecutor and the minister of Justice claim the marriages are null and void.
    • Silverton, Oregon elected Stu Rasmussen as the first openly transgender mayor in America.[222][223]
    • Angie Zapata, a transgender woman, was murdered in Greeley, Colorado. Allen Andrade was convicted of first-degree murder and committing a bias-motivated crime, because he killed her after he learned that she was transgender. This case was the first in the nation to get a conviction for a hate crime involving a transgender victim.[224] Angie Zapata's story and murder were featured on Univision's "Aqui y Ahora" television show on 1 November 2009.
    • The first ever U.S. Congressional hearing on discrimination against transgender people in the workplace was held, by the House Subcommittee on Health, Employment, Labor, and Pensions.[225]
    • Rachel Maddow became the first openly gay or lesbian anchor of a major prime-time news program in the United States when she began hosting The Rachel Maddow Show on U.S. cable network MSNBC.[226]
    • Annise Parker was elected as the first openly gay or lesbian mayor of Houston, Texas.[227]
    • Kate Brown was elected as the Oregon Secretary of State in the 2008 elections, becoming America's first openly bisexual statewide officeholder.[228][229][230][231]
  • 2009
Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir became the Prime Minister of Iceland in 2009, and thus became the first openly gay head of government in modern times.
    • Same-sex marriage laws:
      • Passed and Came into effect: Sweden[232] (with joint adoption), US states of Iowa,[233] and Vermont[234]
      • Came into effect: Norway (with joint adoption) and same-sex marriage in the Coquille Indian Tribe on the southern Oregon coast,[235] In 2009 Kitzen and Jeni Branting married in the Coquille Indian tribe's Coos Bay plankhouse, a 3-year-old meeting hall built in traditional Coquille style with cedar plank walls. They were the first same-sex couple to have their marriage recognized by the tribe, of which Kitzen was a member.[236][237]
      • Passed: Mexican City of Mexico City (with joint adoption), US states and districts of New Hampshire (step adoption only), Maine[238] (never came into effect), Washington, D.C.[239]
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
      • Passed and Came into effect: Hungary (without joint adoption), Colombia (expansion of previous rights without joint adoption), US states of Nevada and Washington[240] (expansion of previous rights)
      • Passed: Austria (without joint adoption)
    • Limited Partnership laws:
    • Abroad Union recognition: Japan,[241] US district of Washington, D.C.
    • Same-sex couple adoption legalisation: Finland[242] (step adoption), UK Subdivision of Scotland
    • Banning of Same-sex marriage: Maine[243]
    • Anti-discrimination legislation: Serbia, US state of Delaware (private sector, sexual orientation), USA Matthew Shepard Act.[244]
    • End to ban on gay people in the military: Argentina, Philippines, Uruguay
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: India[245]
    • Other: Iceland elects the first openly gay head of government in the world, Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir;[246] On 10 March 2009, in Tel Aviv, Uzi Even and his life partner was the first same-sex male couple in Israel whose right of adoption has been legally acknowledged.;[247] (26 May), the California Supreme Court upholds Proposition 8, the ballot initiative that banned same-sex marriage in November 2008, with a 6–1 vote;[248] the Canadian province of Alberta becomes the last province to include the words "sexual orientation" in the Human Rights Act;[249] Washington state voters approve keeping same-sex relationship rights as Domestic Partnerships by 51 percent; (12 Dec), Annise Parker is elected mayor of Houston, Texas, which becomes the largest city in the United States with an openly gay mayor[250] Welsh rugby star Gareth Thomas becomes the first known top-level professional male athlete in a team sport to come out while still active.[251]
    • Diego Sanchez became the first openly transgender person to work on Capitol Hill; he was hired as a legislative assistant for Barney Frank.[252] Sanchez was also the first transgender person on the Democratic National Committee's (DNC) Platform Committee in 2008.[253][254]
    • Barbra “Babs” Siperstein was nominated and confirmed as an at-large member of the Democratic National Committee, becoming its first openly transgender member.[255]
    • Carol Ann Duffy was chosen as the first openly lesbian or gay Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom.[256]
    • In October 2009, LGBT activist Amy Andre[257] was appointed as executive director of the San Francisco Pride Celebration Committee, making her San Francisco Pride's first openly bisexual woman of color executive director.[258][259]

2010s[edit]

(See individual year page for more info)

  • 2010
    • Same-sex marriage laws:
      • Passed and Came into effect: Portugal (without joint adoption), Iceland (with joint adoption), Argentina (with adoption)[260]
      • Came into effect: Mexican City of Mexico City (with joint adoption). US state of New Hampshire (step adoption only) and Washington, D.C.[239]
      • Recognition: The Mexican Supreme Court rules that marriages contracted in Mexico City are valid throughout the country, although no other jurisdiction is required to perform them. Australian State of Tasmania recognises same-marriages performed in other jurisdictions.
      • Other: U.S. state of California, United States District Judge Vaughn Walker strikes down California's Proposition 8 as violative of the United States Constitution's Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses.[261]
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
      • Came into effect: Austria (without adoption and IVF access rights)
      • Passed: Ireland (without adoption rights)
    • Limited Partnership laws:
      • Passed and Came into effect: Australian state of New South Wales (without joint adoption until Sep 2010)
    • Same-sex couple adoption legislation: Australian state of New South Wales, Denmark
    • End to ban of same-sex couple adoption: US states of Arkansas and Florida
    • End to ban of gay people in the military: Serbia
    • End to ban of trans people in the military: Australia
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: Fiji[262]
    • Marches and Prides: the first ever legal gay pride parade in Russia, held in St. Petersburg
    • Guinness World Records recognized transgender man Thomas Beatie as the world's "First Married Man to Give Birth."[263]
    • Amanda Simpson became the first openly transgender presidential appointee in America when she was appointed as senior technical adviser in the Commerce Department's Bureau of Industry and Security.[264]
    • Kye Allums became the first openly transgender athlete to play in NCAA basketball.[265][266] He was a transgender man who played on George Washington University's women's team.[267][268]
    • Victoria Kolakowski became the first openly transgender judge in America.[269]
    • Mary Albing became the first openly lesbian minister ordained by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, serving the Lutheran Church of Christ the Redeemer on the south side of Minneapolis.[270]
    • Chai Feldblum, who was openly lesbian, became the first openly LGBT person to serve on the EEOC.[271]
    • Donna Ryu became the first Asian-American woman, first Korean American, and first lesbian to be appointed as a judge of the United States District Court, Northern District of California.[272]
  • 2011
    • Same-sex marriage laws:
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: Mozambique
    • End to ban on gay people in the military: USA (see Don't Ask, don't tell)
    • Tony Briffa, believed to be the world’s first intersex mayor, elected in the City of Hobsons Bay in the suburbs of Melbourne, Australia, at the end of November.[275]
    • Elio Di Rupo, first openly-gay male head of government, becomes Prime Minister of Belgium, 6 December.
    • Chaz Bono appeared on the 13th season of the US version of Dancing with the Stars in 2011. This was the first time an openly transgender man starred on a major network television show for something unrelated to being transgender.[276]
    • Harmony Santana became the first openly transgender actress to receive a major acting award nomination; she was nominated by the Independent Spirit Awards as Best Supporting Actress for the movie Gun Hill Road.[277]
    • The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) voted to allow the ordination of openly gay and lesbian ministers.[278]
    • Rachel Isaacs became the first openly lesbian rabbi ordained by the Conservative movement’s Jewish Theological Seminary.[279]
    • Petty Officer 2nd Class Marissa Gaeta of California and Petty Officer 3rd Class Citlalic Snell of Los Angeles became the first same-sex couple chosen to share the first kiss upon a U.S. Navy ship's return.[280][281]
    • Brenda Sue Fulton was named to the West Point Board of Visitors, making her the first openly gay member of the board that advises the Academy.[282]
    • Brooke (last name withheld) was hired as the New York Fire Department's first openly transgender employee.[283]
    • Miss New York, Claire Buffie, became the first Miss America contestant to campaign for the Miss America title on a gay rights platform.[284]
  • 2012
Kyrsten Sinema became the first openly bisexual person elected to the U.S. Congress in 2012.
    • Same-sex marriage laws:
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
      • Came into effect: U.S. State of Hawaii
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: Lesotho, São Tomé and Príncipe
    • The first gay Israeli couple was granted a divorce by an Israeli family court. The divorce of Tel Aviv University Professor Avi Even, the first openly gay Knesset member, and Dr. Amit Kama was granted on Sunday by the Ramat Gan Family Court, according to Haaretz, which ordered the Interior Minister to register their status as divorced.[285]
    • The U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development's Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity issued a regulation to prohibit LGBT discrimination in federally assisted housing programs. The new regulations ensure that the Department's core housing programs are open to all eligible persons, regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity.
    • Katie Ricks became the first open lesbian ordained by the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)[286]
    • Barack Obama became the first U.S. president to publicly announce support for same-sex marriage on 9 May.[287][288]
    • Taiwan's first same-sex Buddhist wedding was held for Fish Huang and her partner You Ya-ting, with Buddhist master Shih Chao-hui presiding over the ritual.[289]
    • City Councilmember Marlene Pray joined the Doylestown, Pennsylvania council in 2012, though she resigned in 2013; she was the first openly bisexual office holder in Pennsylvania.[290][291]
    • Tammy Baldwin was elected as the first openly lesbian or gay U.S. Senator.[292]
    • Kyrsten Sinema (D-AZ) became the first openly bisexual person elected to the US Congress.[293]
    • Stacie Laughton became the first openly transgender person elected to any American state legislature when she won a seat in the New Hampshire House of Representatives.[294] However, she resigned from the New Hampshire state legislature before she took office, after it was revealed that she had served four months in Belknap County House of Corrections following a 2008 credit card fraud conviction.[295][296]
    • San Francisco voted to become the first U.S. city to provide and cover the cost of sex reassignment surgeries for uninsured transgender residents.[297]
    • Mark Pocan was elected in Wisconsin’s 2nd Congressional District, becoming the first openly gay candidate who will follow an openly gay member of the U.S. Congress (in this case Tammy Baldwin).[298]
    • Sean Patrick Maloney became the first openly gay candidate elected to represent New York in Congress.[299]
    • Mark Takano became the first openly gay person of color to win election to the U.S. House. He was elected to represent California’s 41st Congressional District.[298]
    • Josh Boschee was elected as North Dakota's first openly gay legislator.[300]
    • Stephen Skinner was elected as West Virginia's first openly gay state legislator.[301]
    • Jacob Candelaria was elected as New Mexico's first openly gay male state legislator.[302]
    • Brian Sims became Pennsylvania's first openly gay state legislator who was out when he was elected.[303]
    • After Brian Sims was elected but before he took office, Rep. Mike Fleck came out as gay, making him Pennsylvania's first openly gay state legislator.[304]
    • David Richardson was elected as Florida's first openly gay state legislator.[305]
    • Colorado Democrats elected Mark Ferrandino as the first openly gay House speaker in state history.[306]
    • Tina Kotek was elected the first openly gay House speaker in the State of Oregon.[307]
    • Maine, Maryland, and Washington became the first states to pass same-sex marriage by popular vote.[308] Maine was the very first state to do so, followed by Maryland.[309]
    • The first same-sex marriage at the U.S. Military Academy was held for a young lieutenant and her partner (Ellen Schick and Shannon Simpson) at the Old Cadet Chapel in West Point’s cemetery.[310][311]
    • The first same-sex marriage at the U.S. Military Academy's Cadet Chapel at West Point (not to be confused with the Old Cadet Chapel) was held for Brenda Sue Fulton and Penelope Dara Gnesin.[310][312] Fulton was a veteran and the communications director of an organization called Outserve, which represents actively serving gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender military personnel.[312]
    • The first same-sex couple became engaged in the White House (Ben Schock and Matthew Phelps).[313]
    • Air Force Col. Ginger Wallace became the first known out member of the U.S. military to have their same-sex partner participate in the pinning ceremony tradition that had been reserved for spouses and family members. Her partner of 10 years, Kathy Knopf, pinned colonel wings on Wallace days after the two attended President Obama's State of The Union address as a guest of the First Lady.[314]
    • At a ceremony in Arlington, Army Reserve officer Tammy Smith became the first openly gay, active duty general in American history. Smith was promoted to brigadier general at a private ceremony at the Women's Memorial at Arlington National Cemetery.[315]
    • Navy Chief Elny McKinney and Anacelly McKinney became the first known same-sex couple to marry on a U.S. military base. They were wed at Naval Base Point Loma in San Diego.[316]
    • Kate McKinnon became Saturday Night Live's first openly lesbian cast member; Danitra Vance never disclosed her sexual orientation publicly, but was revealed to be a lesbian when she died.[317][318]
    • On 28 June 2012 Diana King declared "Yes I am a Lesbian" to her fans from her official facebook page, thus becoming the first Jamaican artist to ever publicly come out.[319][320]
    • California became the first state to sign a ban on therapy that claims to convert gay people into heterosexual. The California law, enacted in 2012, is as of 2013 held up in federal courts on first amendment grounds.[321][322]
    • Orlando Cruz became the world's first professional boxer to come out as gay.[323]
    • On September 18, 2012, Berkeley, California became the first city in the U.S. to officially proclaim a day recognizing bisexuals.[324] The Berkeley City Council unanimously and without discussion declared Sept. 23 as Bisexual Pride and Bi Visibility Day.[325]
    • Emily Aviva Kapor, who had been ordained privately by a Conservadox rabbi in 2005, began living as a woman in 2012, thus becoming the first openly transgender female rabbi.[326]
    • Rainbow Jews, an oral history project showcasing the lives of Jewish bisexual, lesbian, gay, and transgender people in the United Kingdom from the 1950s until the present, was launched.[327] It is the United Kingdom's first archive of Jewish bisexual, lesbian, gay, and transgender history.[328]
    • In November 2012, the Southern Poverty Law Center filed a lawsuit against JONAH (a Jewish ex-gay organization), Goldberg, and Downing on behalf of Unger, Levin, two other participants, and two of the participants' mothers for fraudulent practices which are illegal under New Jersey's consumer protection laws.[329] The Southern Poverty Law Center noted that the lawsuit was "groundbreaking" insofar as it was the first time a conversion therapy provider has been sued for fraudulent business practices.[330]
  • 2013
    • Same-sex marriage laws:
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
      • Passed and Came into effect: Mexican state of Campeche
      • Came into effect: U.S. State of Colorado
    • Same-sex couple adoption legalisation: New Zealand, Gibraltar, France
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: Benin
    • Recriminalisation of homosexuality: India
    • Anti-discrimination legislation:
      • For sexual orientation and gender identity: Cyprus, Puerto Rico
      • For gender identity: Delaware
    • Anti-discrimination executive action: Virginia
    • Barack Obama mentioned the word "gay" and the issue of gay rights for the first time in a speech at the U.S. presidential swearing in; specifically, he did so in his inaugural address.[338]
    • Kathleen Wynne became the first openly LGBT premier of a Canadian province, namely Ontario, after defeating Sandra Pupatello in the third round of voting of the Ontario Liberal party's leadership race on January 26, 2013. Sworn in on February 11, 2013, she is the party's first openly LGBT leader and Ontario's first female premier.[citation needed]
    • Robbie Rogers announced he was gay on February 15, 2013, becoming the only male fully capped international association footballer to do so.
    • Jason Collins on April 29, 2013, became the first active male professional athlete in a major North American team sport to publicly come out as gay.
    • Rep. Mark Pocan's spouse Philip Frank became the first same-sex spouse of a federal lawmaker to officially receive a House Spouse ID.[339][340] In 2009, Marlon Reis, the spouse of Rep. Jared Polis (D-Colo.), was issued a congressional spouse ID, but later card services told him that he had been given the designation accidentally.[340]
    • For the first time the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs decided to allow the same-sex spouse of a military veteran to be buried in a U.S. national cemetery. VA Secretary Eric Shinseki gave permission for retired Air Force officer Linda Campbell, 66, to bury the ashes of her same-sex spouse Nancy Lynchild at Williamette National Cemetery in Oregon.[341]
    • Autumn Sandeen, a U.S. veteran and transgender woman, received a letter from a Navy official stating, “Per your request the Defense Enrollment Eligibility Reporting System (DEERS) has been updated to show your gender as female effective April 12th, 2013.” Allyson Robinson of Outserve declared, "To our knowledge, this is the first time that the Department of Defense has recognized and affirmed a change of gender for anyone affiliated, in a uniformed capacity — in this case a military retiree."[342]
    • The first same-sex kiss ever on a Eurovision stage occurred at the 2013 Eurovision Song Contest when Krista Siegfrids, who sang "Marry Me", ended her semi-final performance by kissing one of her female dancers.[343]
    • Dr. Saul Levin was named on May 15, 2013 as the new chief executive officer and medical director of the American Psychiatric Association, making him the first known openly gay person to head the APA.[344]
    • Ukraine had its first gay pride march, which was held in Kiev.[345]
    • Robbie Rogers joined the Los Angeles Galaxy, making him the first openly gay male athlete to compete in Major League Soccer.[346]
    • Rehana Kausar and Sobia Kamar, both from Pakistan, became the first Muslim lesbian couple to enter into civil partnership in the United Kingdom.[347]
    • Fallon Fox came out as transgender, thus becoming the first openly transgender athlete in mixed martial arts history.[348]
    • Jallen Messersmith of Benedictine College in Atchison, Kan., came out and is believed to be the first openly gay player in U.S. men's college basketball.[349]
    • Guy Erwin became the first openly gay bishop to be elected by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America; he was elected to the Southwest California Synod of the ELCA.[350]
    • Major General Patricia “Trish” Rose became the first openly lesbian two-star general in the U.S. Air Force, and the highest ranking openly gay officer in the entire U.S. military at the time.[351]
    • Kristin Beck, formerly Chris Beck, came out as the first openly transgender retired Navy SEAL.[352]
    • The Bi Writers Association, which promotes bisexual writers, books, and writing, announced the winners of its first Bisexual Book Awards.[353] An awards ceremony was held at the Nuyorican Poets Café in New York City.[353]
    • The U.S. Senate confirmed Nitza Quiñones Alejandro to a federal judgeship, making her the first openly gay Latina to hold such a post.[354]
    • Cason Crane became the first openly gay man to summit the Seven Summits and the first the bring the rainbow flag to the summit of Mount Everest.[355]
    • U.S. Air Force Under Secretary Eric Fanning took over as acting secretary of the U.S. Air Force, becoming the highest ranking openly LGBT official at the Department of Defense; he is openly gay.[356]
    • The Directors Guild Of America elected Paris Barclay as its first black and first openly gay president.[357]
    • Julian Marsh and Traian Povov become the first married gay couple to have a green card application approved, in this case for Julian Marsh.[358]
    • Kristin Perry and Sandra Stier became the first same-sex couple to be married in California since Proposition 8 was overturned.[359]
    • Daniel Kawczynski became the first MP in Britain to come out as bisexual.[360]
    • A married lesbian couple in Colorado became the first to receive a marriage-based green card, making Cathy Davis the first same-sex spouse to become a lawful permanent resident of the United States.[361]
    • Maureen Le Marinel became the first openly lesbian union president elected in Britain.[362] She was elected to the presidency of Unison, one of Britain's largest trade unions.[362]
    • Same Love, a hit single from Macklemore & Ryan Lewis, became the first Top 40 song in the U.S. to promote and celebrate same-sex marriage.[363]
    • For the first time, the California Department of Education's list of recommended books for grades Pre-K-through-12 included a book with a transgender theme, I Am J by Cris Beam.[364]
    • Benjamin Medrano was elected as the first openly gay mayor in Mexico's history, being elected mayor of the township of Fresnillo.[365]
    • The first UFC match between two openly-gay fighters, Liz Carmouche and Jessica Andrade, was held.[366]
    • Although same-sex marriage is illegal in Pennsylvania as of July 2013, in that month Loreen Bloodgood married Alicia Terrizzi, making them the first same-sex couple to marry in Pennsylvania; the Montgomery County register of wills, D. Bruce Hanes, had said that his office would issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples.[367][368]
    • Although same-sex marriage is illegal in Pennsylvania as of August 2013, in that month Mayor John Fetterman officiated the first same-sex marriage in Allegheny County, between John Kandray and Bill Gray.[369]
    • California enacted America's first law protecting transgender students; the law, called the School Success and Opportunity Act, declares that every public school student in California from kindergarten to 12th grade must be “permitted to participate in sex-segregated school programs and activities, including athletic teams and competitions, and use facilities consistent with his or her gender identity, irrespective of the gender listed on the pupil’s records.”[370]
    • New Jersey became the second state, after California, to sign a ban on therapy that claims to convert gay people into heterosexual. The California law, enacted in 2012, is as of 2013 held up in federal courts on first amendment grounds.[321][322]
    • Darren Young (real name: Fred Rosser) became the first active professional wrestler to come out as gay.[371]
    • Russia's government adopted a federal bill banning the distribution of "propaganda of non-traditional sexual relations" to minors. The law imposes heavy fines for using the media or internet to promote "non-traditional relations".
    • Master Sgt. Angela Shunk and her wife, Tech. Sgt. Stacey Shunk, became the first same-sex couple to receive an assignment together under the U.S. Air Force’s Join Spouse program.[372]
    • Jennifer Pritzker came out as transgender in 2013 and thus became the world's first openly transgender billionaire.[373]
    • On Celebrate Bisexuality Day, the White House held a closed-door meeting with almost 30 bisexual advocates so they could meet with government officials and discuss issues of specific importance to the bisexual community; this was the first bi-specific event ever hosted by any White House.[374][375]
    • Movie director Kim Jho Gwang-soo and his partner Kim Seung-hwan became the first South Korean gay couple to publicly wed, although it was not a legally recognized marriage.[376]
    • Harvey Milk was chosen as the first openly LGBT political official to be featured on an American postage stamp.[377]
    • Carol McCrory and Brenda Clark became the first same-sex couple to have their marriage application accepted by Buncombe County Register of Deeds Drew Resigner, which makes them the first same-sex couple to have their marriage application accepted in the South.[378]
    • Andy Herren became the first openly gay winner of the American version of the "Big Brother" reality show.[379]
    • The first gay pride parade in Montenegro was held.[380]
    • The first gay pride week in Curacao was held.[381]
    • The first Indo-American lesbian wedding was held.[382] It was held in Los Angeles.[383]
    • The first televised Romanian same-sex wedding was held.[384] It was between two men, and was done on the reality show Four Weddings and a Challenge.[384]
    • The Portland Trailblazers became the first NBA team to support same-sex marriage.[385][386]
    • Todd Hughes became the first openly gay U.S. circuit judge.[387]
    • The first United Nations ministerial meeting on the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals was held.[388] Representatives from the US, France, Argentina, Brazil, Croatia, the Netherlands, Norway, Japan, New Zealand and the EU, along with executive directors of Human Rights Watch and the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission reaffirmed their commitments to working together to end discrimination and violence towards the LGBT community.[388] UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay delivered remarks [press release] commending the LGBT community and praising the fact that, "many countries have embarked on historic reforms—strengthening anti-discrimination laws, combating hate crime against LGBT people and sensitizing public opinion." [388]
    • New Jersey held its first legal same-sex marriages.[389]
    • Rabbi Deborah Waxman was elected as the President of the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College.[390][391] As the President, she is believed to be the first woman and first lesbian to lead a Jewish congregational union, and the first female rabbi and first lesbian to lead a Jewish seminary; RRC is both a congregational union and a seminary.[390][392]
    • A six-year-old girl named Luana, who was born a boy, became the first transgender child in Argentina to have her new name officially changed on her identity documents.[393] She is believed to be the youngest to benefit from the country’s new Gender Identity Law, which was approved in May 2012.[393]
    • Q Radio, which went on the airwaves in September, claims to be India’s first radio station which caters to the country’s lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transgender people.[394]
    • Jennifer Finney Boylan was chosen as the first openly transgender co-chair of GLAAD's National Board of Directors.[395]
    • On 31 October 2013 Paris Lees became the first openly transgender panellist to appear on the BBC's Question Time programme, drawing praise from commentators who included former Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott and the Labour Party deputy leader Harriet Harman.[396]
    • Stephen Alexander, of Rhode Island, became the first high school coach to come out publicly as transgender.[397]
    • Nikki Sinclaire came out as transgender, thus becoming the United Kingdom’s first openly transgender Parliamentarian.[398]
    • San Francisco's first Project Homeless Connect for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people was held.[399]
    • Lucy Vallender converted to Islam, thus becoming the United Kingdom's first openly transgender Muslim woman.[400]
  • 2014
    • Same-sex marriage laws:
    • Civil Union/Registered Partnership laws:
    • Decriminalisation of homosexuality: Northern Cyprus
    • The first same-sex marriage at the Rose parade was held, for Aubrey Loots and Danny LeClair.[401]
    • Conner Mertens, Willamette University's kicker, became the first active college football player to come out as LGBT; he came out as bisexual.[402]
    • Good Luck Charlie on The Disney Channel became the first TV show on a child-targeting network to feature a same-sex couple (the characters' names were Susan and Cheryl).[403]
    • Starkville became the first city in Mississippi to pass a resolution supporting the LGBT community; the resolution states that the city does not condone discrimination of any kind, including any against its citizens for their sexual orientation or gender identity.[404]
    • Scotland passed the Marriage and Civil Partnership (Scotland) Bill, which will legalize same-sex marriages in the country when it comes into effect towards the end of 2014.[405]
    • The Bisexual Resource Center, based in Boston, Massachusetts, declared March of 2014 as the first Bisexual Health Awareness Month, with the theme "Bi the Way, Our Health Matters Too!"; it included the first social media campaign to address disparities in physical and mental health facing the bisexual community.[406]
    • Queen Elizabeth II praised the London Lesbian and Gay Switchboard for their 40-year history making it the first time the Crown has ever publicly supported the LGBT community. They received a comment from the Queen saying: “Best wishes and congratulations to all concerned on this most special anniversary.” [407]
    • Toni Atkins was elected as the first openly lesbian speaker of the California Assembly.[408]
    • Judith Ellen Levy was confirmed by the Senate as the first openly lesbian federal judge in Michigan.[409]
    • Gypsy Vered Meltzer was elected to the City Council in Appleton; as such he became the first openly transgender elected official in Wisconsin.[410]
    • Anna Guillot and Chrissy Kelly, who were married in New York in 2012, became the first same-sex couple in Mississippi to create a public record of their marriage, which they did by paying to record their marriage license from New York at the Rankin County Chancery Clerk’s Office in Brandon, Mississippi.[411] However, this did not give their marriage legal standing in Mississippi.[411]
    • The marriage of Giuseppe Chigiotti and Stefano Bucci became the first overseas same-sex marriage to be legally recognized in Italy; the two were married in New York in 2012.[412]
    • Berlin, Germany unveiled the world's first cemetery for lesbians.[413]
    • Umma Azul was the first child of a lesbian couple to be baptized by the Catholic Church in Argentina.[414]
    • Emilia Maria Jesty, daughter of a lesbian couple, was the first child born in Tennessee to have a woman listed on the birth certificate as her "father." [415]
    • UMass basketball player Derrick Gordon came out, thus becoming the first openly gay player in Division I college men's basketball.[416]
    • Jeremy Pemberton married Laurence Cunnington, and thus Pemberton became the first priest in the Church of England to defy the Church's ban on gay clergy marrying.[417]
    • Michael Sam was drafted by the St. Louis Rams and thus became the first openly gay player to be drafted into the National Football League.[418]
    • The world's first homoerotic stamps were produced in Finland, celebrating one of the country's most famous artists - Tom of Finland. Art critic Estelle Lovatt says "the stamps are a 'great statement' given that the country bans gay marriage".[419]
    • In March 2014, same-sex marriage was legalized in Michigan, and Glenna DeJong and Marsha Caspar became the first same-sex couple married in Michigan; however, later that year the overturning of Michigan's ban on same-sex marriage was indefinitely stayed.[420][421]
    • In May 2014, same-sex marriage was legalized in Arkansas, and Kristin Seaton and Jennifer Rambo became the first same-sex couple married in Arkansas: later that year, same-sex marriage in Arkansas was suspended by the Arkansas Supreme Court.[422][423]
    • In May 2014, same-sex marriage was legalized in Oregon, and Deanna Geiger and Janine Nelson became the first same-sex couple to marry in Oregon.[424]
    • The U.S. Naval Academy Chapel's first-ever same-sex wedding was held for David Bucher, a 49-year-old Academy graduate who works at the Pentagon, and partner Bruce Moats.[425]
    • Costa Rica flew the gay pride flag at their presidential palace; the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission said the organization believed it was the first time the gay pride flag had been flown from the offices of a head of state in the Americas.[426]
    • The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs agreed to give survivor benefits to the first-known same-sex war widow, Tracy Dice Johnson, whose wife Donna Johnson died in a suicide bombing attack in 2012.[427]
    • Laverne Cox was on the cover of the June 9th, 2014 issue of Time, and was interviewed for the article “The Transgender Tipping Point" by Katy Steinmetz, which ran in that issue and the title of which was also featured on the cover; this makes Cox the first openly transgender person on the cover of Time.[428][429][430]
    • Both lesbian parents were listed on their children's birth certificates in Australia, which is the first time an Australian birth certificate indicates that both members of a same-sex couple were the legal parents of a child at birth.[431]
    • Best Bi Short Stories, the first book of its type, was published; it was edited by Sheela Lambert, who contributed the story Memory Lane. [432]
    • Cyprus' first ever gay pride parade draws several thousands of participants.[433]
    • Same-sex marriage was legalized in Pennsylvania.[434]
    • Carlos Bruce came out and thus became the first openly gay member of Congress in Peru.[435]
    • Same-sex marriage was legalized in Wisconsin, but later that year same-sex marriages in Wisconsin were put on hold while the ruling striking down the state's ban on such unions was appealed.[436][437]
    • Idaho's same-sex marriage ban was declared unconstitutional, but another court stayed the ruling.[438][439]
    • The United Church of Christ filed a lawsuit challenging North Carolina’s ban on same-sex marriage, which is America’s first faith-based challenge to same-sex marriage bans; the Central Conference of American Rabbis and the Alliance of Baptists joined the lawsuit later that year.[440][441]
    • Lynne Brown was appointed as the first openly gay cabinet minister in South Africa, which also makes her the first openly gay person to be appointed to a cabinet post in any African government.[442][443]
    • Zakhele Mbhele became the first openly gay person to serve in South Africa's parliament, which also makes him the first openly gay black member of parliament in any African nation.[444]
    • Maite Oronoz Rodriguez became the first openly gay person to be nominated for a seat on Puerto Rico's Supreme Court, and was confirmed for the seat later that year.[445][446]
    • Darrin P. Gayles became the first openly gay African-American man to be confirmed as a U.S federal judge.[447]
    • The book Bisexuality: Making the Invisible Visible in Faith Communities, the first book of its kind, was published. [448] It is by Marie Alford-Harkey and Debra W. Haffner.[448]
    • Transgender Studies Quarterly, the first non-medical academic journal devoted to transgender issues, began publication in 2014, with Susan Stryker and Paisley Currah as coeditors.[449]
    • Petra De Sutter became the first openly transgender person to serve in Belgium's Parliament, specifically its Senate.[450]
    • Laverne Cox became the first openly transgender person to be nominated for an Emmy in an acting category: Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series for her role as Sophia Burset in Orange Is the New Black.[451][452][453]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Margherita Mussi, Earliest Italy: An Overview of the Italian Paleolithic and Mesolithic (Kluwer Academic, 2002), pp. 340ff., especially pp. 343–344.
  2. ^ Lauren E. Talalay, "The Gendered Sea: Iconography, Gender, and Mediterranean Prehistory," in The Archaeology of Mediterranean Prehistory (Blackwell, 2005), pp. 130–148, especially p. 136.
  3. ^ "Grave of stone age transsexual excavated in Prague". Archeology News Network. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
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  5. ^ Lynn Meskell, when writing about homosexuality, calls it "Another well documented example" (Archaeologies of social life: age, sex, class et cetera in ancient Egypt, Wiley-Blackwell, 1999, p.95)
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  13. ^ Joseph Roisman, Ancient Greece from Homer to Alexandria, Blackwell, 2011
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  23. ^ (Theodosian Code 9.7.6): All persons who have the shameful custom of condemning a man's body, acting the part of a woman's to the sufferance of alien sex (for they appear not to be different from women), shall expiate a crime of this kind in avenging flames in the sight of the people.
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References[edit]

  • Archer, Bert (2004). The End of Gay: And the Death of Heterosexuality. Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 1-56025-611-7.
  • Bullough, Vern L. (2002). Before Stonewall: Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights in Historical Context. New York, Harrington Park Press, an imprint of The Haworth Press. ISBN 1-56023-193-9.
  • Chauncey, George (1995). Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890–1940 (Reprint ed.). Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02621-4. 
  • Burleson, William E. (2005). Bi America: Myths, Truths, and Struggles of an Invisible Community. United Kingdom, Routledge. ISBN 978-1560234791
  • Fone, Byrne R. S. (2000). Homophobia: a history. New York: Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-8050-4559-7. 
  • Gallo, Marcia M. (2007) Different Daughters: A History of the Daughters of Bilitis and the Rise of the Lesbian Rights Movement. California: Seal Press. ISBN 1580052525
  • Hogan, Steve and Lee Hudson (1998). Completely Queer: The Gay and Lesbian Encyclopedia. New York, Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 0-8050-3629-6.
  • Miller, Neil (1995). Out of the Past: Gay and Lesbian History from 1869 to the Present. New York, Vintage Books. ISBN 0-09-957691-0.
  • Percy III, William Armstrong (1996). Pederasty and pedagogy in archaic Greece. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-02209-2. 
  • Stryker, Susan (2008). Transgender History. New York, Seal Press. ISBN 978-1580052245

External links[edit]