Timeline of Spanish history

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Main article: History of Spain
Further information: list of heads of state of Spain

See Timeline of pre-Roman Iberian history and Timeline of Spanish history (Hispania) for preceding periods.

This article is a Timeline of Spanish history only from the Dark Ages to the present time and comprises important legal and territorial changes and political events in Spain and its predecessor nation states.

Middle Ages (before 1506)[edit]

Main articles: Reconquista and Catholic Monarchs
Year Date Event
711 The Moors invaded Spain, displacing the Visigoths, and established Al-Andalus.
722 Pelagius of Asturias defeats the moor's army in Covadonga (Asturias) starting the Reconquista
778 Zaragoza is attacked by the Carolingian army.
1009 The Fitna of al-Andalus got let off with the assassination of Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo.
1031 The Fitna of al-Andalus ended with the breakup of the Caliphate of Cordoba.
1085 Alfonso VI from Castille conquered Toledo.
1094 The Castilian knight El Cid conquered Valencia from the Moors.
1138 The Kingdom of Portugal was established.
1228 Moorish influence was reduced to the Kingdom of Granada.
1366 Starts a civil war against Enrique de Trastamara, son of Alfonso XI.
1469 19 October Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon were married, laying the foundation for the unification of the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon into Spain.
1474 10 December The reign of Isabella began.
1475 War of the Castilian Succession: The war began.
1478 The Spanish Inquisition was founded.
1504 Isabella I of Castile died.
20 January The reign of Ferdinand began.
4 September By the Treaty of Alcáçovas, Portugal recognized Spanish control of the Canary Islands.
1492 Christopher Columbus first explored the New World.
Reconquista: The Reconquista ended.
Jews were expelled from Spain by the Alhambra Decree.
1493 Spanish colonization of the Americas Spanish colonization of the Americas began.
1494 The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed.
1499 Italian War of 1499-1504: Ferdinand allied with the French King Louis XII of France.

Habsburg Spain (1506–1700)[edit]

Main article: Habsburg Spain
Year Date Event
1516 Ferdinand died.
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, became King of Castile and Aragon.
1554 25 July English Queen Mary I of England married Spanish Prince Philip.
1556 Charles abdicated in favor of Philip, who became King Philip II of Spain.
1557 Battle of St. Quentin (1557): Spain won the battle.
1561 Philip moved his court to Madrid.
1568 Dutch Revolt: A revolt began against Habsburg control of the Netherlands.
1571 Battle of Lepanto (1571): The Holy League was victorious.
1578 Dutch Revolt: The revolt ended.
1580 The Iberian Union of the crowns of Aragon, Castile and Portugal was established.
1585 Anglo–Spanish War (1585): The war began.
1588 8 August The Spanish Armada was defeated in the English Channel.
1598 Philip III of Spain was crowned.
1604 Anglo-Spanish War (1585): The war ended.
1605 The Treaty of London (1604) was signed.
The Moriscos were expelled.
1618 Thirty Years' War: The war began.
1621 Philip IV of Spain was crowned.
1640 Portuguese Restoration War: The war began.
The Iberian Union was dissolved.
1648 The Treaty of Westphalia was signed.
1659 The Peace of the Pyrenees was signed.
1665 Philip IV died.
1668 The Treaty of Lisbon was signed.
1675 Charles II of Spain was crowned.
1700 Charles II died.

Bourbon Spain (1700–1811)[edit]

Year Date Event
1701 War of the Spanish Succession: The war began.
1761 Seven Years' War: Spain declared war on Great Britain.
1778 American Revolutionary War: Spain supported the United States.
1789 Spain during this time opened up the slave trade to Havana.
1806 British invasions of the Río de la Plata: The invasions began.
1807 British invasions of the Río de la Plata: The invasions ended.
1808 Peninsular War: The war began.
2 May Dos de Mayo Uprising: An uprising took place in Madrid against the French occupation of the city.
1809 Bolivian Independence War: The war began.
1811 Venezuelan War of Independence: The war began.

Reaction, Republicanism and Restoration (1812–1931)[edit]

Year Date Event
1812 The Spanish Constitution of 1812 was issued.
1814 Peninsular War: The war ended.
1815 Spanish reconquest of New Granada: The reconquest began.
1816 Spanish reconquest of New Granada: The reconquest ended.
1820 Trienio Liberal: The period began.
1823 Trienio Liberal: The period ended.
1824 Bolivian Independence War: The war ended.
1833 First Carlist War: The war began.
1839 First Carlist War: The war ended.
1846 Second Carlist War: The war began.
1849 Second Carlist War: The war ended.
1864 Chincha Islands War: The war began.
1866 Chincha Islands War: The war ended.
1868 Ten Years' War: A war with Cuba began.
1872 Third Carlist War: The war began.
1873 The First Spanish Republic was established.
1874 Spain under the Restoration: The period began.
The First Spanish Republic was disestablished.
1876 Third Carlist War: The war ended.
1878 Ten Years' War: The war ended.
1879 Pablo Iglesias founds the Partido Socialista Obrero Español or PSOE in Casa Labra, a bar from Madrid
1898 25 April Spanish-American War: The war began.
12 August Spanish-American War: The war ended.
1914 World War I: The war began. Spain remained neutral.
1918 World War I: The war ended.
1920 Rif War (1920): The war began.
1926 Rif War (1920): The war ended.
1931 The Second Spanish Republic was established.
Spain under the Restoration: The period ended.


Second Republic and Francoist Spain (1931–1975)[edit]

Year Date Event
1936 Spanish Civil War (to 1939)
1937 Spanish Civil War, 1937: The war took place.
26 April Bombing of Guernica: The bombing took place.
1938 Spanish Civil War, 1938–1939: The war began.
1939 Spain under Franco: The period began.
The Second Spanish Republic was disestablished.
1957 Ifni War: The war began.
1958 Ifni War: The war ended.
1959 Spanish miracle: A period of economic growth began.
1973 Spanish miracle: The period ended.
1975 History of Spain (1975–present): The period began.
6 November The Green March forced Spain to hand over its last remaining colonial possession, Spanish Sahara, to Morocco.
19 November Francisco Franco died; the monarchy was restored to Juan Carlos I of Spain.

Contemporary Spain[edit]

Year Date Event
1976 Spanish transition to democracy: The transition began.
1978 The Spanish Constitution of 1978 was issued.
1981 Spanish society after the democratic transition: A democratic society was established.
23 February 23-F: An attempted coup took place.
1986 Spain joined the European Union.
1992 1992 Summer Olympics: The Summer Olympics were held in Barcelona.
1998 Judge Baltasar Garzón issued an international arrest warrant for former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet.
2004 11 March 2004 Madrid train bombings: Madrid train bombings killed one hundred and ninety-one and injured over two thousand. Prime Minister José María Aznar blamed the Basque terrorists ETA.
14 March Aznar's People's Party lost an election after the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero promised to withdraw Spanish troops from Iraq.
2006 2006 Madrid Barajas International Airport bombing: A bombing by ETA ended an active ceasefire and peace negotiations.
2008 Moroccan national Jamal Zougam was found guilty of the 2004 train bombings in Madrid.
Garzón was charged with criminal conduct in three cases, causing an international scandal and protests.
Spain won the world Cup Final, establishing the team as an international soccer power house.
2010 Spain won the FIFA World Cup.
Garzón was granted leave to work as a consultant to the International Criminal Court at The Hague.

Further reading[edit]

  • Benjamin Vincent (1910), "Spain", Haydn's Dictionary of Dates (25th ed.), London: Ward, Lock & Co.