Timeline of LGBT history in Britain

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This is a timeline of notable events in the history of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community in the United Kingdom.

Prior to 1600[edit]

  • 117 to 138 Roman Emperor Hadrian ruled Britain. Best known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain, Hadrian was the first Roman Emperor to make it clear that he was homosexual.[1] Hadrian uniquely made Antinous, a beautiful young Bithynian youth, his "official consort"; Antinous accompanied him throughout the Empire. Hadrian was so distraught by Antinous's death in the Nile in 130 CE that he named a city in Egypt, Antinopolis, after him and deified him.[1]
  • 1327 The deposed King Edward II of England is killed. The popular story that the king was assassinated by having a red-hot poker thrust into his anus has no basis in accounts recorded by Edward's contemporaries.[4] Edward II had a history of conflict with the nobility, who repeatedly banished his former lover Piers Gaveston, the Earl of Cornwall. The Annales Paulini claims that Edward loved Gaveston "beyond measure", while the Lanercost says the intimacy between them was "undue".[5] The Chronicle of Melsa states that Edward "particularly delighted in the vice of sodomy", without making special reference to Gaveston.[6] Chroniclers called the King's relationship with Gaveston as excessive, immoderate, beyond measure and reason and criticised his desire for wicked and forbidden sex.[7] It was hinted at by medieval chroniclers, and has been alleged by modern historians, that the relationship between Gaveston and Edward was homosexual.
  • 1541 The Buggery Act 1533 only ran until the end of the parliament. The law was re-enacted three times, and then in 1541 it was enacted to continue in force "for ever".[9]
  • 1543 Henry VIII gives royal assent to the Laws in Wales Act 1542, extending the buggery law into Wales.
  • 1548 The provisions of the Buggery Act 1533 were given new force, with minor amendments. The penalty for buggery remained death, but goods and lands were not forfeit, and the rights of wives and heirs were safeguarded.[9]
  • 1558 Elizabeth I ascends the English throne and reinstates the sodomy laws[10] of 1533 (not 1548), which were then given permanent force.[9]
  • 1580 King James VI of Scotland, King James I England, made his formal entry into Edinburgh and began a relationship with Franco-Scottish Lord Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox. Lennox was a relative and 24 years senior to James, married and the father of 5 children. The influence Lennox his "favourite" had on politics, and the resentment at the wealth they acquired, became major political issues during his reign.[11] Scottish nobles ousted Lennox by luring the young king to Ruthven Castle as a guest but then imprisoned him for ten months. The Presbyterian nobles forced King James to banish Lennox to France. Lennox and James remained in secret contact. Lennox remained in France. He died in Paris in 1583. William Schaw took Lennox's heart back to James in Scotland, since in life it's true place had been with the King.

17th century[edit]

18th century illustration of a "Molly" (Contemporary term for an effeminate homosexual)
  • 1606 King James I of England began a relationship with Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset.[12] Carr happened to break his leg at a tilting match, at which the king was present. The king instantly fell in love with the young man, even helping nurse him back to health all the while teaching him Latin. Entirely devoid of all high intellectual qualities, Carr was endowed with good looks, excellent spirits, and considerable personal accomplishments. These advantages were sufficient for James, who knighted the young man and at once took him into favour. James made his lover Viscount of Rochester (1611), Knight of the Garter and Earl of Somerset (1613).[13]
  • 1614 King James I of England met the last of his three close male lovers, George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, the son of a Leicestershire knight. George Villiers could dance well, fence well, and speak a little French. In August, Villiers, reputedly "the handsomest-bodied man in all of England",[14] was brought before the king, in the hope that the king would take a fancy to him, diminishing the power at court of then favourite Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset. Villiers gained support as the kings preferred lover from those who opposed Carr.
  • 1617 King James made his male lover George Villiers Earl of Buckingham
  • 1618 King James made his male lover George Villiers Marquess of Buckingham.
  • 1623 King James made his male lover George Villiers Earl of Coventry and Duke of Buckingham. Villiers was now the highest-ranking subject outside the royal family.[16]
  • 1680 A same-sex marriage was annulled. Arabella Hunt married "James Howard"; in 1682 the marriage was annulled on the ground that Howard was in fact Amy Poulter, a 'perfect woman in all her parts', and two women could not validly marry.[17]
  • 1690 King William III of England had several close, male associates, including two Dutch courtiers to whom he granted English titles: Hans Willem Bentinck became Earl of Portland, and Arnold Joost van Keppel was created Earl of Albemarle. These relationships with male friends, and his apparent lack of more than one female mistress, led William's enemies to suggest that he might prefer homosexual relationships. Keppel was 20 years William's junior, described as strikingly handsome, and rose from being a royal page to an earldom with some ease.[18]
  • 1697 The Earl of Portland wrote to King William III of England that "the kindness which your Majesty has for a young man, and the way in which you seem to authorise his liberties... make the world say things I am ashamed to hear".[19] This, he said, was "tarnishing a reputation which has never before been subject to such accusations". William tersely dismissed these suggestions, however, saying, "It seems to me very extraordinary that it should be impossible to have esteem and regard for a young man without it being criminal."[19]

18th century[edit]

  • 1724 Margaret Clap better known as Mother Clap, ran a coffee house from 1724 to 1726 in Holborn, London. The coffee house served as a Molly House for the underground gay community.[20][21] Her house was popular,[22] being well known within the gay community. She cared for her customers, and catered especially to the gay men who frequented it. She was known to have provided "beds in every room of the house" and commonly had "thirty or forty of such Kind of Chaps every Night, but more especially on Sunday Nights."[23]
  • 1726 Three men (Gabriel Lawrence, William Griffin, and Thomas Wright) were hanged at Tyburn for sodomy following a raid of Margaret Clap's Molly House.[24]
  • 1736 Stephen Fox PC, a British peer and Member of Parliament, had been living in a homosexual relationship with lover Lord Hervey for a period of ten years, from 1726 to 1736. Love letters (The Gay Love Letters of John, Lord Hervey to Stephen Fox) between Stephen and John testify their love.[26]
  • 1772 The first public debate about homosexuality began during the trial of Captain Robert Jones who was convicted of the capital offence of sodomizing a thirteen-year-old boy. The debate during the case and with the background of the 1772 Macaroni prosecutions considered Christian intolerance to homosexuality and the human rights of men who were homosexual.[27] Jones was acquitted and received a pardon on condition that he left the country. He ended up living in grandeur with his footman at Lyon, in the South of France.
  • 1785 Jeremy Bentham becomes one of the first people to argue for the decriminalisation of sodomy in England, which was punishable by hanging.[10] The essay written about 1785, Offences Against One's Self, argued for the liberalisation of laws prohibiting homosexual sex. He argued that homosexual acts did not weaken men nor threaten population nor marriage.

19th century[edit]

  • 1810 The nineteenth century began with a wave of prosecutions against homosexual men. On 8 July, the Bow Street Runners raided The White Swan, a tumbledown pub of Tudor origin near Drury Lane. Twenty-seven men were arrested on suspicion of sodomy and attempted sodomy.[28]
  • 1812 Female born James Miranda Barry graduated from the Medical School of Edinburgh University as a doctor. Barry went on to serve as an army surgeon working overseas. Barry lived as a man but was found to be female-bodied upon his death in 1865.[29]
  • 1835 The last two men to be executed in Britain for buggery, James Pratt and John Smith, were arrested on 29 August at a house in Southwark after being observed having sex; they were hanged on 27 November.
  • 1861 The death penalty for buggery was abolished. A total of 8921 men had been prosecuted since 1806 for sodomy with 404 sentenced to death and 56 executed.[31]
  • 1866 Marriage was defined as being between a man and a woman (preventing future same-sex marriages). In the case of Hyde v. Hyde and Woodmansee (a case of polygamy), Lord Penzance's judgment began "Marriage as understood in Christendom is the voluntary union for life of one man and one woman, to the exclusion of all others."[32]
  • 1871 Ernest 'Stella' Boulton and Frederick 'Fanny' Park, two Victorian transvestites and suspected homosexuals appeared as defendants in the celebrated Boulton and Park trial in London, charged "with conspiring and inciting persons to commit an unnatural offence". The indictment was against Lord Arthur Clinton, Ernest Boulton, Frederic Park, Louis Hurt, John Fiske, Martin Gumming, William Sommerville and C.H. Thompson. The prosecution was unable to prove that they had either committed any homosexual offence nor that men wearing women's clothing was an offence in English law.[33] Lord Arthur Clinton killed himself before his trial.
  • 1897 George Cecil Ives organizes the first homosexual rights group in England, the Order of Chaeronea. Dr Helen Boyle and her partner, Mabel Jones, set up the first women-run General Practice in Brighton, including offering free therapy for poor women. Helen Boyle also founded the National Council for Mental Hygiene (which subsequently becomes MIND) in 1922.[29] British sexologist Havelock Ellis publishes Sexual Inversion, the first volume in an intended series called Studies in the Psychology of Sex. He argues that homosexuality is not a disease but a natural anomaly occurring throughout human and animal history, and should be accepted,not treated. The book is banned in England for being obscene; the subsequent volumes in the series are published in the US and not sold in England until 1936.[29]

20th century[edit]

Christopher Isherwood (left) and W. H. Auden (right), photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1939
  • 1906 Dr. Louisa Martindale set up a private practice in Brighton and became the first woman GP. With a group of other Brighton feminists she developed the New Sussex Hospital for Women and Children, where she was Senior Surgeon and Physician. She later became a specialist in the early treatment of cervical cancer and was awarded a CBE in 1931. Louisa lived with her partner Ismay FitzGerald for three decades, and wrote of her love for her in her autobiography A Woman Surgeon, published in 1951.[29]
  • 1910 London homosexuals began to gather openly in public places such as pubs, coffee houses and tea shops for the first time. Waitresses ensured that a section of Lyons Corner House in Piccadilly Circus was reserved for homosexuals.[38] The section became known as the Lily Pond.
  • 1918 The gay English poet and writer W. H. Auden attended his first boarding school where he met Christopher Isherwood; when reintroduced to Isherwood in 1925, Auden probably fell in love with Isherwood and in the 1930s they maintained a sexual friendship in intervals between their relations with others.[41]
  • 1921 The Criminal Law Amendment Act was amended in the House of Commons to include a section to make sexual "acts of gross indecency" between women illegal, and was passed in the House of Commons. However the section was defeated in the House Of Lords and thus never became law.
  • 1932 Sir Noël Coward wrote "Mad About the Boy", a song which dealt with the theme of homosexual love. It was introduced in the 1932 revue, but due to the risque nature of the song, it was sung by a woman. The News of the World published a story, 'Amazing Change of Sex', about a trans man from Sussex who transitioned 'from Margery to Maurice'. Colonel Sir Victor Barker DSO (1895 - 1960) married Elfrida Haward in Brighton. Barker's birth sex (female) is later revealed and the marriage is consequently annulled. Barker went on to appear in 'freakshow' displays in New Brighton, Southend-on-Sea and Blackpool.[29]
  • 1936 A 30-year-old British athletic champion, Mark Weston of Plymouth, transitioned from female to male. The story appeared in some national newspapers, including the News of the World (31 May 1936). The reportage was accurate and sensitive. In the words of L. R. Broster, the Harley Street surgeon who treated him, 'Mark Weston, who has always been brought up as a female, is a male and should continue to live as such'.[29]
  • 1939-1945 World War II Over five million men served in the British armed forces during World War II. Of these, it's likely that at least 250,000 were gay or bisexual (based on projections from the 1990-91 National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles which found that six per cent of men report having had homosexual experiences).
  • 1945 Sir Harold Gillies and his colleague Ralph Millard carried out female-to-male confirmation surgery on Michael Dillon. Sir Harold Gillies developed his pioneering pedicle flap surgery with injured soldiers from World War II. Initially developed as reconstructive surgery, phalloplasty is now offered as a genital surgery option for trans men. Dillon underwent at least 13 surgeries between 1946 and 1949 and was elected for surgery on the pretext of treating a malformation of the Urethra (hypospadias), in order to conceal the exact nature of the surgery.[29]

1950s[edit]

  • 1950 On 31 July in Rotherham, an English schoolteacher, Kenneth Crowe, aged 37, was found dead wearing his wife's clothes and a wig. He approached a man on his way home from the pub, who upon discovering Crowe was male, beat and strangled him.[45] John Cooney was found not guilty of murder and sentenced to five years for manslaughter.[46] In response to the violence and unfair treatment of gay men, the Sexual Offences Act 1967 was passed seventeen years later.
  • 1952 Sir John Nott-Bower, commissioner of Scotland Yard began to weed out homosexuals from the British Government[47] at the same time as McCarthy was conducting a federal homosexual witch hunt in the US.[48] During the early 50's as many as 1,000 men were locked up in Britain's prisons every year amid a widespread police clampdown on homosexual offences. Undercover officers acting as 'agents provocateurs' would pose as gay men soliciting in public places. The prevailing mood was one of barely concealed paranoia.[49]
  • 1959 Alan Horsfall, Labour councillor for Nelson, Lancashire, tables a motion to his local Labour party to back the decriminalisation of homosexuality. The motion is rejected, but Horsfall and fellow activist Anthony Grey later form the North West Homosexual Law Reform Committee.[29]

1960s[edit]

  • 1965 In the House of Lords, Lord Arran proposed the decriminalisation of male homosexual acts (lesbian acts had never been illegal). A UK opinion poll finds that 93% of respondents see homosexuality as a form of illness requiring medical treatment.[29]
  • 1966 In the House of Commons Conservative MP Humphry Berkeley introduce a bill to legalise male homosexual relations along the lines of the Wolfenden report. Berkeley was well known to his colleagues as a homosexual, according to a 2007 article published in The Observer and was unpopular.[54] His Bill was given a second reading by 164 to 107 on 11 February, but fell when Parliament was dissolved soon after. Unexpectedly, Berkeley lost his seat in the 1966 general election, and ascribed his defeat to the unpopularity of his bill on homosexuality. The Beaumont Society, a London-based social/support group for people who cross-dress, are transvestite or who are transsexual, was founded.[29]
The book Homosexual Behavior Among Males by Wainwright Churchill breaks ground as a scientific study approaching homosexuality as a fact of life and introduces the term "homoerotophobia", a possible precursor to "homophobia".[56] The courts decided that transsexuals could not get married; Justice Ormerod found that in the case of Talbot (otherwise Poyntz) v. Talbot where one spouse was a post-operative transsexual their marriage was not permitted. Justice Ormerod stated that Marriage is a relationship which depends on sex, not on gender.[57][58]

1970s[edit]

1970s poster used by the GLF
  • 1970 Gay Liberation Front (GLF) was established at London School of Economics on 13 October, in response to debates many gay men and lesbians were having in Britain about the way they were treated. The formation of GLF also influenced by the Stonewall Rebellion in the USA that started on 28 June 1969. In the case between April Ashley and Arthur Cameron Corbett, their marriage was annulled on the basis that Ashley, a transsexual woman, was a man under then-current British law. This set a legal precedent for trans people in Britain, meaning that the birth certificates of transsexual and intersex people could not be changed.[29]
  • 1974 Maureen Colquhoun came out as the first Lesbian MP for the Labour Party. When elected she was married in a heterosexual marriage. After coming out, her party refused to support her.[63] Stephen Whittle, trans-man and prominent activist, co-founds a Manchester based "TV/TS" group, a group for transsexual people who crossdress. The First National TV/TS (Transvestite/Transsexual Conference) is held in Leeds. Jan Morris, one of Britain's top journalists who has covered wars and rebellions around the globe and climbed Mount Everest in 1952, publishes Conundrum, a personal account of her transition, widely hailed as a classic.[29]
  • 1976 Britain's political pressure group Liberty, under their alternate name National Council for Civil Liberties, (NCCL) called for an equal age of consent of 14 in Britain.[65] The term Gay Bowel Syndrome was coined to describe a range of rectal diseases seen among gay male patients; in the pre-AIDS era, this is the first medical term to relate to gay men.[29]
  • 1977 The first gay lesbian Trades Union Congress (TUC) conference took place to discuss workplace rights for Gays and Lesbians.
  • 1979 At the end of the decade, trans* individuals still had no identity rights nor legal protection.

1980s[edit]

The red ribbon is a symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS
  • 1980 The Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 1980 decriminalised homosexual acts between two men over 21 years of age "in private" in Scotland.[66] British documentary 'A Change of Sex' was aired on the BBC, enabling viewers to follow the social and medical transition of Julia Grant and also provides a snapshot of the Gender Identity Clinic, Charing Cross Hospital, London.[29] The Self Help Association for Transsexuals (SHAFT) was formed as an information collecting and disseminating body for trans-people. The association later became known as 'Gender Dysphoria Trust International' (GDTI).[67] The first Black Gay and Lesbian Group was formed in the UK.[68]
  • 1985 AIDS hysteria grows in the UK when passengers on the Queen Elizabeth 2 curtailed their holiday as a person with AIDS was discovered on board. Cunard were criticised for trying to cover this up.[76] A London support group Body Positive was set up as a self-help group for people affected by HTLV-3 and AIDS.[77] Health Minister, Kenneth Clarke, enacted powers to detain people with AIDS in hospital against their will, potentially preventing people coming forward for treatment[78]

1990s[edit]

London gay pub bombing in 1999 killed three and injured 70
  • 1992 UK Crown Dependency of Isle of Man repealed sodomy laws (homosexuality was still illegal until 1994). The first Pride Festival was held in Brighton.[90] Europride was inaugurated in London and was attended by estimated crowds of over 100,000.
  • 1994 The Conservative Member of Parliament Edwina Currie introduced an amendment to lower the age of consent for homosexual acts, from 21 to 16 in line with that for heterosexual acts.[55] The vote was defeated and the gay male age of consent remains set at 18. The Lesbian age of consent was not set. UK Crown Dependency of Isle of Man decriminalised homosexuality. Charity Save the Children dropped lesbian Sandi Toksvig as compere of its 75th-anniversary celebrations after she came out, but following a direct action protest by the Lesbian Avengers,[92] Save the Children apologised. British filmmaker Derek Jarman died of AIDS.
  • 1996 A breakthrough is made in the area of AIDS treatment; Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is found to significantly delay the onset of AIDS in people living with HIV. The NHS makes the treatment available in the UK.[93] HAART has a dramatic effect and many bed ridden AIDS patients return to work.[94] The European Court of Human Rights heard Morris v. The United Kingdom and Sutherland v. the United Kingdom, cases brought by Chris Morris and Euan Sutherland challenging the homosexual inequality in divided ages of consent. The government stated its intention to legislate to negate the court cases, which were put on hold.

21st century[edit]

  • 2000 The Labour government scraps the policy of barring homosexuals from the armed forces.[103] The Labour government introduces legislation to repeal Section 28 in England and Wales - Conservative MPs oppose the move. The bill is defeated by bishops and Conservatives in the House of Lords.[104] Scotland abolished Clause 2a (Section 28) of the Local Government Act in October though it remains in place in England and Wales. HIV charity London Lighthouse merged with Terrence Higgins Trust as the Aled Richards Trust and Body Positive London, closed. Shrinkage of the HIV charity sector occurred largely as a result of Management of HIV/AIDS|Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy(HAART) treatment allowing people living with HIV to be more self-sufficient.[105][106]
Tony Blair's Labour government enacted the Civil Partnership Act 2004
  • 2001 The last two pieces of unequal law regarding gay male sex are changed.[86] In 1997 the European Commission of Human Rights found that the European Convention on Human Rights were violated by a discriminatory age of consent; the government submitted that it would propose a Bill to Parliament for a reduction of the age of consent for homosexual acts from 18 to 16. The Crime and Disorder Bill which proposed these amendments, was voted for in the House of Commons but rejected in the House of Lords. In 1998 it was reintroduced and again was voted for in the House of Commons but rejected in the House of Lords. It was reintroduced a third time in 1999 but the House of Lords amended it to maintain the age for buggery at 18 for both sexes. Provisions made in the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 made it possible to enact the bill without the Lords voting it through. The provisions of the Act came into force throughout the United Kingdom on 8 January 2001, lowering the age of consent to 16. Under the act consensual group sex for gay men is also decriminalised.[107]
  • 2002 Same-sex couples are granted equal rights to adopt. Alan Duncan becomes the first Conservative MP to admit being gay without being pushed.[86] Brian Dowling becomes the first openly gay children's television presenter in the UK on SMTV Live.
  • 2004 The Civil Partnership Act 2004 is passed by the Labour Government, giving same-sex couples the same rights and responsibilities as married heterosexual couples in England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales.[86] The Gender Recognition Act 2004 is passed by the Labour Government. The Act gives transsexual people legal recognition as members of the sex appropriate to their gender (male or female) allowing them to acquire a new birth certificate, affording them full recognition of their acquired sex in law for all purposes, including marriage.[110]
  • 2005
    Francis (left) and Peter Scott-Morgan, the first civil partners in Devon, at their televised ceremony at Oldway Mansion
    The first civil partnership formed under the Civil Partnership Act 2004 took place at 11:00 GMT 5 December between Matthew Roche and Christopher Cramp at St Barnabas Hospice, Worthing, West Sussex. The statutory 15-day waiting period was waived as Roche was suffering from a terminal illness: he died the following day.[111] The first partnership registered after the normal waiting period was held in Belfast on 19 December.[112] The Adoption and Children Act 2002 comes into force, allowing unmarried and same-sex couples to adopt children for the first time.[113] Twenty-four-year-old Jody Dobrowski is murdered on Clapham Common in a homophobic attack. Chris Smith one of the first openly gay British MPs, (1984), becomes the first MP to acknowledge that he is HIV positive.[114][115]
  • 2008 Treatment of lesbian parents and their children is equalized in the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008.[123] The legislation allows for lesbians and their partners (both civil and de facto) equal access to legal presumptions of parentage in cases of in vitro fertilisation ("IVF") or assisted/self insemination (other than at home) from the moment the child is born. Angela Eagle becomes the first female MP to enter into a civil partnership (with partner Maria Exall).[124][125] Parliament passes provisions in the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act, creating a new offence of incitement to homophobic hatred. Some 7,169 Civil partnerships were conducted in 2008.[126]
  • 2009 The Labour Government Prime Minister Gordon Brown makes an official public apology on behalf of the British government for the way in which Alan Turing was chemically castrated for being gay, after the war.[50] Opposition leader David Cameron apologises on behalf of the Conservative Party, for introducing Section 28 during Margaret Thatcher's third government.[127] Welsh rugby star Gareth Thomas becomes the first known top-level professional male athlete in a team sport to come out while still active.[128] Nikki Sinclaire becomes first openly-lesbian member of the European Parliament for the UK delegation. Some 6,281 Civil Partnerships were conducted in 2009[129]

2010s[edit]

  • 2010 Pope Benedict XVI condemns British equality legislation for running contrary to "natural law" as he confirmed his first visit to the UK.[130] The Equality Act 2010 makes discrimination against lesbians and gay men in the provision of goods and services illegal. The Supreme Court ruled that two gay men from Iran and Cameroon have the right to asylum in the UK and Lord Hope, who read out the judgment, said: To compel a homosexual person to pretend that his sexuality does not exist or suppress the behaviour by which to manifest itself is to deny him the fundamental right to be who he is.[131] Some 6,385 Civil Partnerships were conducted in Britain in 2010, 49% were men.[132] Claire Rayner, ally of the gay rights movement, dies.[29] Shadow Home Secretary Chris Grayling MP said that he thought bed and breakfast owners should be able to bar gay couples, however, under the Equality Act (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2007 no-one can be refused goods or services on the grounds of their sexuality. Grayling subsequently was passed over as Home Secretary when the Coalition government came to power.[133]
  • 2011 Civil partners Martyn Hall and Steven Preddy were successful in their case against B&B owners Peter and Hazelmary Bull. Hall and Preddy were refused a double room at the B&B on the basis of their sexual orientation, although this was illegal under the 2007 Equality Act Regulations,[134]
  • 2012 In the year in which London hosted the Olympic Games, London hosts World Pride but the committee fails to secure funding and has to drastically cut back the parade and cancel many of the events.[135] The coalition government committed to legislate for gay marriage by 2015, but by 2012 still had not been included in the Queen's Speech.[136] Thousands of people sign an e-petition to feature Alan Turing, father of Computing and of Artificial Intelligence on the ten pound note.[137] Government Ministers pledge to push through legislation granting same-sex couples equal rights to get married despite the threat of a split with the Church of England and the continuance of current arrangements for the state recognition of canon law.[138]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Hadrian the gay emperor". The Independent (London). 11 January 2008. 
  2. ^ David Bromell. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History, London, 2000 (Ed. Wotherspoon and Aldrich)
  3. ^ (Boswell, 1981) p.215 states "The Council of London of 1102 ... insisted that in future sodomy be confessed as a sin."
  4. ^ Weir, Alison (2006). Isabella: She-wolf of France, Queen of England. Pimlico. ISBN 978-0712641944. 
  5. ^ Chaplais (1994), p. 7.
  6. ^ Hamilton (1988), p. 16.
  7. ^ Flores Historiarum
  8. ^ Smith & Hogan, Criminal Law (10th ed), ISBN 0-406-94801-1
  9. ^ a b c d e Bailey, 147-148, and H. Montgomery Hyde, The Love That Dared Not Speak Its Name: A Candid History of Homosexuality in Britain, (Boston: Little, Brown, 1970) [British title: The Other Love]
  10. ^ a b Fone, Byrne R. S. (2000). Homophobia: a history. New York: Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-8050-4559-7. 
  11. ^ Bergeron, David Moore (1999), King James and Letters of Homoerotic Desire, University of Iowa Press, ISBN 978-0-87745-669-8 
  12. ^ Homosexuality & Civilization By Louis Crompton; p.386
  13. ^ A History of England By James Franck Bright; p.597
  14. ^ Godfrey Goodman, Bishop of Gloucester, quoted in Gregg, Pauline (1984). King Charles I. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-520-05146-1. 
  15. ^ Graham, Fiona (2008-06-05). "To the manor bought". BBC News (BBC). Retrieved 2008-09-24. 
  16. ^ There was no Duke of Norfolk at the time; the Duchy was "restored" in 1660.
  17. ^ Mendelson, Sara H. (Jan 2008). Hunt, Arabella (1662–1705). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  18. ^ Van der Kiste, 201
  19. ^ a b Van der Kiste, 202–203
  20. ^ Norton, Rictor (5 February 2005). "The Raid on Mother Clap's Molly House". Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  21. ^ Bateman, Geoffrey (18 August 2005). "Margaret Clap". glbtq.com. Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  22. ^ Norton, Rictor (20 June 2008). "The Trial of Margaret Clap". Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  23. ^ Norton, Rictor (20 June 2008). "The Trial of Gabriel Lawrence". Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  24. ^ Matt Cook et al, A Gay History Of Britain, 2007., Oxford: Greenwood World Publishing
  25. ^ A Gay History of Britain, Matt Cook, p. 82
  26. ^ "The Gay Love Letters of John, Lord Hervey to Stephen Fox"; excerpts from My Dear Boy: Gay Love Letters through the Centuries (1998), edited by Rictor Norton, accessed 26 May 2010
  27. ^ "Rictor Norton, "The First Public Debate about Homosexuality in England: The Case of Captain Jones, 1772", The Gay Subculture in Georgian England". 3 April 2007. 
  28. ^ "The White Swan: The Gay Brothel in Vere Street". 25 September 2010. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Northwest NHS trust LGBT Timeline". February 2011. 
  30. ^ Cocks, HG (2003). Nameless Offences: Homosexual Desire in the 19th Century. I.B.Tauris. p. 30. ISBN 1860648908. 
  31. ^ A Gay History of Britain, Matt Cook, p. 109
  32. ^ Hyde v. Hyde and Woodmansee [L.R.] 1 P. & D. 130
  33. ^ H. G. Cocks (2003) Nameless offences: homosexual desire in the nineteenth century. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-890-8
  34. ^ Hansard report of the debate
  35. ^ A Gay History of Britain, Matt Cook, p. 133
  36. ^ A Gay History of Britain, Matt Cook, p. 132
  37. ^ Stoddard, Katy (17 February 2007). "Let's talk about sex". The Guardian (London). 
  38. ^ A Gay History of Britain, Matt Cook, p. 152
  39. ^ Matt Cook. London and the Culture of Homosexuality, 1885-1914 (Cambridge Studies in Nineteenth-Century Literature and Culture). ISBN 0521089808. 
  40. ^ David C. Weigle, 'Psychology and homosexuality: The British Sexological Society', Journal of the History of the Behavioural Sciences 31:2 (April 1995), p.137-148
  41. ^ Davenport-Hines, Richard (1995). Auden. London: Heinemann. pp. ch. 3. ISBN 0-434-17507-2.
  42. ^ Thomson (1994, 26–27), Meech (1994, 54–55).
  43. ^ Munt, Sally R. (2001). "The Well of Shame". Doan & Prosser, 199–215.
  44. ^ Souhami, Diana (1999). The Trials of Radclyffe Hall. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-48941-2, pp. 194–196.
  45. ^ "'Thought Man Was Woman' Story: Charge Is Now Murder". News of the World. 5 Nov 1950. 
  46. ^ "He Killed Man Who Dressed As a Woman". News of the World. 26 Nov 1950. 
  47. ^ A Gay History of Britain, Matt Cook, p. 169
  48. ^ D'Emilio, John (1998). Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities (2d ed.). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-14267-1 pp41-49
  49. ^ a b Daily Mail: "Lord Montagu on the court case which ended the legal persecution of homosexuals," 17 July 2007
  50. ^ a b "PM apology after Turing petition". BBC News. 11 September 2009. 
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Further reading[edit]

  • Cook, Matt: London and the culture of homosexuality, 1885–19
  • Cook, Matt: Gay history of GB: love & sex between men since
  • David, Hugh: On queer street: a social history of British homosexuals
  • Houlbrook, Matt: Queer London: Perils and Pleasures in the Sexual Metropolis, 1918–1957 ISBN 978-0-226-35462-0
  • Hyde, Harford Montgomery (1970). The Love that Dared Not Speak Its Name: A Candid History of Homosexuality in Britain. Little, Brown.

External links[edit]