Timeline of Philippine sovereignty

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This article presents a timeline of the sovereignty of the Republic of the Philippines, showing transitions of sovereignty over the Philippine archipelago. It also lists invasion attempts and insurgency movements from the pre-Hispanic period to the present.[nb 1]

Timeline[edit]

Timeline of Philippine Sovereignty
Period Sovereign Entity Invasions and Insurgencies
Pre-Spanish None None
1521 – 1565 Spain None
1565 – 1599 Spain
1599 – 1762 Spain
  • Referendum of 1599 legitimised Spain's sovereignty.[5]
Further information: Eighty Years' War
  • Igorot Revolt (1601), Chinese revolt of 1602, Irraya Revolt (1621), Tamblot Revolt (1621-1622), Bankaw Revolt (1621–1622), Isneg Revolt (1625–1627), Cagayan Revolt (1639), Ladia Revolt (1643), Zambales Revolt (1645), Pampanga Revolt (1645), Sumuroy Revolt (1649–50), Pintados Revolt (1649–1650), Zambal Revolt (1660), Maniago Revolt (1660), Malong Revolt (1660–1661), Ilocano Revolt (1661), Chinese revolt of 1662, Panay Revolt (1663), Sambal Revolt (1681–1683), Tingco plot (1686), Rivera Revolt (1718), Magtanĝaga Revolt (1718), Caragay Revolt (1719), Dagohoy Rebellion (1744-1829), Agrarian Revolt (1745–1746)
1762 – 1764 In dispute between Britain and Spain.
  • Silang Revolt (1762–63), Palaris Revolt (1762-1765), Camarines Revolt (1762–1764), Cebu Revolt (1762–1764), Dabo and Marayac Revolt (1763), Isabela Revolt (1763)
1764 – 1872 Spain
  • Lagutao Revolt (1785), Ilocos Norte Revolt (1788), Magtanong and Malibiran Revolt (1787), Nueva Vizcaya Revolt (1805), Ambaristo Revolt (1807), Ilocos Norte Revolt (1811), Sarat Revolt (1815), Bayot Revolt (1822), Novales Mutiny (1823), Parang and Upay Revolt (1822–1835), Pule Revolt (1840–1841), Camerino Revolt (1865–1869), Labios Revolt (1870–1871), Cavite Mutiny (1872)
1872 – 1892 Spain
August 1892November 1897 Spain The Katipunan
  • The group, formed in 1892, became an insurgent revolutionary movement in August. The exact date is disputed, held to be either on 13 August with the tearing of cedulas or on 24 August with the "Cry of Pugad Lawin".[6] This begins what is generally called the Philippine Revolution.
  • January 1895 - Andrés Bonifacio assumes Supreme Presidency of the Katipunan.
  • August 1896 - The Katipunan Supreme Council was reorganised into a "cabinet" of an insurgent revolutionary government. The Katipunan and its successor insurgent movements regarded themselves as legitimate governments from this point onwards.[7][8]
    • 25 August - Andrés Bonifacio is elected Supremo/President of the Katipunan.
  • March 1897 - Emilio Aguinaldo is elected President by Katipunan attendees of the Tejeros Convention. He was sworn in and assumed the office despite Bonifacio having annulled the convention proceedings.[9]
November 1897December 1897 Spain The Republic of Biak-na-Bato
  • Established as an insurgent constitutional republic on November 2, 1897, with Aguinaldo as President. This insurgent government had a constitution, President, Vice President, etc., and succeeded the Katipunan Insurgency.
December 1897April 1898 Spain None
  • 14 December 1897 - Signing of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, suspending the insurgency. Aguinaldo and other insurgent leaders went into voluntary overseas exile.
April 1898May 1898 Spain Central Executive Committee
  • April 1898 - General Francisco Makabulos forms the insurgent General Executive Committee of Northern Luzon, intended to be a provisional government "until a general government of the Republic in these islands shall again be established." This insurgent government had a constitution, President, Vice President, etc.[10][11]
May 1898June 18, 1898 Spain Unofficial dictatorial government headed by Aguinaldo
  • 1 May 1898 - Hostilities between the U.S. and Spain commenced in the Philippines.[12]
    • 19 May - Aguinaldo returns to the Philippines.[13]
    • 24 May - Aguinaldo announces in Cavite, "... I return to assume command of all the forces for the attainment of our lofty aspirations, establishing a dictatorial government which will set forth decrees under my sole responsibility, ..."[14]
June 18, 1898June 23, 1898 Spain Official dictatorial government headed by Aguinaldo
  • 12 June 1898 - Independence is proclaimed in Kawit by the Dictatorial Government of the Philippines.[15]
  • 18 June - Aguinaldo proclaims dictatorial government.[16]
June 23, 1898August 14, 1898 Spain Revolutionary government headed by Aguinaldo
  • 23 June 1899 - Aguinaldo issues proclamation replacing his dictatorial government with a revolutionary one.[17]
August 14, 1898December 10, 1898 In dispute between the U.S. and Spain
  • 14 August 1898 - The day after the surrender of Manila to their forces, General Wesley Merritt established a military government over portions of the country under American control.[18]
Revolutionary government headed by Aguinaldo
December 10, 1898January 22, 1899 United States
  • 10 December 1898 - Spain cedes the Philippines to the United States.[19]
  • 1/2 January 1899 - Acting Spanish Governor-General Diego de los Ríos returns to Manila from Zamboanga.[20]
    • 4 January - U.S. General Elwell Otis issues proclamation announcing the United States as having obtained possession and control of all of the Philippines from the Spanish.[21]
Revolutionary government headed by Aguinaldo
January 22, 1899April 11, 1899 United States Malolos Republic
  • 22 January 1899 - Promulgation of the Malolos Constitution. Replaces Aguinaldo's insurgent revolutionary government with the Malolos Republic, also known as the First Philippine Republic, with Aguinaldo as President.[22] Although the republic never received foreign recognition, Filipinos consider Aguinaldo to be the first president.[23]
April 11, 1899June 2, 1899 United States Malolos Republic
June 2, 1899April 19, 1901 In dispute between United States and the Malolos Republic
  • On June 2, 1899, undeclared general hostilities between U.S. and Philippine forces having been ongoing since February 4, the Malolos Republic promulgated a Declaration of War against the United States,[25] thereby officially beginning the Philippine–American War.
  • Emilio Aguinaldo, President of the Malolos Republic, was captured by U.S. Forces on March 23, 1901.
  • Aguinaldo signed a formal surrender document on April 19, 1901, acknowledging and accepting the sovereignty of the United States throughout the entire archipelago.[26]
None
April 19, 1901 – 1902 United States No organized insurgency.
1902 – 1907 United States Tagalog Republic
  • In 1902, General Macario Sakay, a veteran Katipunan member, established his own Tagalog Republic (Tagalog: Repúbliká ng̃ Katagalugan), and held the presidency with Francisco Carreón as vice president. In April 1904, Sakay issued a manifesto declaring Filipino right to self-determination at a time when support for independence was considered a crime by the American occupation forces in the Philippines.[27]
  • The republic ended in 1907 when Sakay and his leading followers were arrested and executed by the American authorities as bandits.[28]
1907 – 1913 United States No organized insurgency
  • Scattered resistance to U.S. rule continued.
1913 – 1935 United States None
1935 – 1941 United States None
1941 – March 29, 1942 In dispute between the United States/Commonwealth of the Philippines and Japan/Republic of the Philippines None
March 29, 1942September 2, 1945 In dispute between the United States/Commonwealth of the Philippines and Japan/Republic of the Philippines Hukbalahap
  • On March 29, 1942, peasant leaders determined to oppose the Japanese invasion met in a forest clearing at the junction of the provinces of Tarlac, Pampanga, and Nueva Ecija to organize a resistance movement against the Japanese invaders. The movement was designated Hukbó ng Bayan Laban sa Hapón, or Hukbalahap.[30]
September 2, 1945July 4, 1946 United States Hukbalahap
July 4, 1946 – 1954 Republic of the Philippines
  • On July 4, 1946, the United States recognized the independence of the Republic of the Philippines as a separate self-governing nation.[31]
Hukbalahap[32]
  • On May 17, 1954, Luis Taruc, leader of the Hukbalahap movement, surrendered unconditionally and announced that he "unreservedly recognized the authority of president Magsaysay and the sovereignty of the republic of the Philippines."[33]
1954 – Present Republic of the Philippines None

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The article may be incomplete, lacking in particular information regarding the MNLF, MILF and Abu Sayyaf groups which should possibly be included.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bautista 2009, p. 13.
  2. ^ Noland 1990, p. 79.
  3. ^ Scott 1992, pp. 50–53, notes 24 and 25 on pp. 62–63.
  4. ^ Zaide 1994, pp. 89–91.
  5. ^ Villarroel 2009, pp. 93–133.
  6. ^ Agoncillo 1990, p. 172.
  7. ^ Zaide 1968, pp. 238, 285.
  8. ^ Ricarte 1926, p. 27].
  9. ^ Agoncillo 1990, pp. 177–178.
  10. ^ Constantino 1975, pp. 202–203.
  11. ^ Agoncillo 1990, pp. 185–186.
  12. ^ Agoncillo 1990, pp. 189–190.
  13. ^ Agoncillo 1990, p. 192.
  14. ^ Titherington 1900, pp. 357–358.
  15. ^ Kalaw 1927, pp. 413–417.
  16. ^ Guevara 1972, pp. 7–12.
  17. ^ Guevara 1972, pp. 28–40.
  18. ^ Zaide 1994, p. 279.
  19. ^ Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain; December 10, 1898, Yale, 2009, retrieved 2010-10-01 .
  20. ^ Peterson 2007, pp. 10–11.
  21. ^ Worcester 1914, p. 167.
  22. ^ Guevara 1972, pp. 88–119.
  23. ^ Tucker 2009, p. 8.
  24. ^ a b c Randolph 2009, p. 197.
  25. ^ Kalaw 1927, pp. 199–200.
  26. ^ Worcester 1914, pp. 175–176.
  27. ^ Constantino 1975, pp. 261–266.
  28. ^ Constantino 1975, pp. 266–267.
  29. ^ Rodell 2002, p. 18.
  30. ^ Agoncillo 1990, pp. 447–449.
  31. ^ TREATY OF GENERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES. SIGNED AT MANILA, ON 4 JULY 1946 (pdf), United Nations, retrieved 2007-12-10 .
  32. ^ Agoncillo 1990, pp. 451–460.
  33. ^ Agoncillo 1990, p. 458.

Bibliography[edit]