Timeline of Rome history

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Rome's ancient forum.

This article mentions the most significant events throughout the span of the history of Rome.[1]

Early history[edit]

Tradition states that Romulus and Remus were raised by a wolf before founding Rome in 753 BC
  • 1000 BC - Latins begin to settle in Italy.
  • 750 BC - Tarpeia betrays Rome because of greed and attempts to hand it over to the invading Sabines
  • 659 BC - The enemy city of Alba Longa is destroyed by the Romans.
  • 616 BC - The first Etruscan king of Rome, Tarquinius Priscus establishes a Forum and a Circus Maximus.
  • c.600 BC - Cloaca Maxima is probably first built around this year.
  • 534 BC - King Servius is assassinated.
  • 509 BC - Lucius Brutus founds the republic and expels the Etruscans and Tarquin the Proud from Rome.
  • 508 BC - A Treaty is made between Rome and Carthage.
  • 507 BC - The famous war against the Etruscans begins, featuring hero Horatio.

Republic[edit]

Main article: Roman Republic
19th-century painting of the Gallic leader Brennus looting Rome after the Battle of the Allia in 390 BC
  • 499 BC - A battle against foreign tribes commences, including the construction of the Temple of Castor and Pollux.
  • 396 BC - The Etruscan city of Veio is defeated by the Romans
  • 380 BC - The once destroyed Servian Wall is reconstructed.
  • 312 BC - The Via Appia and Aqua Appia are constructed.
  • 220 BC - Via Flamina is constructed.
  • 133 BC - 120 BC - The Gracchi brothers are controversially killed.
  • 71 BC - Spartacus is killed and his rebel army destroyed.
  • 58-50 BC - Caesar conquers Gaul.

Imperial city[edit]

Main article: Roman Empire
St Peter, the first Pope, was crucified in Rome in 67 AD
The Colosseum opened in 80 AD
  • 49 BC - Caesar crosses the Rubicon in order to take Rome.
  • 27 BC - Augustus is made Rome's first emperor.
  • 13 BC - The Ara Pacis is constituted since Augustus secured his empire.
  • 42 AD - The apostle St Peter arrives in Rome.
  • c. 65 AD - The Romans begins to massacre Christians .
  • 67 AD - St Peter is crucified in Rome, and similarly St Paul is executed.
  • March, 80 AD - The inauguration of the Colosseum begins.
  • 125 AD - Emperor Hadrian has the Pantheon reconstructed to more or less how it is today.
  • 212 AD - All the inhabitants of the empire are granted citizenship.
  • 216 AD - Work on the Baths of Caracalla is finally over, as the building gets completed.
  • 247 AD - The first millennium of Rome is celebrated.

Early Medieval period[edit]

19th-century painting of the Visigothic Sack of Rome in 410 AD
  • 380 - The Christian emperor Theodosius makes Christianity the official religion of Rome, persecuting pagans and destroying temples.
  • 476 - Romulus Augustulus is deposed, traditionally considered the end of the Western Roman Empire and the beginning of the Middle Ages in Europe. Byzantium continues to be the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.
  • 609 - The Pantheon becomes a Christian church.
  • 630 - The Church of Sant' Agnese is the first Roman church to be constructed in Byzantine style.
  • 725 - The King Ine of Wessex is the first man to create a hostel for pilgrims to Rome.
  • 800 - Charlemagne is crowned the emperor in St. Peter's Basilica.
  • 880 - 932 - A rare occasion, the city is governed by women, Theodora and later her daughter Marozia.

High Middle Ages[edit]

The Papal throne in the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran dates from the 13th century
  • 1108 - The church of San Clemente is in this year rebuilt.
  • 1140 - The church of Santa Maria in Trastevere is restored.
  • 1200 - The city becomes an independent commune
  • 1347 - The patriot and rebel Cola di Rienzo tries to restore the Roman Republic.
  • 1348 - As in most of Europe, the Black Death strikes Rome.

Roman Renaissance[edit]

Main article: Roman Renaissance
From 1508 to 1512, Michelangelo painted the Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel

1377 - The Papacy returns to Rome with Pope Gregory XI.

  • 1409 - 1415 - For a short while, the Papacy moves over to Pisa.
  • 1417 - The Great Schism of the 14th century is ended by Pope Martin V
  • 1486 - The Palazzo della Cancelleria is built.
  • 1506 - The first significant works on the New St. Peter's Basilica re begun with Pope Julius II

Baroque period[edit]

The Church of the Gesù was the first Baroque structure, built in 1568
The current St. Peter's Basilica was finished in 1626
  • 1600 - Giordano Bruno (philosopher) is burned at the stake for his heresies.
  • 1624 - Apollo and Daphne, the sculpture by Bernini, is made in this year.
  • 1633 - Galileo is condemned for heresy.
  • 1657 - Borromini finishes his work in Sant' Agnese in Agone.
  • 1694 - The Palazzo di Montecitorio is finished.
  • 1734 - The Palazzo Nuovo is made by Pope Clement XII the world's first public museum.
  • 1751 - The Views of Rome by Piranesi revives interest in Rome's classical ruins.
  • 1762 - The Trevi Fountain is completed.

19th century and Risorgimento[edit]

Illustration of the proclamation of the 1849 Roman Republic in the Piazza del Popolo.
  • 1800 - 1801 - Napoleon retakes Italy and Rome.
  • 1820 - There are a series of revolts in Rome and the rest of Italy.
  • 1821 - The British poet John Keats dies in Rome.
  • 1848 - Uprisings in Rome.
  • 1849 - Nationalists procalaim an unrecognised Roman Republic. Pope Pius IX is later restored to power in the city, after French help.
  • 1860 - Garibaldi and his famous 1,000 soldiers take Naples and Sicily.

20th century and modern Rome[edit]

The Altare della Patria was built in honour of King Victor Emmanuel II in 1911
Fascists, led by Benito Mussolini, at the March on Rome in 1922
  • 1944 - Rome is liberated by the Allied troops from the Germans.
  • c.1978 - 1990 - Years of Lead: period of paramilitary violence across Italy.
  • 1981 - An assassination attempt on Pope John Paul II is made in St. Peter's Basilica Square.
  • 2000 - The city enters the New Millennium, featuring a new Holy Year, or the Jubilee.
  • 2013 - Benedict XVI resigns and Pope Francis is elected as his successor.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rome (DK Eyewitness Travel Guide). DK. 2006. pp. 18–41. ISBN 1-4053-1090-1. 
  2. ^ Deborah Mauskopf Deliyannis. Ravenna in Late Antiquity, Cambridge University Press, 2014, p. 46. ISBN 9781107612907