Timeline of Middle Eastern history

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This timeline tries to compile dates of important historical events that happened in or that led to the rise of the Middle East. The Middle East is the territory that comprises today's Egypt, the Persian Gulf states, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Cyprus and Northern Cyprus, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, the State of Palestine, Gaza Strip, and Yemen. The Middle East with its particular characteristics was not to emerge until late second millennium AD. To refer to a concept similar that of today's Middle East but earlier in time, the term Ancient Near East is used.

This list is intended as a timeline of the history of the Middle East. For more detailed information, see articles on the histories of individual countries. See Ancient Near East for ancient history of the Middle East.

Neolithic period[edit]

8th millennium BCE[edit]

7th millennium BCE[edit]

6th millennium BCE[edit]

  • 5509, September 1 BCE : "day of creation of the world" according to the Byzantine Empire and the beginning of their calendar.
  • 5403 BCE : "Date of the Descending of Adam & Eve to earth" (according to the extended Genesis Genealogy).

5th millennium BCE[edit]

Ancient Near East[edit]

4th millennium BCE[edit]

Overview map of the Ancient Near East


(see also Sumer: Ur, Uruk, Kish, Susa)

3rd millennium BCE[edit]

2nd millennium BCE[edit]

techniques in Anatolia or the Caucasus.

Early Iron Age[edit]

The Oriental Empires about 600 BCE

Inventions, Discoveries, Introductions[edit]

(see also: Roman Republic, David, Cyrus the Great, Darius the Great, Parthian Empire, Homer, Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Lydia, Median Empire, Chaldean Empire)

See also[edit]

Classical Antiquity[edit]

Main article: Classical Antiquity

Late Ages[edit]

Rise of Islam[edit]

"The Eighth Progressive Map - Arabic Acendency; showing (a,)The Arabic Empire in its greatest extent. (b,) The world at the beginning of the eighth century (Christianity on the point of being crushed by the Moslems.). (c,)The four Christian empires (Byzantine, Longobardian, Merovingian, and Anglo-Saxon.)."
The map shows the extension of the Caliphate under Al-Walid I, who reigned from 705 to 715

Crusaders and Ayubuds[edit]

(The dominance of the Arabs came to a sudden end in the mid-11th century with the arrival of the Seljuk Turks)

(see also: Seljuk Turks, Crusades, Mongols)

The Ottoman era[edit]

Ottoman Empire, 1481–1683

(main article: History of the Ottoman Empire)

  • 1798 - Napoleon Bonaparte leads a campaign in Egypt and Syria.
  • 1869 - Construction of the Suez Canal is completed.
  • 1882 - British troops occupy Cairo - Egypt becomes British protectorate.

Contemporary Middle East[edit]

See also[edit]