Timeline of Romanian history

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This is a timeline of Romanian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Romania and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Romania. See also the list of Presidents of Romania.

Prehistory[edit]

Paleolithic[edit]

Lower Paleolithic[edit]

(2,600,000 – 300,000 BP)
Year Image Event
1,000,000 BP the appearance of the first carved tools, the so-called "Pebble culture" (Romanian: Cultură de prund). These tools have been attributed to the Homo erectus hominid type. (to 700,000 BP)

Middle Paleolithic[edit]

(300,000 – 50,000 BP)

Upper Paleolithic[edit]

(50,000 – 13,000 BP)
Year Image Event
40,500 BP Skull exhibiting a mix of archaic and modern traits. The oldest modern human (Homo sapiens sapiens) remains in Europe, are discovered in 2002 in Peștera cu Oase (literally "The Cave With Bones"), near Anina.

Epipaleolithic[edit]

(13,000 – 9,500 BP)

Mesolithic[edit]

(9,500 – 7,500 BP)

Neolithic[edit]

(6,600 – 3,500 BC)
Year Image Event
5500 BC Cucuteni pottery Cucuteni culture begins
5250 BC The Thinker of Hamangia Hamangia culture begins in Dobruja

Chalcolithic[edit]

(4,700 – 3,500 BC)

Bronze Age[edit]

(3,500 – 1,100 BC)

Iron Age[edit]

(From 1,100 BC)

Ancient times[edit]

(600 BC – 500 AD)

Main articles: Ancient Romania and Timeline of Ancient Romania draft version - you can help

6th century BC[edit]

Year Date Image Event
513 BC first written evidence of tribes (Getae or Dacians) inhabiting the region by Herodotus

5th century BC[edit]

4th century BC[edit]

Media related to Category:Romania in the 4th century BC at Wikimedia Commons

Year Image Event
4th century BC Golden Helmet of Coţofeneşti Helmet of Coţofeneşti is crafted
4th century BC  Helmet of Iron Gates Helmet of Iron Gates is crafted

3rd century BC[edit]

2nd century BC[edit]

Year Date Image Event
200 BC the Dacian Kingdom was led by King Oroles

1st century BC[edit]

Year Date Image Event
74 BC Dacian Kingdom at its peak under King Burebista

1st century[edit]

Year Date Image Event
86 first encounter of Roman Empire with the Dacian Kingdom

2nd century[edit]

Year Date Image Event
101 first campaign of Emperor Trajan against Dacians (to 102)

106 Battle of Sarmisegetusa, Dacia becomes a Roman province

3rd century[edit]

Year Date Image Event
271 retreat of Roman occupation of Dacia

4th century[edit]

5th century[edit]

Early Middle Ages[edit]

(501 – 1200 AD)

6th century[edit]

7th century[edit]

8th century[edit]

9th century[edit]

10th century[edit]

Year Date Image Event
1000 Byzantine, Slavic and Hungarian sources, and—later on—Western and even Oriental sources mention the existence of Romanians and Romanian state entities under the name of Vlachs

11th century[edit]

Year Date Image Event
1003 Mention of the local ruler Gyula (Geula, Gyyla or Jula) in Transylvania

12th century[edit]

Middle Ages[edit]

(1201–1600 AD)

13th century[edit]

Year Date Image Event
1241 A Persian chronicle mentions several rulers from Wallachia such Bezerenbam and Mişelav and the country of Ilaut.
1288 among the first evidences of Diet in Transylvania

14th century[edit]

Year Date Image Event
1330 Battle of Posada

15th century[edit]

Year Date Image Event
1437 Bobâlna revolt

16th century[edit]

Year Date Image Event
1600 Mihai Viteazul succeeded to unite all three principalities - Transylvania, Wallachia and Moldovia, where Romanians have been living

Early Modern Times[edit]

(1601–1800)

17th century[edit]

Year Date Image Event
1601 The assassination of Mihai Viteazul ends the union achieved one year before;
After the assassination of Mihai Viteazu, the Hungarian-origin Transylvanian noblemen swear allegiance to Rudolph II, the Habsburg Emperor. Giorgio Basta's terror regime commences;
1605 Stephen Bocskay becomes Prince of Transylvania guaranteeing religious freedom and broadening Transylvania's independence;
1606 The Treaty of Vienna gives constitutional and religious rights and privileges to all Hungarian-speaking Transylvanians but none to Romanian-speaking people. The treaty guarantees the right of Transylvanians to elect their own independent princes in the future;
1613 Gabriel Bethlen becomes Prince of Transylvania succeeding to Gabriel Báthory. Under Bethlen's rule, the principality experiences a golden age. He promoted agriculture, trade, and industry, sank new mines, sent students abroad to Protestant universities, and prohibited landlords from denying an education to children of serfs;
1618 Transylvania take part to Thirty Years' War. Gabriel Bethlen invades Hungary and proclaims himself as King of Hungary;
1621 On 31 December, Peace of Nikolsburg ends the war between Transylvania and Hasburgs. The conditions of Treaty of Vienna signed in 1606 are reinforced;
1632 The first war between Wallachia, led by Matei Basarab, and Moldavia led by Vasile Lupu;
1648 Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years' War. Transylvania is mentioned a sovereign state;
1653 The second war between Matei Basarab and Vasile Lupu ends with the Moldavian throne being given to Gheorghe Ştefan;
1655 Seimeni revolt starts;
1657 George II Rákóczi invades Poland only to be defeated. The Ottoman Empire take advantage of the new situation and restore the military power in Transylvania;
1661 In April Prince Kemény proclaims the secession of Transylvania from the Ottomans and appeals to help from the Habsburg Empire. He was not aware of the secret agreement between the Hasburg Empire and Ottomans and the move will end his reign. Transylvania becomes a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire;
1682 The capital of Transylvania is moved to Sibiu (then Nagyszeben);
1683 The defeat of Ottoman armies in Battle of Vienna means the end of Ottoman rule over Transylvania. The Roman Catholic Church becomes official church in Transylvania in a move directed by the Hasburgs to weak the noblemen estates, which were both Roman Catholic and Protestant;
1692 The Habsburgs control over Transylvania is consolidated even more and the princes are replaced with governors named directly by the Hasburg Emperors, who themselves become Princes of Transylvania;
1698 Bucharest becomes capital of Wallachia. Until then the capital was in Târgovişte. Constantin Brâncoveanu's 16-year reign commences during which period Wallachia enjoys a golden age;
1699 The Emperor Leopold I decrees Transylvania's Orthodox Church to be one with the Roman Catholic Church, by joining the newly created Romanian Greek-Catholic Church;

18th century[edit]

Year Date Image Event
1711 Transylvania's direct-autonomy to Hasburg Empire ends, as the region becomes administrative area of Hungary;
1714 Constantin Brâncoveanu is killed in Istanbul at the order of Sultan Ahmed III, who did not agree with Brâncoveanu alliances with Hasburg and Russian empires;
1715 The Phanariote period starts. Nicholas Mavrocordatos becomes the first Phanariote prince of Wallachia. The influence of Ottoman Empire is greater than ever;
1716 The Hasburg Empire invades Wallachia during the Austro-Turkish War;
1718 Oltenia becomes part of the Hasburg Empire;
1739 Oltenia is reconquered by the Ottomans
1746 Constantine Mavrocordatos abolishes the serfdom and creates a more effective central administration|administrative apparatus;
1749 Serfdom abolished.
1765 The Grand Principality of Transylvania is proclaimed, consolidating a special separate status within the Hasburg Empire originally granted in 1691. This was however just a mere formality, as Transylvania is still an administrative area of Hungary;
1768 Wallachia is occupied by Russia during the Fifth Russo-Turkish War; (to 1774)
1784 The Revolt of Horea, Cloşca and Crişan starts in November and lasts until February in 1785. The main demands were related to the feudal serfdom and the lack of political equality between Romanians and other ethnicities of Transylvania;
1791 Romanian-speaking Transylvanians petition to Emperor Leopold II for recognition as the fourth nation of Transylvania and for religious equality. Their demands are rejected and their old marginalised status is reinforced;

National awakening of Romania[edit]

(1801–1880)

19th century[edit]

Year Date Image Event
1801 Russia takes assumes a protective right over Romanian-speaking Christians in the Danubian lands and soon began to growth its influence in the region;
1802 Sámuel Teleki, then Chancellor of Transylvania, inaugurates the first library in Transylvania and present-day Romania. On 15 December, János Bolyai is born in Cluj Napoca. Today the town's main university is named after him and Victor Babeş;
1806 Following the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the Hasburg Empire is reorganised and becomes the Austrian Empire;
Wallachia is occupied by Russia.
1813 Caragea's plague claims 60,000 deaths in Wallachia during 1813 and 1814;
1817 Mihail Kogălniceanu is born. He will play a major role in the politics of Romania in second half of the 19th century;
1818 Ion Caragea adopts the first modern code of law in Wallachia;
1821 Following the death of Alexandros Soutzos a boyar regency is set;
The anti-boyar and anti-Phanariote uprising takes place being led by Tudor Vladimirescu. On 28 May, a treaty is signed between Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire ending the war when Bessarabia becomes part of the Russian Empire;
The Phanariote rule ends. Moldavia is occupied by Alexander Ypsilantis's Filiki Eteria during the Greek War of Independence;
1822 Ionică Tăutu, representing a group of low-ranking boyars in Moldavia, proposed a constitutional project with republican and liberal principles;
1826 Local leaders in Moldavia are allowed by the Ottoman Empire and Russian Empire;
1829 Following the Treaty of Adrianople, without overturning Ottoman suzerainty, places Wallachia and Moldovia under Russian empire military rule till Turkey pays an indemnity.; Wallachia gains the rayas of Turnu, Giurgiu and Brăila, Russia annexes the Danube estuary.
The seventh Russo-Turkish War brings Pavel Kiselyov at the leadership of Moldavia;
1834 Regulamentul Organic, an quasi-constitutional organic law is enforced in Wallachia and Moldovia. Sfatul Boieresc, the first Legislative Assembly in Wallachia is established;
Regulamentul Organic, an quasi-constitutional organic law is enforced in Wallachia and Moldavia. Sfatul Boieresc, the first Legislative Assembly in Wallachia is establishedied Mihail Sturdza, a man with unionist ideas, becomes Prince of Moldavia;
1844 The Gypsies slavery ends;
1847 A custom union with Wallachia is established;
1848 The Revolution are very active in this part of Europe. The Hungarians demand more rights, including a provision on the union between Transylvania and Hungary. The Romanian-speaking Transylvanians carry their own parallel revolution led by Avram Iancu, which opposed the union with Hungary;
The Revolutions of 1848 waves spread in Wallachia where the Romanian-speaking Wallachians try to overrule the Russian Empire's administration, demand the abolition of boyar privilege and a land reform. The revolutionaries are successful enough to create a provisional government in June and forced Gheorghe Bibescu, the Prince of Wallachia, to abdicate and leave into exile. A series of reforms follow the protests, the abolition of Roma slavery being one of them;
The Revolutions of 1848 wave hits Moldavia but the success is far from the success in Wallachia, as the revolts are quickly suppressed;
1849 The revolt led by Avram Iancu obtains some rights for the Romanian-speaking Transylvanians, in spite of strong opposition from Hungary;
Grigore Alexandru Ghica becomes prince of Moldavia. He introduces important administrative reforms and promotes economic development and education;
1850 Mihai Eminescu, regarded today as the most famous and influential Romanian poet is born;
1854 The first railway line on Romania's present-day territory opens on 20 August and between Oraviţa in Banat and Baziaş;
The Russian Empire protectorate ends. It is followed by an Ottoman occupation for several months and then a two-year long Austrian occupation;
1856 Wallachia and Moldavia are brought under the influence of the Western European powers under the provisions of the Treaty of Paris;
The end of the Crimean War means the ends of Russia dominance in Moldovia;
1859 The National Party is founded. Its leader, Alexandru Ioan Cuza will play a major role in the formation of Romania just three years later;

Romania under Cuza and War of Independence[edit]

(1859–1880)
Year Date Image Event
1859 Alexandru Ioan Cuza is elected Prince of Moldavia on January 5. Three weeks later he is also elected Prince of Wallachia, thus achieving a de facto union of the two principalities under the name of Romania;
1860 University of Iaşi is established, as the first institution of higher education in Romanian language with faculties of literature, philosophy, law, science and medicine and schools in music and art. The Romanian Army is founded. Romania switch from Cyrillic script to Latin script that is still in use today;
1861 On 5 February, the 1859 union is formally declared and a new country, Romania is born. The capital city is chosen to be Bucureşti. On 23 December, Abdülaziz, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire officially recognizes the union but only for the duration of Cuza's reign;
The Transylvanian Association for the Literature and Culture of the Romanians is founded in Sibiu, as the first cultural association of the Romanian-speaking Transylvanians;
1862 The Government of Romania is formed with Alexandru Constantin Moruzi as the first ever Prime Minister.
1863 Alexandru Ioan Cuza promulgates the Agrarian Reform in which the majority of the land is transferred into the property of those who worked it. As there was not enough land, the Secularization of monastery estates in Romania, in which large estates owned by the Romanian Orthodox Church are transferred under state ownership and than to private property, takes place. This was an important turning point in the history of Romania, as it marked the almost disappearance of the Boyar class, leaving the country to look towards capitalism and industrialization;
1864 The Parliament of Romania is formed. A tuition-free, compulsory public education for primary schools is introduced in Romania for the first time. Also a Criminal Code and a Civil Code, both based on the Napoleonic Code, are introduced;
1865 On 1 January, Casa de Economii şi Consemnaţiuni, the first bank of Romania, is established. On 19 June Evangelis Zappas, one of the richest men in the world at that date dies aged 65. Born in the Ottoman Empire in today's Greece he lived in Romania most of his life;
1866 On 22 February, Alexandru Ioan Cuza is forced to sign his abdication, which was mainly caused by the Agrarian Reform from 1863 made himself many enemies. Due to the country's political issues and its financial collapse, the Parliament takes the decision to bring a foreign price to the vacant throne. On 26 March, Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen becomes Prince of Romania as Carol. Originally, the offer was made to Prince Philippe, Count of Flanders but he refused. On 1 April, the Romanian Academy is established. On 1 July, the first constitution of Romania is ratified.;
1867 On 22 April the Leu currency is adopted;
Austria-Hungary is formed as a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise to replace the Austrian Empire. Transylvania becomes integrated part of Hungary;
1869 The Bucureşti - Giurgiu railway works are concluded after four years and the line become the first of this kind in Romania. However, it is not the first railway built on the present territory of Romania. The first railway was built in 1854 in Banat;
1870 The short-lived Republica Ploieşti is formed in the city of Ploieşti, as a revolt against the Prince;
1877 On 16 April, Romania and the Russian Empire sign a treaty under which Russian troops are allowed to pass through Romanian territory, with the condition to respect the integrity of Romania. On 21 May, the Parliament of Romania declare the independence of the country. In the fall Romania join the Russo-Turkish War on the Russian Empire side. In November, deeply defeated in the Battle of Plevna, the Ottoman Empire request an armistice.
1878 Romania independence is recognised by the Central Powers on 13 July. Following the Treaty of Berlin, Romania now include territories of Dobrogea, the Danube Delta, and Insula Şerpilor. In return the southern counties of Bassarabia are returned to Russian Empire;
1880 National Bank of Romania is established in April. The bank's first governor was Eugeniu Carada. Căile Ferate Române, Romania's state-owned railway company starts its operations;

Kingdom of Romania[edit]

(1881–1947)
Main article: Kingdom of Romania
Year Date Image Event
1881 On 26 March, Carol I is crowned as King. His wife Elisabeth becomes Queen. Romania becomes kingdom. On 19 August George Enescu is born;
The National Party of Romanians in Transylvania is formed as the first party of the Romanians in Transylvania;
1882 The Stock Exchange opens in Bucureşti;
1884 The first ever telephone in Romania is installed;
1885 Patriarch Joachim IV signs the recognition of the autocephalous status of the Romanian Orthodox Church that granted it equal rights with those of the other orthodox churches.
1886 The construction of the Athenaeum begins. Although the work would continue until 1897, the first concert took place in 1886 and it was performed by Bucharest Philharmonic Orchestra;
1889 Mihai Eminescu dies aged 39;
1892 The Transylvanian Memorandum is signed by the leaders of the Romanians to the Austro-Hungarian Emperor Franz Joseph, asking for equal ethnic rights with the Hungarians, and demanding an end to persecutions and Magyarization attempts. The memorandum was forwarded to the Hungarian Parliament and the results was that the Romanian leaders are sentenced to long terms in prison;
1894 Leaders of the Transylvanian Romanians who sent a Memorandum to the Austrian Emperor demanding national rights for the Romanians are found guilty of treason;
1895 King Carol I Bridge is inaugurated on 26 September. At the time it was the longest in Europe and second longest in the World;
1896 The construction of Port of Constanţa begins. Since then it has been the most important port in Romania. In May, cinema arrives in Romania for the first time;
1897 Bram Stoker publishes his most famous novel, Dracula, which is based on Vlad Tepes, a Romanian ruler;
1900 The Post Palace is inaugurated. Today it houses the National Museum of Romanian History;

20th century[edit]

Year Date Image Event
1904 The first refinery, a Romanian-American joint venture is founded and to process oil produced in the Prahova River valley;
1906 Traian Vuia Achieved a short hop of 20 Meters at 1 Meter height in his aircraft Vuia I.
Aurel Popovici, a Transylvanian lawyer and politician, proposes the federalization of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy into the so-called United States of Greater Austria under the model of United States of America with a total of 15 component states, Transylvania being one of them;
1907 Violent peasant revolts crush throughout Romania, thousands of persons killed.
1913 At the end of the Balkan Wars, Romania acquire the southern part of the Dobrogea from Bulgaria. On 1 April, the Parliament vote the law of the military aviation, Romania being the fifth nation in the world to have an Air Force;
1914 On 10 October, Carol I dies and he is succeeded by his nephew, Ferdinand, who becomes the second King of Romania as Ferdinand I. His wife, Maria becomes queen;
Transylvania enters World War I on the Austria-Hungary side;

Romania in World War I[edit]

Year Date Image Event
1916 Despite choosing to stay away from the war, the death of King Carol I and the course of events made Romania to change its view and decide to enter the war on the Entente side, demanding the territory of Transylvania. The demands of the Romanian Government were finally accepted and following the First Treaty of Bucharest, Romania declare war to the Central Powers on 27 August and launch attacks through the Southern Carpathians and into Transylvania. Poorly trained and equipped, the Romanian Army cannot face the power of the German, Bulgarian and Ottoman armies and Bucureşti is lost in December. Iaşi becomes temporarily the capital city of Romania;
1917 The Battle of Mărăşeşti, between 6 August and 8 September, could have been the turning point but the retreat of the Russian Army from Romania left the Romanians no choice but to ask for peace;
1918 In January USA President Woodrow Wilson requests autonomy for the ethnic groups of Austria-Hungary. Between 26 and 28 March a Congress of Nationalities of Austria-Hungary takes place in Rome when a motion is passed, demanding the recognition of the right of each nation to constitute into a national state, which would stay independent, or would unite with its already existing national state. On 1 December assembly of the delegates of ethnic Romanians held in Alba Iulia declare the Union of Transylvania with Romania;
The Second Treaty of Bucharest is signed on 7 May. However, after the successful offensive of the on the Entente, on the Thessaloniki front which put Bulgaria out of the war, Romania re-entered the war on 10 November. On 28 November the Romanian representatives of Bucovina voted for union with the Kingdom of Romania, followed by the proclamation of the union of Transylvania with the Kingdom of Romania on 1 December, by the representatives of Transylvanian Romanians and of the Transylvanian Saxons gathered at Alba Iulia. Both proclamations were not, however, yet recognized by the Entente powers;
1919 Béla Kun, the leader of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, decides to attack Romania to regain the lost territories in Transylvania without any success. The counter-offensive led to the occupation of the Hungarian capital Budapest in August by the Romanian Army putting an end to the self-proclaimed Hungarian Soviet Republic. In meantime, the union proclamations of Bucovina, Basarabia and Transylvania are officially recognized by the Treaty of Versailles and later by the Treaty of Trianon and the Kingdom of Romania expand its borders.

Greater Romania[edit]

(1920–1939)
Year Date Image Event
1920 On 20 January, Romania become founding member of League of Nations. The CFRNA (French-Romanian Company for Air Navigation) is established, becoming the first airline in Romania;
1921 On 23 April, Romania and Czechoslovakia sign a peace treaty in Bucureşti. It will be followed by a similar treaty between Romania and Yugoslavia signed it Belgrade one month later. A new land reform takes place, at the idea of King Ferdinand I, who wanted to repay the soldiers and their families for sacrifices made during the war;
1922 King Ferdinand I and Queen Maria are crowned in Alba Iulia as King and Queen of all Romanians;
1925 The Romanian Orthodox Church is officially recognized;
1927 On 20 July, King Ferdinand I dies and Mihai I, his grandson, becomes the third King of Romania after his father Carol renounced to his rights to the throne in two years earlier. On 24 July, the Iron Guard is formed by Corneliu Zelea Codreanu. The Iron Guard will play a major role in the Romanian political and social system over the next decade and a half;
1930 Carol II returns to Romania on 7 June and he is proclaimed King one day later, thus becoming the fourth King of Romania and the first born in Romania. The Societatea Anonimă Română de Telefoane is established and Romania start to use landline telephony at wide scale;
1933 On 10 December, Ion Duca, Prime Minister of Romania at the time, bans the Iron Guard. On 29 December, Ion Duca is assassinated by members of the paramilitary organisation;
1937 A new palace is built to replace the old residence of the heads of states of Romania, which has been in use for over a century. Today the National Museum of Art of Romania is located in the palace;
1938 In a bid for political unity against the fascist movement known as the Iron Guard, which was gaining popularity, Carol II dismissed the government headed by Octavian Goga. The activity of the Romanian Parliament and of all political parties was suspended and the country is governed by royal decree. Miron Cristea, the first Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church become Prime Minister on 11 February;

Romania in World War II[edit]

Year Date Image Event
1939 Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union sign the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, in which the Soviet side claims Basarabia. The territory is given to the Soviet Union together with the northern part of Bucovina one year later. On 21 September Armand Călinescu, Prime Minister of Romania, is murdered by the Iron Guard.
1940 On 27 June, following an ultimatum issued by the Soviet Union, Romania loses Basarabia. On 30 August, under the Second Vienna Award, Romania loses the northern part of Transylvania to Hungary. Only one week later the Kadrilater is lost to Bulgaria. On 4 September, Horia Sima, leader of the Iron Guard, and Ion Antonescu, an Romanian Army General, Prime Minister of Romania at that date, form the "National Legionary State" in Romania, forcing the abdication of King Carol II. Mihai I becomes king for the second time two days later. On 8 October, Nazi troops begin crossing into Romania. On 23 November, Romania joins the Axis Powers.
1941 Between 21 January and 23 January, a rebellion organised by the Iron Guard takes place in Bucharest. Later known as the Bucharest pogrom, it follows the decision made by Ion Antonescu to cut off the privileges of the Iron Guard. During the rebellion, 125 Jews and 30 army soldiers die. After the order is restored, the Iron Guard is banned. On 22 June, Romania joins Operation Barbarossa, attacking the Soviet Union hoping to recover the lost territories of Basarabia and Bucovina. Later, Romania annexes Soviet lands immediately east of the Dnister.
1943 Romania becomes a target of Allied aerial bombardment;
1944 On 23 August, King Mihai leads a successful coup with support from opposition politicians and the army. Ion Antonescu is arrested. On 12 September, an Armistice Agreement is signed with the Allied powers. Romania join the Allied powers. In October Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, proposed an agreement with Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin on how to split up Eastern Europe in spheres of influence after the war. The Soviet Union were offered a 90% share of influence in Romania. Battle of Romania begins;

Post-war Romania[edit]

(1945–1947)
Year Date Image Event
1945 On 1 March, Petru Groza becomes the first Communist Prime Minister of Romania after Nicolae Rădescu was forced to submit resignation by the Soviet Union's deputy People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, Andrei Y. Vishinsky. Later on that year Romania takes part in the Battle on Budapest as well as the Battle on Prague. Despite joining the Allies only in August 1944, Romania had an important contribution to shortening WWII by six months, according to Sir Winston Churchill;
1946 The Romanian Communist Party won the elections held on 19 November through electoral fraud;

Communist Romania[edit]

(1947–1989)
Main article: Communist Romania
Year Date Image Event
1947 Following the abdication of Mihai I, the People's Republic of Romania is declared on 30 December against the majority of people who supported the monarchy. The new leader of Romania becomes Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party;
1948 A new constitution is ratified on 13 April. Two months later, on 11 June all banks and major enterprises are nationalized. During the year, also in the years to come, many pre-war politicians, businessmen, priests and even ordinary people are thrown in prisons. On 30 August, following the model of Soviet NKVD, the Romanian secret policed is formed;
1949 A forced collectivization, in which the agriculture is organized under the socialist model, comes into force. Romania join Comecon. The construction of Danube-Black Sea Canal starts. The canal was the most known labour camp in the history of Romania;
1951 During the night of 18 June the third-largest mass deportation in modern Romanian history takes place. Some 45,000 people are taken from their homes and deported to the Bărăgan plain;
1952 The Hungarian Autonomous Province, the one and only autonomous province in modern Romania, is created. It will be disestablished in 1968. The second Communist constitution is ratified;
1953 The Danube-Black Sea Canal is halted and the labour camp disestablishedied Iuliu Maniu dies in Sighet prison;
1954 SovRoms, joint ventures between Romania and Soviet Union are formed. They will prove their inefficiency for Romania from the first day of establishment and most of them will be dissolved in 1956;
1955 Romania joins the Warsaw Pact. On 14 February, a group of Romanian anti-Communists occupies the Romanian embassy in Berne demanding the release from prisons of many public personalities. With the help of the Swiss police, the order is re-established two days later. On 14 December, Romania join the United Nations;
1956 On 28 October a radio station calling itself "Romania of the future. The voice of resistance" begins broadcasting on different wavelengths. Many protests, especially amongst students, follows in November. On 31 December, Televiziunea Română start to broadcast first programmes;
1957 ARO is established in Câmpulung-Muscel and start to manufacture off-road vehicles. ARO IMS become the first car built in Romania after World War II. Over the next three decades ARO will be a landmark of Romania.
1958 The Soviet Union Army leave Romania after fourteen years of occupation;
1959 On 28 July, the Ioanid Gang carries out the most famous bank robbery ever to occur in a Communist state;
1960 Oliviu Beldeanu, the leader of the group that occupied the Romanian embassy in Berne five years earlier, is executed in Bucureşti;
1965 On 19 March, Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej dies and Nicolae Ceauşescu is elected General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party and becomes the state leader. The official name of the country is changed into The Socialist Republic of Romania. The third Communist constitution is ratified;
1966 Intreprinderea de Autoturisme Piteşti is established. Two years later Romania start the mass production, the first mass production of a car - Dacia 1100. Nicolae Ceauşescu orders that the abortion decree signed in 1957 to be reversed and new policies to increase birth rate and fertility rate are introduced. The policy fails, as the population begins to swell, accompanied by rising poverty and increased homelessness children in the urban areas;
1968 Romania refuse to participate in the invasion of Czechoslovakia. Nicolae Ceauşescu openly condemns the action, thus he becomes a Western world favourite. Richard Nixon's visit to Romania was the first by an American president to a Communist country. The Patriotic Guards are formed as an additional defence force in case of an attack from the outside;
1972 In order to develop a "multilaterally socialist society", Nicolae Ceauşescu starts urban planning, following the ideologies of North Korea. The face of the country is completely changed in the years to come;
1974 Nicolae Ceauşescu becomes the first President of Romania. Romania become the first country in the Eastern Bloc ever to establish economic relations with the European Community. The Generalised System of Preferences is signed, followed by an Agreement on Industrial Products in 1980.
1976 At the age of 14, Nadia Comăneci becomes one of the stars of the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal. During the team portion of the competition, her routine on the uneven bars is scored at a 10.0. It is the first time in modern Olympic gymnastics history that the score had ever been awarded. Over the next years, Nadia will become one of the best known Romanians in the world;
The Danube-Black Sea Canal project restarts;
1977 On 4 March 21:20 local time, an earthquake occurs with a magnitude of 7.4 and epicentre in Vrancea at a depth of 94 kilometres. The earthquake killed about 1,570 people and injured more than 11,000. Total damages are estimated at more than two billion dollars. On 1 July 35,000 out of 90,000 miners in Jiu Valley decide to stop working. Their protest is the biggest of this kind in Communist Romania before the 1989 revolution. The strike only ends when Nicolae Ceauşescu intervened in person.
1978 Ion Mihai Pacepa, a senior officer in Securitate, defected to the United States becoming the highest ranking defector from the Eastern Bloc;
1980 Construction of the Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant begins. The fourth Communist constitution is ratified;
1981 The 1981 Summer Universiade becomes the most important sport event ever to be hosted by Romania. Dumitru Prunariu becomes the first Romanian in space;
1983 As part of the urban planning programme, significant portions of the historic centre of Bucureşti are demolished in order to accommodate standardized apartment blocks and government buildings, including the grandiose Centrul Civic and the palatial House of the People, the second largest building in the world;
1984 Romania is, alongside People's Republic of China and Yugoslavia, one of the three Communist countries to take part to the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, USA. The Danube-Black Sea Canal canal is finally completed after nearly four decades;
1986 On 7 May, Steaua Bucureşti win the European Cup and become the first and only football team from a Communist country to win the trophy;
1987 In a climate of economic depression and food shortages a rebellion erupts on 15 November in the city of Braşov. Over 300 protesters are arrested for hooliganism.
1989 On 16 December, protests break out in Timişoara. Five days later Nicolae Ceauşescu organises a mass meeting in Bucureşti. The jeers and whistles soon erupt into a riot, as the crowd takes to the streets, placing the capital in turmoil. Nicolae Ceauşescu and his wife leave Bucureşti putting an end to four decades of Communist rule in Romania. On 25 December, after a short trial, Nicolae Ceauşescu and his wife are executed.

Present-day Romania[edit]

Year Date Image Event
1989 The National Salvation Front (FSN) take the power during the Romanian Revolution. The leader is elected Ion Iliescu. The new name of the republic becomes Romania;
1990 On 20 May, free elections are held in Romania for the first time after fifty years. FSN, which became a political party, win the elections. Ion Iliescu is elected the second President of Romania. Before and after the elections, a protest initiated by the students and professors of University of Bucharest, which was also supported by many intellectuals, demanded that former members of the Romanian Communist Party, which included Ion Iliescu, should be banned from elections. The protest was ended by the intervention of the miners from Jiu Valley, brought to Bucureşti by Iliescu himself in what is remembered as the June 1990 Mineriad;
1991 A new constitution is ratified;
1992 Elections are held and Ion Iliescu wins a second mandate. Privatization of the industry starts;
1993 Romania apply to become a member of the European Union. The first wireless telephony system becomes active;
1995 The Stock Exchange reopens in Bucureşti;
1996 Emil Constantinescu becomes the third President of Romania;
1997 Romania join the countries able to use GSM telephony;
2000 Ion Iliescu returns to power after winning the elections;

21st century[edit]

Year Date Image Event
2004 Traian Băsescu becomes the fourth President of Romania. Romania join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization;
2007 On 1 January, Romania join the European Union. Traian Băsescu was temporarily suspended for alleged constitutional violations and replaced with Nicolae Văcăroiu.
2008 In February the Government overrule court decision that commission investigating Communist-era secret police is illegal. For two days, starting on 2 April, Romania host 2008 NATO summit. Legislative election are held on 30 November. Emil Boc becomes the new Prime Minister following the elections.
2009 Badly affected by the Late-2000s recession, the International Monetary Fund and other lenders agree to provide Romania a rescue package worth 20bn Euros. A Government crisis begins in April when the Social Democratic Party pulls out of ruling coalition, leaving Prime Minister Emil Boc at head of minority government, which subsequently loses a confidence vote in parliament. On 6 December, Traian Băsescu is re-elected as president for a second mandate after marginally winning the presidential election in front of Mircea Geoană.

See also[edit]