Timeline of Rome
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- 1000 BC - Latins begin to settle in Italy
Main article: Roman Republic
- 499 BC - A battle against foreign tribes commences, including the construction of the Temple of Castor and Pollux.
- 396 BC - The Etruscan city of Veio is defeated by the Romans
- 380 BC - The once destroyed Servian Wall is reconstructed.
- 312 BC - The Via Appia and Aqua Appia are constructed.
- 264 - 241 BC - First Punic War
- 220 BC - Via Flamina is constructed.
- 218 - 202 BC - Second Punic War
- 149 - 146 BC - The Third Punic War
- 133 BC - 120 BC - The Gracchi brothers are controversially killed.
- 71 BC - Spartacus is killed and his rebel army destroyed.
- 58-50 BC - Caesar conquers Gaul.
Main article: Roman Empire
- 49 BC - Caesar crosses the Rubicon in order to take Rome.
- 27 BC - Augustus is made Rome's first emperor.
- 13 BC - The Ara Pacis is constituted since Augustus secured his empire.
- 42 AD - The apostle St Peter arrives in Rome.
- c. 65 AD - The Romans begins to massacre Christians .
- 72 AD - Work on the Flavian Amphitheatre (Colosseum) begins.
- March, 80 AD - The inauguration of the Colosseum begins.
- 121 AD - Hadrian's Wall is completed.
- 212 AD - All the inhabitants of the empire are granted citizenship.
- 216 AD - Work on the Baths of Caracalla is finally over, as the building gets completed.
- 247 AD - The first millennium of Rome is celebrated.
- 270 AD - Construction of the Aurelian Wall begins.
- 284 AD - Diocletian partitions administration of the Roman Empire in half, thereby establishing the Eastern Roman Empire in Byzantium.
Early Medieval period
See also: Western Roman Empire
- 312 - Constantine the Great defeats Maxentius at Battle of the Milvian Bridge to become the sole ruler of the Roman Empire
- c.320 - Old St. Peter's Basilica is constructed.
- 325- Constantine convenes the First Council of Nicaea.
- 380 - The Christian emperor Theodosius makes Christianity the official religion of Rome, persecuting pagans and destroying temples.
- 402 - Ravenna becomes the capital of the Western Roman Empire, whilst Constantinople that of the east.
- 422 - The Church of Santa Sabina is founded.
- 476 - Romulus Augustulus is deposed, traditionally considered the end of the Western Roman Empire and the beginning of the Middle Ages in Europe. Byzantium continues to be the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.
- c. 590 - 604 - Pope Gregory the Great makes the Christian church exceedingly strong.
- 609 - The Pantheon becomes a Christian church.
- 630 - The Church of Sant' Agnese is the first Roman church to be constructed in Byzantine style.
- 725 - The King Ine of Wessex is the first man to create a hostel for pilgrims to Rome.
- 778 - Charlemagne conquers Italy and Rome.
- 800 - Charlemagne is crowned the emperor in St. Peter's Basilica.
- 846 - The Arab sack of Rome plundered the environs of Rome, including Old St. Peter's Basilica, but were prevented from entering the city itself by the Aurelian Wall
- 880 - 932 - A rare occasion, the city is governed by women, Theodora and later her daughter Marozia.
High Middle Ages
- 1108 - The church of San Clemente is in this year rebuilt.
- 1140 - The church of Santa Maria in Trastevere is restored.
- 1200 - The city becomes an independent commune
- 1232 - The cloisters in the Basilica of St. John Lateran are finished.
- 1300 - Pope Boniface VIII proclaims the First Holy Year.
- 1347 - The patriot and rebel Cola di Rienzo tries to restore the Roman Republic.
- 1348 - As in most of Europe, the Black Death strikes Rome.
Main article: Roman Renaissance
1377 - The Papacy returns to Rome with Pope Gregory XI.
- 1409 - 1415 - For a short while, the Papacy moves over to Pisa.
- 1417 - The Great Schism of the 14th century is ended by Pope Martin V
- 1444 - Bramante is born.
- 1452 - Old St. Peter's Basilica is demolished and a new one is begun.
- 1475 - Painter Michelangelo is born.
- 1483 - Raphael is born.
- 1486 - The Palazzo della Cancelleria is built.
- 1506 - The first significant works on the New St. Peter's Basilica re begun with Pope Julius II
- 1508 - Michelangelo paints the famous Sistine Chapel
- 1519 - The famous frescos of the Villa Farnesina are finally completed.
- 1547 - Michelangelo is appointed by Pope Paul III as the main architect of the new St. Peter's Basilica.
- 1571 - Caravaggio is born.
- 1585 - Rome's streets are re-planned by Pope Sixtus V.
- 1600 - Giordano Bruno (philosopher) is burned at the stake for his heresies.
- 1626 - Construction of the new St. Peter's Basilica is completed.
- 1633 - Galileo is condemned for heresy.
- 1651 - Piazza Navona is fully re-designed by Bernini.
- 1656 - Bernini's colonnades in St. Peter's Square are begun.
- 1657 - Borromini finishes his work in Sant' Agnese in Agone.
- 1694 - The Palazzo di Montecitorio is finished.
- 1721 - The English prince and pretender Bonnie Prince Charlie is born in the city.
- 1732 - Work on the Trevi Fountain begins.
- 1734 - The Palazzo Nuovo is made by Pope Clement XII the world's first public museum.
- 1735 - The Spanish Steps are designed.
- 1751 - The Views of Rome by Piranesi revives interest in Rome's classical ruins.
- 1762 - The Trevi Fountain is completed.
- 1797 - Napoleon Bonaparte captures Rome.
19th century and Risorgimento
- 1800 - 1801 - Napoleon retakes Italy and Rome.
- 1807 - Garibaldi is born.
- 1816 - Work on the Piazza del Popolo begins.
- 1820 - There are a series of revolts in Rome and the rest of Italy.
- 1821 - The British poet John Keats dies in Rome.
- 1848 - Uprisings in Rome.
- 1849 - Nationalists procalaim an unrecognised Roman Republic. Pope Pius IX is later restored to power in the city, after French help.
- 1870 - Rome captured by Italy.
20th century and modern Rome
- 1911 - The Altare della Patria is completed.
- 1944 - Rome is liberated by the Allied troops from the Germans.
- 1957 - Treaty of Rome
- 1960 - Rome hosts the 1960 Summer Olympics, with great success.
- 1962 - Roman Catholic church reforms are brought about with the Second Vatican Council.
- 1978 - Italian prime minister Aldo Moro is kidnapped and later killed by the Brigate Rosse; Pope John Paul I and Pope John Paul II are made popes in this year.
- c.1978 - 1990 - Years of Lead: period of paramilitary violence across Italy.
- 1981 - An assassination attempt on Pope John Paul II is made in St. Peter's Basilica Square.
- 1990 - Rome hosts the 1990 FIFA World Cup Final.
- 1993 - Francesco Rutelli becomes the first elected mayor of Rome.
- 2000 - The city enters the New Millennium, featuring a new Holy Year, or the Jubilee.
- 2004 - A new constitution of the European Union is signed in Rome.
- 2005 - Pope John Paul II dies in Rome, and Pope Benedict XVI takes his place.
- 2013 - Benedict XVI resigns and Pope Francis is elected as his successor.
- Timeline of Genoa
- Timeline of Milan
- Timeline of Naples
- Timeline of Siena
- Timeline of Trieste
- Timeline of Turin
- Timeline of Venice
- Rome (DK Eyewitness Travel Guide). DK. 2006. pp. 18–41. ISBN 1-4053-1090-1.
- Deborah Mauskopf Deliyannis. Ravenna in Late Antiquity, Cambridge University Press, 2014, p. 46. ISBN 9781107612907