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Timeline of agriculture and food technology
Neolithic Revolution [ edit ]
12,000 BC –
Neolithic Revolution, the first agricultural revolution, begins in the ancient Near East 12,000 BC –
Natufians in the Levant begin harvesting wild grasses. 9800 BC – Earliest evidence for
domesticated wheat at PPNA sites in the Levant. 8500 BC –
PPNB sites across the Fertile Crescent growing domestic wheat, barley, chickpeas, peas, beans, flax and bitter vetch. Sheep and goat domesticated. 7000 BC – agriculture had reached southern
Europe with evidence of emmer and einkorn wheat, barley, sheep, goats, and pigs suggest that a food producing economy is adopted in Greece and the Aegean. 7000 BC – Cultivation of
wheat, sesame, barley, and eggplant in Mehrgarh ( Pakistan). 7000 BC – Domestication of
cattle and chicken in Mehrgarh, Pakistan. 6800 BC –
Rice domesticated in southeast Asia. 6500 BC – Evidence of
cattle domestication in Turkey. [ Some sources say this happened earlier in other parts of the world. ] citation needed 6000 BC Archaeological evidence from various sites on the
Iberian peninsula suggest the domestication of plants and animals. 6000 BC – Granary built in
Mehrgarh for storage of excess food. 5500 BC
[ ] citation needed Céide Fields in Ireland are the oldest known field systems in the world, this landscape consists of extensive tracts of land enclosed by brick walls. [1 ] 5000 BC –
Domestication of the horse in Ukraine. [ ] citation needed 4000 BC – In
Mehrgarh, the domestication of numerous crops, including peas, sesame seeds, dates, and cotton, as well as a wide range of domestic animals, including the Domestic Asian Water Buffalo, an animal that remains essential to intensive agricultural production throughout Asia today. 4000 BC –
Egyptians discover how to make bread using yeast 4000 BC – Evidence for
rice domestication in the Korat plateau area of northwestern Thailand. [ ] citation needed 4000 BC – First use of light wooden
ploughs in Mesopotamia (Modern day Iraq) 3500 BC –
Irrigation was being used in Mesopotamia (Modern day Iraq) 3500 BC – First agriculture in the Americas, around Central Amazonia or
Ecuador 3000 BC –
Turmeric, cardamom, pepper and mustard are harvested in the Indus Valley Civilization. 3000 BC –
Fermentation of dough, grain, and fruit juices is in practice. 3000 BC –
Sugar produced in India
Antiquity [ edit ]
2600 BC – Large scale commercial timbering of cedars in Phoenicia (Lebanon) for export to Egypt and Sumeria. Similar commercial timbering in South India.
1700 BC –
Wind powered machine developed by Babylonians 1300 BC – Creation of canal linking the Nile delta to the Red Sea
691 BC – First aqueduct (approx. 50 miles long) constructed to bring water to
Nineveh. 530 BC –
Tunnel of Eupalinos first underground aqueduct 500 BC – The moldboard iron
plough is invented in China 500 BC – Row cultivation of crops using intensive hoeing to weed and conserve moisture practised in China
300 BC – Efficient trace harness for plowing invented in China
200 BC – Efficient collar harness for plowing invented in China
100 BC – Rotary winnowing fan invented in China
100 BC – The multi-tube seed drill is invented in China
AD 200 – The fishing reel invented in China
600 – The
distillation of alcohol in China 607 – The Chinese begin constructing a massive canal system to connect the Yellow and Yangtze rivers
Arab Agricultural Revolution [ edit ]
This section's factual accuracy is . disputed (June 2010)
Muslim inventors develop a windmill, used to pump water for irrigation; [2 ] this is a more advanced [3 ] wind powered machine than that developed by the Babylonians 8th century –
Arab Agricultural Revolution begins in the rapidly-expanding Arab Empire 800 –
Arabic chemists produce purified water [4 ] 800 –
Alcohol ( ethanol) as a pure compound is distilled by Arabic chemists such as Jābir ibn Hayyān and Alkindus [5 ] 850 – Use of
coffee is known in Arabia 900 – First
wind powered gristmills built in present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran [6 ] 900 –
Geared gristmills with trip hammers developed in the Arab Empire [7 ] 900 – First
sugar refineries, driven by both water mills and windmills, invented in present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran [6 ] 1000 –
Sherbet, the first juiced and carbonated soft drink, is developed by Arabic chemists. [8 ] [9 ] 1000 –
Cash cropping and a [10 ] crop rotation system in which land was cropped four or more times in a two-year period is introduced in the Arab Empire [11 ] 1000 – The
Arab Empire introduced agricultural innovations such as new forms of land tenure, improvements in irrigation, a variety of sophisticated irrigation methods, the introduction of [12 ] fertilizers and widespread artificial irrigation systems, the development of gravity-flow irrigation systems from rivers and springs, the use of [13 ] noria and chain pumps for irrigation purposes [, the establishment of the ] citation needed sugar cane industry in the Mediterranean, and experimentation in sugar cultivation [14 ] 1000 – Earliest
factory milling installations built in Baghdad, Iraq [15 ] 1000 –
Milling dam ( Pul-i-Bulaiti), used to provide additional power for milling, built at Karun, Iran [16 ] 1050 –
Flywheel-driven saqiya chain pump and noria developed by Ibn Bassal ( fl. 1038-1075) of Al-Andalus [17 ] 1100 – Bridge mill (
water mill built as part of the superstructure of a bridge) developed in Cordoba, Al-Andalus [18 ] 1100 – Spiral scoop waterwheel, a device which efficiently raises large quantities of water to ground level invented in
Baghdad, Iraq [19 ] 1100 –
Finery forge invented in Al-Andalus [6 ] 1100 – First European factory
milling installations built in Al-Andalus [6 ] 1206 –
Al-Jazari employs the crankshaft and connecting rod in a piston pump which, for the first time, demonstrates the use of a suction pipe. [20 ] 1250 – Crank-driven screw and
screwpump developed in the Arab world using Al-Jazari's crankshaft [21 ] 1282 − First
paper mill in the Spanish Xàtiva ( Kingdom of Aragon) [22 ] 1559 –
Taqi al-Din invents a six-cylinder 'Monobloc' pump, a hydropowered water-raising machine incorporating valves, suction and delivery pipes, piston rods with lead weights, trip levers with pin joints, and cams on the axle of a water-driven scoop- wheel [23 ]
British Agricultural Revolution [ edit ]
Green Revolution [ edit ]
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Céide Fields. Visitor Centre Ballycastle, County Mayo, Ireland.
^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Donald Routledge Hill (1986). Islamic Technology: An illustrated history, p. 54. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42239-6.
^ Donald Routledge Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, p. 64-69. ( cf. Donald Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering)
^ Levey, M. (1973), ‘ Early Arabic Pharmacology’, E. J. Brill; Leiden
^ Hassan, Ahmad Y. "Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources". History of Science and Technology in Islam . Retrieved 2008-03-29.
^ a b c d Adam Lucas (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, p. 65. BRILL, ISBN 90-04-14649-0.
^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 781, in ( Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 751–95)
^ Juliette Rossant (2005), The World's First Soft Drink, , September/October 2005, pp. 36-9 Saudi Aramco World
^ The World's First Soft Drink. 1001 Inventions, 2006.
^ Jairus Banaji (2007), "Islam, the Mediterranean and the rise of capitalism", Journal Historical Materialism 15 (1), pp. 47–74, Brill Publishers.
^ Andrew M. Watson (1974), "The Arab Agricultural Revolution and Its Diffusion, 700–1100", The Journal of Economic History 34 (1), pp. 8–35.
^ Elias H. Tuma (1987), " Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World: The Diffusion of Crops and Farming Techniques, 700–1100 by Andrew M. Watson", The Journal of Economic History 47 (2), pp. 543–4.
^ Thomas F. Glick (1977), "Noria Pots in Spain", Technology and Culture 18 (4), pp. 644–50.
^ J. H. Galloway (1977), "The Mediterranean Sugar Industry", Geographical Review 67 (2), pp. 177–94.
^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 783, in ( Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 751–95)
^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 759, in ( Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 751–95)
^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Flywheel Effect for a , Saqiya History of Science and Technology in Islam
^ Adam Lucas (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, p. 62. BRILL, ISBN 90-04-14649-0.
^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 774, in ( Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 751–95)
^ Ahmad Y Hassan. The Origin of the Suction Pump – Al-Jazari 1206 A.D. History of Science and Technology in Islam.
^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 771, in ( Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 751–95)
^ Burns, Robert I. (1996), "Paper comes to the West, 800−1400", in Lindgren, Uta, Europäische Technik im Mittelalter. 800 bis 1400. Tradition und Innovation (4th ed.), Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, pp. 413–422 (417f.), ISBN 3-7861-1748-9
^ Donald Routledge Hill, "Engineering", p. 779, in ( Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 751–95)
^ Hybrid rice for Food Security. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
^ Moskin, Julia. (July 19, 2005). "Tattooed Fruit Is on Way". New York Times.
External links [ edit ]
History of Agricultural in India, Economic activities, Resources