Timeline of Tanzanian history

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a timeline of Tanzanian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Tanzania and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Tanzania. See also the list of Presidents of Tanzania.

Centuries: 12th · 13th · 14th · 15th · 16th · 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th · 21st

12th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1180 The Kilwa Sultanate, under Suleiman Hassan (c. 1178-1195), conquers the rival nation of Sofala.

13th century[edit]

14th century[edit]

15th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1498 25 February The Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama is the first known European to reach the East African coast, landing at Kilimane, where he stayed for 32 days.[1]

16th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1505 August Captain John Homere, part of Francisco de Almeida's fleet, captures the archipelago of Zanzibar, making it part of the Portuguese Empire.[2]

17th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1698 Zanzibar falls under the control of the Sultan of Oman.[2]
1700 Over 100,000 slaves pass through Zanzibar as part of the Arab slave trade. (to 1800)

18th century[edit]

19th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1822 United Kingdom signs a treaty with Sultan Seyyid Said to begin the abolition of slavery in Zanzibar.[3]
1840 December Omani Sultan Seyyid Said moves his capital to Zanzibar City.[2][4]
1848 11 May German missionary Johannes Rebmann, accompanied by Johann Ludwig Krapf, become the first Europeans to report seeing Mount Kilimanjaro.[5][6]
1856 Sultan Seyyid Said dies at sea and is succeeded by his sons Thuwaini bin Said, in Muscat and Oman and Majid bin Said, in Zanzibar.[7]
1857 26 June British explorers Richard Burton and John Speke travel from Zanzibar to the East African coast and begin their exploration of continental East Africa.[8]
1858 13 February Burton and Speke reach Lake Tanganyika, the first known Europeans to do so.[8]
1861 2 April Zanzibar and Oman are split into two separate principalities with Majid bin Said becoming the first Sultan of Zanzibar.[9]
1873 Zanzibari Sultan Barghash bin Said stops the export of slaves over the sea.[10]
1876 Barghash bin Said closes Zanzibar's slave market.[10]
1884 28 March The Society for German Colonization is formed by Karl Peters in order to acquire German colonial territories in overseas countries. Peters signs treaties with several native chieftains on the mainland opposite Zanzibar.[11]
1885 3 March The German government announces its intention to establish a protectorate in East Africa.
2 April The German East Africa Company is formed by Karl Peters to govern German East Africa.
1886 1 November An agreement is reached between Britain and Germany designating a 10-mile (16 km) wide strip of land along the coast as being controlled by Sultan Barghash bin Said, along with Zanzibar, Pemba, and Mafia. The area that is to become Tanganyika is assigned to Germany while the area will become Kenya is assigned to Britain.[12]
1888 April The German East Africa Company leases the coastal strip opposite Zanzibar from Sultan Khalifah bin Said for 50 years.[13]
1890 1 July The Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty makes Zanzibar and Pemba a British protectorate.[2]
1 August The Sultan of Zanzibar signs an anti-slavery decree.[10]
1896 27 August The Anglo-Zanzibar War is fought between Zanzibar and the United Kingdom. It lasted approximately 38 minutes and is the shortest war in history.[C]
1897 5 April Sultan Hamoud bin Mohammed issues a decree making slavery illegal in Zanzibar.[3][10]
1898 19 July Following years of resistance, Chief Mkwawa of the Hehe is cornered by German soldiers and commits suicide in lieu of capture.[14]

20th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1905 July The Maji Maji Rebellion starts as a violent resistance to colonial rule in Tanganyika.[15]
1907 August The Maji Maji Rebellion ends, leaving between 200,000 and 300,000 rebels dead.[16][D]
1914 8 August The East African Campaign of the First World War begins.[17]
3 November The Battle of Tanga, the first major military engagement of the First World War, takes place.[18] (to 5 November)
1916 4 September Dar es Salaam is occupied by troops from the United Kingdom and South Africa.[19]
1919 28 June Following the First World War, the Treaty of Versailles divides German East Africa, with the United Kingdom acquiring the largest section which it names the Tanganyika Territory.[20]
1920 Sir Horace Byatt is appointed the first governor of Tanganyika.[21]
10 January The British mandate over Tanganyika comes into force.[22]
1929 The Tanganyika African Association is founded by members of the Tanganyika Territory African Civil Service association.[23]
1946 13 December British mandate over Tanganyika is converted to a United Nations Trusteeship.[24]
1954 9 June Germany returns the skull of Hehe chief Mkwawa (died 1898) to Tanzania and it is put on display near Iringa.[25]
7 July Julius Nyerere forms the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and becomes its first president.[26][27]
1961 October The University College, Dar es Salaam is established as one of three constituent colleges of the University of East Africa, with 14 law students.[28]
9 December Tanganyika becomes an autonomous Commonwealth realm, with Julius Nyerere as Prime Minister.[29]
14 December Tanganyika becomes a member of the United Nations.[30]
1962 22 January Julius Nyerere resigns as Prime Minister and is succeeded by Rashidi Kawawa.[29]
9 December Tanganyika becomes a republic with Julius Nyerere as its first President.[31]
1963 16 December Zanzibar becomes a member of the United Nations.[30]
19 December Zanzibar receives independence from the United Kingdom, becoming a constitutional monarchy.[32]
1964 12 January The Zanzibar Revolution by local Africans overthrows the Sultan of Zanzibar and his primarily Arab government. Sheikh Abeid Karume becomes the first President of Zanzibar.[33]
26 April The Republic of Tanganyika and the Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba unite to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.[30]
1 November The United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar changes its name to the United Republic of Tanzania.[30]
1965 21 September President Nyerere is returned to power in a one-party election.[34]
1 October Nyerere is sworn in for his second presidential term.[35]
1967 5 February President Nyerere issues the Arusha Declaration, outlining the principles of Ujamaa.[36]
1969 24 September The Arusha Agreement is signed between the European Union and the East African states of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda.[37]
1970 1 July Tanzania's first university, the University of Dar es Salaam is founded from the split of the University of East Africa into three national universities.[28][38]
1971 1 January The Arusha Agreement is enacted.[37]
1972 7 April Vice President Abeid Karume is assassinated in Zanzibar Town.[34]
11 April Aboud Jumbe becomes the second President of Zanzibar and Vice President of Tanzania.[33]
1976 Archaeologist Mary Leakey and her team discover homoinid fossil footprints at Laetoli, south of the Olduvai Gorge.[39][40]
1977 5 February Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and Zanzibar's Afro-Shirazi Party merge to become Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM).[41]
18 April The border between Tanzania and Kenya is closed.[42]
25 April The constitution of Tanzania is adopted.[32]
1978 27 October Ugandan forces under Idi Amin invade Tanzania, starting the Uganda–Tanzania War, also known as the Liberation War.[43]
1979 11 April Tanzanian troops capture the Ugandan capital of Kampala, heralding the end of the Uganda–Tanzania War and Amin's regime.[44]
1983 Tanzania's first AIDS diagnosis is made in Bukoba district, Kagera Region.[45]
17 November The Tanzania–Kenya border reopens.[46]
1984 31 January Ali Hassan Mwinyi is sworn in as the third President of Zanzibar and Vice President of Tanzania.[46]
1985 5 November Julius Nyerere retires and Ali Hassan Mwinyi becomes the second President of Tanzania.[47] Mwinyi is succeeded as Vice President by Joseph Sinde Warioba.[48]
1990 October Ali Hassan Mwinyi wins a single-party election with 95.5% of the vote and is sworn in for a second presidential term.[49]
1992 28 May The Civic United Front is formed.[2]
1995 29 October Tanzania holds its first multi-party election.[50]
23 November Benjamin Mkapa is sworn in as the third President of Tanzania.[51]
1973 February The Tanzanian parliament moves from Dar es Salaam to the new capital of Dodoma.[52]
1998 7 August The United States embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya are simultaneously bombed.[53]
1999 14 October Julius Nyerere dies of leukaemia in London.[36]
30 November The East African Community Treaty between Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda is signed in Arusha.[54]
2000 7 July The East African Community Treaty comes into force.[54]
29 October Benjamin Mkapa is re-elected as President of Tanzania, with 72 percent of the vote.[55]

21st century[edit]

Year Date Event
2001 28 January Demonstrators in Zanzibar protesting the 2000 elections, clash with police and 32 people are killed.[56]
5 July Ali Mohamed Shein becomes Vice President of Tanzania.[32]
December The government controversially decides to spend £28m on a new air traffic control system.[57]
2002 24 June The Igandu train disaster kills more than 200 people and is Tanzania's worst train crash.[58]
July Mkapa's government is criticized for purchasing a £15m presidential jet shortly before reaching an agreement with the UK for £270m in aid.[59]
2003 December The Kipunji, a new species of monkey, is found in Tanzania—the first new African monkey species since 1974. It is also independently discovered in July 2004.[60]
2005 14 December General elections are held.[32] Anna Senkoro of the Progressive Party of Tanzania–Maendeleo is the first woman in Tanzania to run for President.[61]
21 December Jakaya Kikwete is sworn in as the fourth President of Tanzania.[62]
30 December Edward Lowassa is sworn is as Prime Minister.[63]
2006 11 May Scientists announce that the Kipunji monkey found in 2003 belongs to a new genus of African monkey—the first to be discovered since 1923.[64]
9 August $642m of Tanzania's debt is cancelled by the African Development Bank.[65]
2008 6 February A parliamentary committee reports on corruption within the cabinet.[66]
7 February Prime Minister Edward Lowassa and two other ministers resign following the report on corruption. President Kikwete dissolves the cabinet.[67]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sources vary as to the exact timescale of the migration of Khoisan from Southern Africa. Nurse & Spear say "as long as twenty thousand years ago".[68]
  2. ^ The Bantu expansion from West Africa likely happened in several stages.[69] Sources vary as to the exact timescale of the arrival of Bantu people to East Africa. Nurse & Spear say from "twenty-five hundred years ago".[68] Ndembwike says 100–200 AD.[70]
  3. ^ Several durations are given by sources, including 38,[71][72] 40[73] and 45[74] minutes, but the 38 minute duration is the most often quoted. The variation is due to confusion over what actually constitutes the start and end of a war. Some sources take the start of the war as the order to open fire at 09:00 and some with the start of actual firing at 09:02. The end of the war is usually put at 09:40 when the last shots were fired and the palace flag struck, but some sources place it at 09:45. The logbooks of the British ships also suffer from this with St George indicating that cease-fire was called and Khalid entered the German consulate at 09:35, Thrush at 09:40, Racoon at 09:41 and Philomel and Sparrow at 09:45.[75]
  4. ^ There is no exact figure for the number of deaths in the Maji Maji Rebellion. German officials at the time estimated 75,000.[76] Most sources say over 200,000.[76][77][78]

References[edit]

General
Specific
  1. ^ Walker, Eric (1940). The Cambridge History of the British Empire. CUP Archive. p. 85. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Notholt, Stuart (2008). Fields of Fire: An Atlas of Ethnic Conflict. Troubador Publishing. p. 2.52. ISBN 1-906510-47-4. 
  3. ^ a b Shillington, Kevin (2005). Encyclopedia of African history, Volume 1. CRC Press. p. 1711. ISBN 1-57958-453-5. 
  4. ^ McIntyre, Chris; McIntyre, Susan (2009). Zanzibar. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 13. ISBN 1-84162-254-0. 
  5. ^ Missionaries from Gerlingen: Johannes Rebmann — Discoverer and explorer, Johannes Rebmann Foundation, 4 June 2009, retrieved 10 March 2010 
  6. ^ Raum, Otto Friedrich; Moore, Sally Falk (1996). Chaga Childhood: A Description of Indigenous Education in an East African Tribe. LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster. p. xvi. ISBN 3-89473-874-X. 
  7. ^ Lipschutz, Mark R.; Rasmussen, R. Kent (1989). Dictionary of African Historical Biography. University of California Press. p. 214. ISBN 0-520-06611-1. 
  8. ^ a b Wright, Thomas (2008). The Life of Sir Richard Burton. BiblioBazaar, LLC. pp. 116–122. ISBN 0-554-22005-9. 
  9. ^ Bhacker, Mohamed Reda (1992). Trade and Empire in Muscat and Zanzibar: Roots of British Domination. Routledge. p. 191. ISBN 0-415-07997-7. 
  10. ^ a b c d Stearns, Peter N.; Langer, William Leonard (2001). The Encyclopedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 593. ISBN 0-395-65237-5. 
  11. ^ Perras, Arne (2004). Carl Peters and German Imperialism, 1856-1918: A Political Biography. Oxford University Press US. p. 38. ISBN 0-19-926510-0. 
  12. ^ Taylor, James Clagett (1963). The Political Development of Tanganyika. Stanford University Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-8047-0147-4. 
  13. ^ Okoth, Assa (2006). A History of Africa: African societies and the establishment of colonial rule, 1800-1915. East African Publishers. p. 132. ISBN 9966-25-357-2. 
  14. ^ Iliffe, John (1979). A Modern History of Tanganyika. Cambridge University Press. p. 115. ISBN 0-521-29611-0. 
  15. ^ Iliffe, p. 167
  16. ^ Gwassa, G. C. K. (1972). "Kinjikitile and the Ideology of Maji Maji". In Ranger, Terence O.; Kimambo, Isaria N. The Historical Study of African Religion. Los Angeles: University of California Press. p. 202. ISBN 0-520-02206-8. 
  17. ^ Samson, Anne (2006). Britain, South Africa and the East Africa Campaign, 1914-1918: The Union. I.B.Tauris. p. 29. ISBN 1-84511-040-4. 
  18. ^ Tucker, Spencer; Roberts, Priscilla Mary (2005). Encyclopedia of World War I. ABC-CLIO. p. 1148. ISBN 1-85109-420-2. 
  19. ^ Taylor, p. 23
  20. ^ Havighurst, Alfred F. (1985). Britain in Transition: The Twentieth Century. University of Chicago Press. p. 162. ISBN 0-226-31971-7. 
  21. ^ Taylor, p. 43
  22. ^ Taylor, p. 38
  23. ^ Stock, Robert F. (2004). Africa South of the Sahara: a Geographical Interpretation. Guilford Press. p. 439. ISBN 1-57230-868-0. 
  24. ^ Brownlie, Ian; Burns, Ian R. (1979). African boundaries: a legal and diplomatic encyclopaedia. C. Hurst & Co. p. 931. ISBN 0-903983-87-7. 
  25. ^ Longford, Michael (2001). The Flags Changed at Midnight: Tanganyika's Progress Towards Independence. Gracewing Publishing. p. 191. ISBN 0-85244-551-2. 
  26. ^ Okoth, p. 15
  27. ^ Mohiddin, Ahmed (1981). African Socialism in Two Countries. Taylor & Francis. p. 50. ISBN 0-389-20170-7. 
  28. ^ a b Wallenius, Anna-Britta (1971). Libraries in East Africa. Nordic Africa Institute. p. 43. ISBN 91-7106-051-0. 
  29. ^ a b Mwakikagile, Godfrey (2006). Tanzania Under Mwalimu Nyerere: Reflections on an African Statesman. Godfrey Mwakikagile. p. 28. ISBN 0-9802534-9-7. 
  30. ^ a b c d Rosenne, Shabtai (1974). Documents on the International Court of Justice. Brill Archive. p. 224. ISBN 0-379-00188-8. 
  31. ^ Lawrence, David (2009). Tanzania: The Land, Its People and Contemporary Life. Godfrey Mwakikagile. p. 215. ISBN 9987-9308-3-2. 
  32. ^ a b c d Central Intelligence Agency (2008). The CIA World Factbook. Skyhorse Publishing. p. 636. ISBN 1-60239-282-X. 
  33. ^ a b Bidwell, Robin Leonard (1974). Guide to Government Ministers: The British Empire and Successor States 1900-1972. Routledge. p. 155. ISBN 0-7146-3017-9. 
  34. ^ a b Europa Publications Limited (2003). Africa South of the Sahara 2003, Volume 32. Routledge. p. 1062. ISBN 1-85743-131-6. 
  35. ^ Kalley, Jacqueline Audrey; Schoeman, Elna; Andor, Lydia Eve (1999). Southern African Political History: A Chronology of Key Political Events from Independence to mid-1997. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 585. ISBN 0-313-30247-2. 
  36. ^ a b "Julius Nyerere Obituary", The Guardian (Guardian News and Media Limited), 15 October 1999, retrieved 28 February 2010 
  37. ^ a b Rothchild, Donald S.; Robert L. Curry (1978). Scarcity, Choice, and Public Policy in Middle Africa. University of California Press. p. 253. ISBN 0-520-03378-7. 
  38. ^ Newa, John M. (1996). "The CD-ROM Service for the University of Dar es Salaam". In National Research Council (U.S.). Office of International Affairs. Bridge Builders: African Experiences with Information and Communication Technology. United States National Academies. p. 13. 
  39. ^ McKie, Robin (13 January 2008), "Man's earliest footsteps may be lost forever", The Guardian (Guardian News and Media Limited), retrieved 11 March 2010 
  40. ^ Henderson, Mark (27 February 2009), "Footprints of ancient Man point the way out of Africa", The Times, retrieved 28 February 2010 
  41. ^ Hydén, Göran (1980). Beyond Ujamaa in Tanzania: Underdevelopment and an Uncaptured Peasantry. University of California Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-520-04017-1. 
  42. ^ Kalley, Schoeman & Andor, p. 620
  43. ^ Jessup, John E. (1998). An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945-1996. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 23. ISBN 0-313-28112-2. 
  44. ^ Mwakikagile, Godfrey (2001). Ethnic Politics in Kenya and Nigeria. Nova Publishers. p. 221. ISBN 1-56072-967-8. 
  45. ^ Baylies, Carolyn Louise; Bujra, Janet M. (2000). "Responses to the AIDS epidemic in Tanzania and Zambia". AIDS, Sexuality and Gender in Africa: Collective Strategies and Struggles in Tanzania and Zambia. Routledge. p. 27. ISBN 1-84142-027-1. 
  46. ^ a b Kalley, Schoeman & Andor, p. 627
  47. ^ Shillington, p. 1167
  48. ^ Europa Publications Limited (2004). Africa South of the Sahara 2004, Volume 33. Routledge. p. 1114. ISBN 1-85743-183-9. 
  49. ^ Europa Publications Limited (2004), p. 1115
  50. ^ "Polling Problems Mar Election in Tanzania", The New York Times (The New York Times Company), 30 October 1995: A4, retrieved 11 March 2010 
  51. ^ "Tanzania swears in Mkapa as president", The Blade (Block Communications), 24 November 1995: 2, retrieved 11 March 2010 
  52. ^ Lawrence, p. 21
  53. ^ "World News Briefs; 5 Arrested in Tanzania In U.S. Embassy Bombing", The New York Times (The New York Times Company), 13 September 1998: 113, retrieved 28 February 2010 
  54. ^ a b "History", East African Community (eacc.int), retrieved 6 April 2010 
  55. ^ Wright, John (2001). The New York Times Almanac 2002. Routledge. p. 675. ISBN 1-57958-348-2. 
  56. ^ Butcher, Tim (29 January 2001), "32 dead as police lay siege to Zanzibar", The Daily Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group), retrieved 3 April 2010 
  57. ^ "Tanzania 'needs costly radar system'", BBC News (BBC), 21 December 2001, retrieved 23 March 2010 
  58. ^ Ng'Wanakilala, Fumbuka (25 June 2002), "200 die as Tanzanian passenger train runs back into freight train", The Guardian (Guardian News and Media Limited), retrieved 22 March 2010 
  59. ^ Hencke, David (22 July 2002), "£15m jet sparks new Tanzania row", The Guardian (Guardian News and Media Limited), retrieved 23 March 2010 
  60. ^ Jones, Trevor; Carolyn L. Ehardt; Thomas M. Butynski; Tim R. B. Davenport; Noah E. Mpunga; Sophy J. Machaga; Daniela W. De Luca (2005). "The Highland Mangabey Lopocebus kipunji: A New Species of African Monkey". Science 308 (5725): 1161–1164. Bibcode:2005Sci...308.1161J. doi:10.1126/science.1109191. PMID 15905399. 
  61. ^ Tatic, Sanja; Walker, Christopher (2006). Countries at the Crossroads: A Survey of Democratic Governance. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 532. ISBN 0-7425-5801-0. 
  62. ^ Malido, Webster (22 December 2005), "Tanzania: Kikwete Walks Tall", allAfrica.com (AllAfrica Global Media), retrieved 21 February 2010 
  63. ^ "New Tanzanian Prime Minister Edward Lowassa sworn in", TVT (Dar es Salaam), 30 December 2005, retrieved 26 March 2010 
  64. ^ Than, Ker (11 May 2006), "Scientists Discover New Monkey Genus In Africa", Live Science (TechMediaNetwork), retrieved 11 March 2010 
  65. ^ "African Development Bank cancels Tanzania's 642m-dollar loan debt", The Guardian (Dar es Salaam), 10 August 2006, retrieved 22 March 2010 
  66. ^ Associated Press (8 February 2008), "Tanzania's Cabinet dissolved after PM, Energy Minister resign", The Hindu (The Hindu Group), retrieved 3 April 2010 
  67. ^ Mehler, Andreas; Melber, Henning; Van Walraven, Klaas (2009). Africa Yearbook: Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara in 2008. BRILL. p. 376. ISBN 90-04-17811-2. 
  68. ^ a b Nurse, Derek; Spear, Thomas (1985). The Swahili: Reconstructing the History and Language of an African Society. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-8122-1207-X. 
  69. ^ Harrison, Geoffrey Ainsworth (1977). Population Structure and Human Variation. Cambridge University Press. p. 189. ISBN 0-521-21399-1. 
  70. ^ Ndembwike, John (2006). Tanzania: The Land and Its People. Godfrey Mwakikagile. p. 12. ISBN 0-9802534-4-6. 
  71. ^ Hernon, Ian (2003). Britain's Forgotten Wars: Colonial Campaigns of the 19th Century. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. p. 403. ISBN 978-0-7509-3162-5. 
  72. ^ Haws, Duncan; Hurst, Alexander Anthony (1985). The Maritime History of the World: A Chronological Survey of Maritime Events from 5,000 B.C. Until the Present Day, Supplemented by Commentaries. Brighton, Sussex: Teredo Books. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-903662-10-9. 
  73. ^ Cohen, John; Jacopetti, Gualtiero; Prosperi, Franco (1966). Africa Addio. New York: Ballantine Books. p. 137. OCLC 230433. 
  74. ^ Gordon, Philip H. (2007). Winning the Right War: The Path to Security for America and the World. New York: Times Books. p. 146. ISBN 0-8050-8657-9. 
  75. ^ Patience, Kevin (1994). Zanzibar and the Shortest War in History. Bahrain: Kevin Patience. pp. 20–26. OCLC 37843635. 
  76. ^ a b Shillington, p. 1539
  77. ^ Longford, p. 189
  78. ^ Gellately, Robert; Kiernan, Ben (2003). The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press. p. 161. ISBN 0-521-52750-3.