Timeline of country and capital changes

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This is a timeline of country and capital changes around the world. It includes dates of independence, changes in country name, changes of capital city or name, and significant changes in territory.


 2000s   1900s   1800s   1700s   1600s   1500s   1400s   1300s   1200s   1100s   1000s 
 1st Millennium CE   1st Millennium BCE   2nd Millennium BCE   3rd Millennium BCE   4th Millennium BCE 

Africa Asia Europe Oceania North America South America Antarctica

Common Era[edit]

2010s[edit]

Year Date Event
2014 July 15 The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant declares its independence from Iraq and Syria. Ar-Raqqah is the capital.
March 21 The Republic of Crimea accedes to the Russian Federation as two separate federal entities: the Republic of Crimea and the city of federal significance Sevastopol. Simferopol yields to Moscow as the federal capital.
March 17 The Russian Federation recognizes the independence of the Republic of Crimea from Ukraine. Ukraine itself, along with the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People, and the international community maintain that Crimea and Sevastopol are illegally occupied by Russia and that both remain de jure integral regions of Ukraine.
The Autonomous Republic of Crimea unilaterally proclaims its independence from Ukraine and changes its name to the Republic of Crimea. Crimea unilaterally subsumes the independent city of Sevastopol. Simferopol remains the capital.
2013 October 24 The Republic of Cape Verde changes its name to the Republic of Cabo Verde.[1] Praia remains the capital.
January 7 Libya changes its name to the State of Libya.[2] Tripoli remains the capital.
2012 August 20 The Somali Republic changes its name to the Federal Republic of Somalia. Mogadishu remains the capital.
July 12 The State of Azawad capitulates and is reabsorbed by the Republic of Mali. Timbuktu yields to Bamako as the capital.
April 6 Azawad proclaims its independence from the Republic of Mali as the State of Azawad. Timbuktu is the capital.
January 1 The Republic of Hungary changes its name to Hungary. Budapest remains the capital.
2011 September 16 Libya supersedes the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Tripoli remains the capital.
July 9 The Southern Sudan gains independence from Sudan as the Republic of South Sudan after a referendum the previous January. Juba is the capital.
March 31 The French Republic accepts Mayotte in the Comoro Islands as the Overseas Region of Mayotte. Mamoudzou is the capital.
February 2 The Republic of the Fiji Islands changes its name back to the Republic of Fiji. Suva remains the capital.
2010 October 21 The Union of Myanmar (Burma) changes its name to the Republic of the Union of Myanmar. Naypyidaw remains the capital.
October 10 The Kingdom of the Netherlands dissolves the Netherlands Antilles and makes Curaçao and Sint Maarten two of its four constituent countries. Willemstad and Philipsburg are the respective capitals. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius become special municipalities of the Netherlands.
July 22 The International Court of Justice rules that the independence of the Republic of Kosovo from the Republic of Serbia does not violate international law. Priština remains the capital.

2000s[edit]

Year Date Event
2009 September 1 The United Kingdom changes the name of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena and Dependencies to Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. Jamestown on Saint Helena remains the capital.
February 7 The Republic of Bolivia changes its name to the Plurinational State of Bolivia. La Paz and Sucre remain the capitals.
2008 August 27 The Russian Federation recognizes the independence of the Republic of South Ossetia and the Republic of Abkhazia from Georgia. Tskhinval and Sukhumi are the capitals respectively. Georgia itself and much of the international community maintain that they are both illegally occupied by Russia and legally remain integral regions of Georgia.
May 28 The State of Nepal changes its name to the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. Kathmandu remains the capital.
February 17 The Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija declares its independence from the Republic of Serbia as the Republic of Kosovo. Priština remains the capital. Serbia maintains that Kosovo remains a part of Serbia.
2007 October 22 The Republic of Montenegro changes its name to Montenegro. Podgorica remains the capital.
February 21 The French Republic separates the Overseas Collectivity of Saint-Barthélemy and the Overseas Collectivity of Saint-Martin from the Overseas Region of Guadeloupe. Gustavia and Marigot are the capitals respectively.
January 15 The Kingdom of Nepal changes its name to the State of Nepal. Kathmandu remains the capital.
2006 October 7 The Republic of Palau moves its capital from Koror to Ngerulmud.
August 14 The Federal Republic of Nigeria transfers sovereignty of Bakassi to the Republic of Cameroon.
June 5 The Republic of Serbia supersedes the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Belgrade remains the capital.
June 3 Montenegro secedes from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro as the Republic of Montenegro. Podgorica remains the capital.
2005 November 6 The Union of Myanmar (Burma) moves its capital from Yangon to Naypyidaw.
2004 September 1 The Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty administering Antarctica and all lands and waters south of the 60th parallel south establishes its headquarters in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
February 27 The French Republic elevates the Overseas Collectivity of French Polynesia to the Overseas Country of French Polynesia. Papeetē remains the capital.
January 4 The Islamic State of Afghanistan changes its name to the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
2003 May 26 The Rwandese Republic changes its name to the Republic of Rwanda. Kigali remains the capital.
March 28 The French Republic revises its constitution. New polities include:
February 4 The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia changes its name to the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Belgrade remains the capital.
2002 May 21 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland changes the title of each of its British Dependent Territories to that of a British Overseas Territory. The citizens of each British Overseas Territory gain full British citizenship.
May 20 East Timor gains independence from the Portuguese Republic as the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. East Timor was occupied by Indonesia in 1975, and was placed under United Nations administration in 1999. Dili remains the capital.
March 10 The Union of the Comoros reabsorbs the de facto independent State of Anjouan and the Democratic Republic of Mohéli. Mutsamudu and Fomboni yield to Moroni as the capital.
February 14 The State of Bahrain changes its name to the Kingdom of Bahrain. Manama remains the capital.
2001 December 23 The Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros changes its name to the Union of the Comoros. Moroni remains the capital.
November 13 The Islamic State of Afghanistan supersedes the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
July 1 The "temporarily independent" Puntland State of Somalia adopts a new constitution explicitly identifying itself as part of the Somali Republic. Garowe yields to Mogadishu as the capital.
January Taloqan, the de facto capital of the Islamic State of Afghanistan government, falls to the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. The capital moves to Fayzabad.
2000 July 16 Somalia changes its name to the Somali Republic. Mogadishu remains the capital.
February 6 The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria capitulates and is reabsorbed by the Russian Federation. Ƶovxar-Ġala yields to Moscow as the capital.

1990s[edit]

Year Date Event
1999 December 30 The Republic of Venezuela changes its name to the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Caracas remains the capital.
December 20 The Portuguese Republic transfers sovereignty of Macau to the People's Republic of China as the Macau Special Administrative Region.
June 10 The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo is formed in the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
March 19 The French Republic renames its Territory of New Caledonia as the special collectivity of New Caledonia in preparation for eventual independence. Nouméa remains the capital.
1998 May 6 The Republic of Kazakhstan changes the name of its capital from Aqmola to Astana.
1997 December 10 The Republic of Kazakhstan moves its capital from Almaty to Aqmola.
July 4 Western Samoa changes its name to the Independent State of Samoa. Apia remains the capital. American Samoa protests the new name.
July 1 The United Kingdom transfers sovereignty of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China as the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
May 17 The Republic of Zaire changes its name back to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kinshasa remains the capital.
The Republic of Fiji changes its name to the Republic of the Fiji Islands. Suva remains the capital.
1996 The United Republic of Tanzania moves its capital from Dar-es-Salaam to Dodoma.
1995 December 14 The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina unite to form Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sarajevo remains the capital.
1994 October 1 Palau gains full independence from the United States of America as the Republic of Palau. Koror is the capital.
February 28 The Republic of South Africa transfers the sovereignty of Walvis Bay to the Republic of Namibia.
1993 September 24 The restored Kingdom of Cambodia supersedes the State of Cambodia. Phnom Penh remains the capital.
The Republic of Kazakhstan changes the name of its capital from Alma-Ata to Almaty.
May 24 The State of Eritrea secedes from the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Asmara is the capital.
May 5 The Republic of Kyrgyzstan changes its name to the Kyrgyz Republic. Bishkek remains the capital.
January 6 The Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic gain full independence with the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic (Czechoslovakia). Prague remains the capital of the Czech Republic and Bratislava remains the capital of the Slovakia.
1992 September 12 The Democratic Republic of Madagascar changes its name to the Republic of Madagascar. Antananarivo remains the capital.
August 27 The People's Republic of Angola changes its name to the Republic of Angola. Luanda remains the capital.
July 23 The Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia declares its independence from Georgia as the Republic of Abkhazia. Sukhumi remains the capital. Georgia denounces the intervention of the Russian Federation and declares the succession illegal.
April 28 The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia supersedes the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Belgrade remains the capital.
April 6 The Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina secedes from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sarajevo remains the capital.
January 15 The Socialist Republic of Slovenia secedes from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as the Republic of Slovenia. Ljubljana remains the capital.
The Socialist Republic of Croatia secedes from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as the Republic of Croatia . Zagreb remains the capital.
1991 December 25 The Russian Federation (Russia) supersedes both the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Moscow remains the capital.
December 16 The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Kazakhstan. Alma-Ata remains the capital until 1997.
December 12 The Federal Republic of Nigeria moves its capital from Lagos to Abuja.
December 8 The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Republic of Belarus, and Ukraine form the Commonwealth of Independent States as a successor organization to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as Turkmenistan. Ashgabat remains the capital.
The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Uzbekistan. Tashkent remains the capital.
November 28 The South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast declares its independence from Georgia as the Republic of South Ossetia. Tskhinvali is the capital. Georgia denounces the intervention of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and declares the succession illegal.
September 21 The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Armenia. Yerevan remains the capital.
September 9 The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Tajikistan. Dushanbe remains the capital.
September 8 The Socialist Republic of Macedonia secedes from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as the Republic of Macedonia. Skopje remains the capital. The Hellenic Republic protests the name of the new nation.
September 6 The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Lithuania. Vilnius remains the capital.
Ausgust 31 The Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. The capital Frunze is renamed Bishkek.
August 30 The Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Azerbaijan. Baku remains the capital.
August 27 The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Moldova. Chişinău remains the capital.
August 25 The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Belarus. Minsk remains the capital.
August 24 The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as Ukraine. Kiev remains the capital.
August 21 The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Latvia. Riga remains the capital.
August 20 The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Estonia. Tallinn remains the capital.
April 30 The Republic of Albania supersedes the Socialist People's Republic of Albania. Tirana remains the capital.
April 9 The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as Georgia. Tbilisi remains the capital.
1990 November 15 The People's Republic of Bulgaria changes its name to the Republic of Bulgaria. Sofia remains the capital.
October 3 The German Democratic Republic merges into the Federal Republic of Germany. Unified Germany regains full sovereignty and Allied occupation ends. Bonn yields to Berlin as the capital.
May 22 The Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen) and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (South Yemen) reunite to form the Republic of Yemen. Aden yields to San'a' as the capital.
March 21 Namibia gains independence from South Africa as the Republic of Namibia. Windhoek remains the capital.
March 1 The People's Republic of Benin changes its name to the Republic of Benin. Porto-Novo remains the capital.
The Republic of Chile moves its legislative capital from Santiago to Valparaíso. Santiago remains the administrative capital.

1980s[edit]

Year Date Event
1989 December 31 The Polish People's Republic changes its name to the Republic of Poland. Warsaw remains the capital.
October 23 The People's Republic of Hungary changes its name to the Republic of Hungary. Budapest remains the capital.
September 26 The Socialist Republic of Vietnam ends its occupation of the State of Cambodia.
June 18 The Union of Burma changes its name to the Union of Myanmar. Yangon remains the capital until 2005.
The Federated States of Micronesia moves its capital from Kolonia to Palikir on Pohnpei.
May 1 The State of Cambodia supersedes Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia). Phnom Penh remains the capital.
February 15 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ends its occupation of the Republic of Afghanistan.
1988 September 23 The Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma changes its name to the Union of Burma. Yangon remains the capital.
1987 November 30 The Republic of Afghanistan supersedes the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
October 7 The Republic of Fiji supersedes the Dominion of Fiji. Suva remains the capital.
1986 November 3 The eastern Caroline Islands gain independence from the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands as the Federated States of Micronesia. Kolonia on Pohnpei is the capital.
October 21 The Marshall Islands gain independence from the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands as the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Majuro is the capital.
April The Republic of Ivory Coast changes its name to the Republic of Cote d'Ivoire. Yamoussoukro remains the capital.
January 1 Aruba leaves the Netherlands Antilles to become one of three constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands following a change of the Charter for the Kingdom. Oranjestad is the capital.
1984 August 15 Bourkina-Fasso changes its name to Burkina Faso. Ouagadougou remains the capital.
August 4 The Republic of Upper Volta changes its name to Bourkina-Fasso. Ouagadougou remains the capital.
February 4 The Republic of Cameroon supersedes the United Republic of Cameroon. Yaoundé remains the capital.
January 1 Brunei gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam). Bandar Seri Begawan remains the capital.
1983 September 19 The British Dependent Territory of Saint Christopher and Nevis gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis (also known as the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis). Basseterre remains the capital.
March The Republic of Ivory Coast moves its capital from Abidjan to Yamoussoukro.
January 1 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland changes the title of each of its Crown Colonies to that of a British Dependent Territory.
1982 June 14 The United Kingdom recaptures the Crown Colony of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) from the Argentine Republic. Britain restores the name of the capital Puerto Argentino to Stanley.
April 29 The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka moves its capital from Colombo to Sri Jayawardenapura-Kotte.
April 18 The Republic of Zimbabwe changes many colonial place names including that of its capital from Salisbury to Harare.
April 2 The Argentine Republic seizes the Islas Malvinas (the Crown Colony of the Falkland Islands) from the United Kingdom. Argentina renames Stanley the capital Puerto Argentino.
1981 November 1 Antigua and Barbuda gain independence from the United Kingdom. St. John's remains the capital.
September 21 The Crown Colony of Belize gains independence from the United Kingdom. Belmopan remains the capital.
1980 December 19 The United Kingdom divides the Crown Colony of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla into the Crown Colony of Saint Christopher and Nevis and the Crown Colony of Anguilla. Basseterre remains the capital of Saint Christopher and Nevis, and The Valley becomes the capital of Anguilla.
July 30 The New Hebrides gain independence from a British-French condominium as the Republic of Vanuatu. Port Vila remains the capital.
April 18 Southern Rhodesia gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Zimbabwe. Salisbury remains the capital.

1970s[edit]

Year Date Event
1979 December 25 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics occupies the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
December 12 The Republic of Zimbabwe Rhodesia is dissolved as the United Kingdom regains control of Southern Rhodesia. Salisbury remains the capital.
October 27 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines gain independence from the United Kingdom. Kingstown remains the capital.
October 1 The United States of America dissolves the Panama Canal Zone and returns sovereignty to the Republic of Panama. The United States and Panama will jointly operate the Panama Canal until December 31, 1999.
September 20 The Central African Empire changes its name back to the Central African Republic. Bangui remains the capital.
July 12 The Gilbert Islands gain independence from the United Kingdom as the Independent and Sovereign Republic of Kiribati. South Tarawa remains the capital.
June 1 The Republic of Zimbabwe Rhodesia (Southern Rhodesia) supersedes the Republic of Rhodesia, although neither are recognized. Salisbury remains the capital.
February 22 Saint Lucia gains independence from the United Kingdom. Castries remains the capital.
January 7 The Socialist Republic of Vietnam occupies Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia).
1978 November 3 Dominica gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Commonwealth of Dominica. Roseau remains the capital.
October 1 Tuvalu gains independence from the United Kingdom. Funafuti remains the capital.
July 7 The Solomon Islands gain independence from the United Kingdom. Honiara on Guadalcanal remains the capital.
September 7 The Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka changes its name to the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. Colombo remains the capital.
April 30 The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan supersedes the Republic of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
1977 June 27 The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas gains independence from the French Republic as the Republic of Djibouti. The city of Djibouti remains the capital.
March 2 The Libyan Arab Republic changes its name to the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Tripoli remains the capital.
1976 December 28 The Socialist People's Republic of Albania supersedes the People's Republic of Albania. Tirana remains the capital.
December 4 The Central African Republic changes its name to the Central African Empire. Bangui remains the capital.
July 17 The Republic of Indonesia declares that East Timor is the Indonesian Province of Timor Timur.
July 2 The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam unite to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh City yields to Hanoi as the capital.
July 1 The French Republic elevates its Overseas Territory of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon to the Overseas Department of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon. Saint-Pierre remains the capital.
June 29 The Seychelles become independent from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Seychelles. Victoria remains the capital.
June 24 The Republic of the Philippines reinstates Manila as the capital. Quezon City, the capital from 1948, was incorporated with Manila and 15 surrounding suburbs to form Metro Manila. Baguio is no longer a summer capital.
February The Republic of Mozambique changes the name of its capital from Lourenço Marques to Maputo.
January 5 Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia) supersedes the Khmer Republic. Phnom Penh remains the capital.
1975 December 30 The Malagasy Republic changes its name to the Democratic Republic of Madagascar. Antananarivo remains the capital.
December 7 The Republic of Indonesia invades East Timor.
December 2 Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) supersedes the Kingdom of Laos. Vientiane remains the capital.
November 30 The Republic of Dahomey changes its name to the People's Republic of Benin. Porto-Novo remains the capital.
November 28 The Portuguese colony of East Timor declares its independence from the Portuguese Republic as the Democratic Republic of East Timor. Dili remains the capital. Portugal and most other nations refuse to recognize the new government.
November 25 Suriname (Dutch Guiana) gains full independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands as the Republic of Suriname. Paramaribo remains the capital.
November 22 The restored Kingdom of Spain supersedes the Spanish State. Madrid remains the capital.
November 11 The State of Angola gains independence from the Portuguese Republic as the People's Republic of Angola. Luanda remains the capital.
September 16 The Territory of Papua and New Guinea gains independence from the Commonwealth of Australia as the Independent State of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby remains the capital.
July 12 São Tomé and Príncipe gain independence from the Portuguese Republic as the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. The city of São Tomé remains the capital.
July 6 The Comoros gain independence from the French Republic as the Union of the Comoros. Moroni on Grande Comore remains the capital.
July 5 Cabo Verde gains independence from the Portuguese Republic as the Republic of Cape Verde. Praia on Santiago remains the capital.
June 25 Mozambique gains independence from the Portuguese Republic as the Republic of Mozambique. Lourenço Marques remains the capital.
April 30 The Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam supersedes the Republic of Vietnam. The name of the capital is changed from Saigon to Ho Chi Minh City.
1974 December 13 The Republic of Malta supersedes the State of Malta. Valletta remains the capital.
September 10 The Republic of Guinea changes its name to the Republic of Guinea-Bissau and moves its capital from Madina do Boe to Bissau. The Portuguese Republic recognizes the independence of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau.
February 22 The Islamic Republic of Pakistan recognizes the independence of the People's Republic of Bangladesh.
February 7 Grenada gains independence from the United Kingdom. St. George's remains the capital.
January 4 The Union of Burma changes its name to the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma. Yangon remains the capital until 2005.
1973 September 24 Portuguese Guinea declares its independence from the Portuguese Republic as the Republic of Guinea. Recognition is limited. Madina do Boe is the temporary capital.
July 17 The Republic of Afghanistan supersedes the Kingdom of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
July 10 The Bahamas gain independence from the United Kingdom as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas. Nassau remains the capital.
July 10 The United Kingdom changes the name of its Crown Colony of British Honduras to the Crown Colony of Belize. Belmopan remains the capital.
1972 June 2 The United Republic of Cameroon supersedes the Federal Republic of Cameroon. Yaoundé remains the capital until 1982.
May 22 The Dominion of Ceylon changes its name to the Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka. Colombo remains the capital until 1982.
1971 December 2 The Trucial States gain full independence from the United Kingdom as the United Arab Emirates. Abu Dhabi is the capital.
October 27 The Democratic Republic of the Congo changes its name to the Republic of Zaire. Kinshasa remains the capital.
September 3 Qatar gains full independence from the United Kingdom as the State of Qatar. Doha remains the capital.
September 1 The Arab Republic of Egypt supersedes the United Arab Republic. Cairo remains the capital.
August 16 Bahrain gains full independence from the United Kingdom as the State of Bahrain. Manama remains the capital.
March 26 The People's Republic of Bangladesh declares its independence from the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Dhaka is the capital.
1970 December 1 The People's Republic of South Yemen changes its name to the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Aden remains the capital.
October 9 The Khmer Republic (Cambodia) supersedes the Kingdom of Cambodia. Phnom Penh is the capital.
October 10 Fiji gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Dominion of Fiji. Suva remains the capital.
August 1 The United Kingdom moves the capital of the Crown Colony of British Honduras from Belize City to Belmopan.
July 4 The Kingdom of Tonga gains full independence from the United Kingdom. Nukuʻalofa remains the capital.
March 2 Rhodesia (Southern Rhodesia) unilaterally declares itself the Republic of Rhodesia. Salisbury remains the capital.
January 15 The Republic of Biafra capitulates and is reabsorbed by the military junta controlled Federal Republic of Nigeria. Enugu falls to Lagos.

1960s[edit]

Year Date Event
1969 September 1 The Libyan Arab Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Libya. Tripoli remains the capital.
1968 October 12 Spanish Guinea gains independence from the Spanish State as the Republic of Equatorial Guinea. Malabo remains the capital.
September 6 The Kingdom of Swaziland gains full independence from the United Kingdom. Mbabane is the capital.
March 12 Mauritius gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Mauritius. Port Louis remains the capital.
January 31 Nauru gains independence from a United Nations trusteeship jointly administered by the Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom as the Republic of Nauru. Yaren remains the de facto capital.
1967 November 7 South Yemen declares its independence from the United Kingdom as the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Aden is the capital.
May 30 The Republic of Biafra secedes from the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Enugu is the capital.
January 24 The Republic of the United States of Brazil changes its name to the Federative Republic of Brazil. Brasilia remains the capital.
1966 November 30 Barbados gains independence from the United Kingdom. Bridgetown remains the capital.
November 28 The Republic of Burundi supersedes the Kingdom of Burundi. Bujumbura remains the capital.
October 4 The Crown Colony of the Territory of Basutoland gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Kingdom of Lesotho. Maseru remains the capital.
September 30 Bechuanaland gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Botswana. Gaborone remains the capital.
July 6 Nyasaland gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Malawi. Lilongwe remains the capital.
June 30 The Democratic Republic of the Congo changes the name of its capital from Léopoldville to Kinshasa.
May 26 The Crown Colony of British Guiana gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Co-operative Republic of Guyana. Georgetown remains the capital.
1965 November 11 The Cabinet of Southern Rhodesia issues its Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom as Rhodesia, which goes unrecognized. Salisbury remains the capital.
August 9 The Republic of Singapore secedes from Malaysia. Singapore remains the capital.
July 26 The Maldives gain independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Maldives. Male remains the capital.
February 18 The Gambia gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of the Gambia. Banjul remains the capital.
1964 November 1 The United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar changes its name to the United Republic of Tanzania. Dar-es-Salaam remains the capital.
October 24 Northern Rhodesia gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Zambia. Lusaka remains the capital.
September 21 The Crown Colony of Malta gains independence from the United Kingdom as the State of Malta. Valletta remains the capital.
August 1 The Republic of the Congo (Congo-Léopoldville) changes its name to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Léopoldville remains the capital.
July 6 Malawi gains independence from the United Kingdom. Lilongwe remains the capital.
April 26 The Republic of Tanganyika and the Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba unite to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. Zanzibar City yields to Dar-es-Salaam as the capital.
1963 December 12 The Republic of Kenya gains independence from the United Kingdom. Nairobi remains the capital.
September 16 The Federation of Malaya unites with the British colonies of Singapore, Sarawak, and British North Borneo (Sabah) to form Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur remains the capital.
April 25 The Kingdom of Libya supersedes the United Kingdom of Libya. Tripoli remains the capital.
April 7 The Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia changes its name to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Belgrade remains the capital.
The Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba gains independence from the United Kingdom. Zanzibar City remains the capital.
1962 October 9 The Republic of Uganda gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kampala remains the capital.
September 27 North Yemen declares its independence from the United Kingdom as the Yemen Arab Republic. San'a' becomes the capital.
September 25 Algeria becomes the People's Democratic Algerian Republic. Algiers remains the capital.
August 31 The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago gains independence from the United Kingdom. Port of Spain remains the capital.
August 6 The United Kingdom creates the Crown Colony of the Cayman Islands. George Town is the capital.
The Crown Colony of Jamaica gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kingston remains the capital.
July 3 The French overseas department of Algeria gains independence from the French Republic. Algiers remains the capital.
July 1 The Kingdom of Burundi and the Republic of Rwanda become independent from the Kingdom of Belgium. Bujumbura and Kigali are the respective capitals.
Western Samoa gains independence from New Zealand. Apia remains the capital.
1961 December 28 The Syrian Arab Republic secedes from the United Arab Republic, leaving Egypt as the sole member of the federation. Cairo remains the capital of the UAR. Damascus is again the capital of Syria.
December 9 The Republic of Tanganyika gains independence from the United Kingdom. Dar-es-Salaam remains the capital.
October 1 The southern portion of the British Cameroons gains independence from the United Kingdom and unites with the Republic of Cameroun to form the Republic of Cameroon. Yaoundé remains the capital.
June 23 The Antarctic Treaty System enters force to administer the continent of Antarctica and all lands and waters south of the 60th parallel south.
June 19 The State of Kuwait gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kuwait City remains the capital.
May 31 The Union of South Africa ceases to be a Commonwealth realm and changes its name to the Republic of South Africa. Pretoria, Cape Town and Bloemfontein remain the capitals.
April 27 The Republic of Sierra Leone gains independence from the United Kingdom. Freetown remains the capital.
1960 November 28 The Islamic Republic of Mauritania gains independence from the French Republic. Nouakchott remains the capital.
October 1 The Federal Republic of Nigeria gains independence from the United Kingdom. Lagos remains the capital.
September 22 The Republic of Mali gains independence from the French Republic. Bamako remains the capital.
August 20 The Republic of Senegal gains independence from the French Republic. Dakar remains the capital.
August 17 The Gabonese Republic (Gabon) gains independence from the French Republic. Libreville remains the capital.
August 16 The Republic of Cyprus gains independence from the United Kingdom. Lefkosia remains the capital.
August 15 The Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) gains independence from the French Republic. Brazzaville remains the capital.
August 13 The Central African Republic gains independence from the French Republic. Bangui remains the capital.
August 11 The Republic of Chad gains independence from the French Republic. N'Djamena remains the capital.
August 7 The Republic of Ivory Coast gains independence from the French Republic. Abidjan remains the capital.
August 5 The Republic of Upper Volta gains independence from the French Republic. Ouagadougou remains the capital.
August 3 The Republic of Niger gains independence from the French Republic. Niamey remains the capital.
August 1 The Republic of Dahomey gains independence from the French Republic. Porto-Novo remains the capital.
July 1 The Somali Republic (Somalia) is created from a merger of the former colonies of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. Mogadishu is the capital.
June 30 The Belgian Congo gains independence from the Kingdom of Belgium as the Republic of the Congo (Congo-Léopoldville). Léopoldville remains the capital.
June 26 The Malagasy Republic (Madagascar) gains independence from the French Republic. Antananarivo remains the capital.
April 27 The Togolese Republic (Togo) gains independence from the French Republic. Lomé remains the capital.
April 21 The Republic of the United States of Brazil moves its capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília.
January 1 The Republic of Cameroun gains independence from the French Republic. Yaoundé remains the capital.

1950s[edit]

Year Date Event
1958 October 15 The Malagasy Republic (Madagascar) gains autonomy within the French Community. Antananarivo is the capital.
October 2 The Republic of Guinea gains independence from the French Republic. Conakry is the capital.
July 14 The Republic of Iraq and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan are created from the dissolution of the Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan. Baghdad remains the capital of Iraq. Amman is again the capital of Jordan.
February 14 The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan unite to form the Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan. Amman yields to Baghdad as the capital.
February 1 The Egyptian Republic and the Syrian Arab Republic unite to form the United Arab Republic. Damascus yields to Cairo as the capital.
1957 August 31 The Federation of Malaya gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kuala Lumpur is the capital.
March 6 The Republic of Ghana gains independence from the United Kingdom. Accra is the capital.
1956 June 18 The Egyptian Republic declares its complete independence from the United Kingdom. Cairo remains the capital.
March 23 The Dominion of Pakistan declares its complete independence from the United Kingdom as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Karachi remains the capital.
March 20 The Tunisian Republic gains independence from the French Republic. Tunis is the capital.
March 2 The Kingdom of Morocco gains independence from the French Republic. Rabat is the capital.
January 1 The Republic of Sudan gains independence from the United Kingdom. Khartoum is the capital. Egypt relinquishes its claim to Sudan.
1955 The Kingdom of Bhutan makes Thimphu the sole capital.
May 15 The Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich) regains its independence. Allied occupation ends. Vienna (German: Wien) is the capital.
1954 December 20 The French Republic recognizes the independence of the Kingdom of Cambodia. Phnom Penh remains the capital.
December 15 The Kingdom of the Netherlands makes the Netherlands Territory of Curaçao one of its three constituent countries as the Netherlands Antilles. Willemstad on Curaçao remains the capital.
The Kingdom of the Netherlands makes the Netherlands Territory of Surinam one of its three constituent countries as Suriname. Paramaribo remains the capital.
July 20 The French Republic recognizes the independence of Vietnam divided between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). Hanoi and Saigon are the respective capitals.
1953 November 9 The Kingdom of Cambodia declares its independence from the French Republic. Phnom Penh is the capital.
October 22 The Kingdom of Laos (Laos) gains independence from the French Republic. Vientiane is the capital.
June 13 The Egyptian Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Egypt. Cairo remains the capital.
1952 July 25 The Territory of Puerto Rico becomes the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico upon ratification of the Constitution of Puerto Rico, choosing free association with the United States of America. San Juan remains the capital.
July 22 The Republic of Poland changes its name to the Polish People's Republic. Warsaw remains the capital.
1951 December 24 The United Kingdom of Libya gains independence from a United Nations trusteeship, previously having been divided into the independent Emirate of Cyrenaica, British-administered Tripolitania and the French Military Territory of Fezzan-Ghadames. Tripoli is the capital.
February 15 The Republic of Poland and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics exchange territory along their common border.
1950 August 17 The Republic of the United States of Indonesia becomes a unitary state and changes its name back to Republic of Indonesia. Jakarta remains the capital
January 26 The Union of India declares its complete independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of India. New Delhi remains the capital.

1940s[edit]

Year Date Event
1949 December 8 The government of the Republic of China leaves Mainland China for exile on Taiwan where Taipei becomes the de facto capital.
December 27 The Republic of Indonesia becomes a federation as Republic of the United States of Indonesia and its independence is formally recognised by the Netherlands. The capital returns to Jakarta from Yogyakarta.
December 5 The State of Israel declares Jerusalem its official capital. Tel Aviv continues to serve as the de facto capital.
October 7 The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is established in occupied eastern Germany. East Berlin is the capital.
October 1 Mao Zedong proclaims the People's Republic of China. Beijing is the capital.
September 7 The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) is established in occupied western Germany. Bonn is the capital.
May 11 The Kingdom of Siam changes its name back to the Kingdom of Thailand. Bangkok remains the capital.
March 31 The Dominion of Newfoundland joins Canada as the Province of Newfoundland following the Newfoundland referendums. St. John's yields to Ottawa as the capital.
March 1 The Emirate of Cyrenaica is created from part of the British Military Administration of Libya. The capital is Benghazi.
1948 September 9 Korea is divided between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea). Pyongyang and Seoul are the respective capitals.
July 17 The Republic of the Philippines moves its capital from Manila to Quezon City.
May 14 The State of Israel declares its independence from the British Mandate for Palestine. Tel Aviv is the capital.
February 4 The Crown Colony of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Dominion of Ceylon. Colombo remains the capital until 1982.
January 4 The Union of Burma gains independence from the United Kingdom. Yangon (British Rangoon) is the capital until 2005.
1947 August 15 The Union of India gains independence from the United Kingdom. New Delhi is the capital.
August 14 The Dominion of Pakistan gains independence from the United Kingdom. Karachi is the capital.
1946 September 15 The People's Republic of Bulgaria supersedes the Tsardom of Bulgaria. Sofia is the capital.
July 4 The Republic of the Philippines gains independence from the United States of America. Manila is the capital until 1948.
May 25 The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan gains independence from a British League of Nations Mandate. Amman is the capital.
March 19 The French Republic elevates its colonies of Algeria and Réunion to overseas departments.
The French Republic elevates its colonies of Guadeloupe and Martinique to overseas departments.
The French Republic elevates its colony of Guyane (French Guyana) to an overseas department.
January 11 The People's Republic of Albania supersedes the Kingdom of Albania. Tirana remains the capital.
January 4 The Republic of Indonesia moves its capital from Jakarta to Yogyakarta.
1945 December 2 The Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia supersedes the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Belgrade remains the capital.
September 8 The Kingdom of Thailand changes its name back to the Kingdom of Siam. Bangkok remains the capital.
September 2 The Democratic Republic of Vietnam declares its independence from the French Republic. Hanoi is the capital.
The Empire of Japan surrenders to Allied Forces.
August 17 The Republic of Indonesia declares its independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Jakarta is the capital.
August 15 Korea gains independence from the Empire of Japan. Seoul is the capital.
May 8 The Greater German Empire surrenders to Allied Forces.
April 27 The second Republic of Austria is established in occupied Austria. Vienna is the capital. The independence is recognised by the Allied Forces.
1944 June 17 The Republic of Iceland gains independence from the Kingdom of Denmark. Reykjavík is the capital.
1943 November 22 The Lebanese Republic (Lebanon) gains independence from the French Republic. Beirut is the capital.
January The French Military Territory of Fezzan-Ghadames is created when Free French forces from Chad invade southern Italian Libya. Sabha is capital.
1942 November The British Military Administration of Libya begins when British forces invade Cyrenaica from Egypt.

1930s[edit]

Year Date Event
1939 July 10 The third German Empire changes its name to the Greater German Empire. Berlin remains as the capital.
June 23 The Kingdom of Siam changes its name to the Kingdom of Thailand. Bangkok remains the capital.
April 1 The Spanish State supersedes the second Spanish Republic. Madrid remains the capital.
1938 March 13 The third German Empire absorbs the Federal State of Austria in Anschluss. Vienna yields to Berlin as the capital.
1937 The United Kingdom establishes the Crown Colony of Aden. The city of Aden becomes the capital.
The Irish Free State changes its name to Ireland. Dublin remains the capital.
1936 The former colony of Curaçao and Dependencies is renamed the Territory of Curaçao following the implementation of several laws resulting from the 1922 abolition of colonies in the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Willemstad on Curaçao remains the capital.
1935 Reza Shah Pahlavi changes the name of Imperial State of Persia to the Imperial State of Iran. Tehran remains the capital.
1934 The third German Empire supersedes the Weimar Republic. Berlin remains the capital.
Italy creates Italian Libya with the merger of the colonies of Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, and Fezzan. The capital is Tripoli.
1932 October 3 The Iraqi Kingdom (Iraq) gains independence from the United Kingdom. Baghdad is the capital.
September 13 The Socialist Republic of Chile changes its name back to the Republic of Chile. Santiago remains the capital.
June 4 The Republic of Chile changes its name to the Socialist Republic of Chile. Santiago remains the capital.
1931 December 11 By the Statute of Westminster 1931, Canada gains full control over its foreign policy and thus independence from the United Kingdom. Ottawa remains the capital.
April 14 The second Spanish Republic supersedes the Monarchy of Spain. Madrid remains the capital.

1920s[edit]

Year Date Event
1929 October 3 The Kingdom of Yugoslavia supersedes the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Belgrade remains the capital.
June 7 The Holy See (Vatican) gains independence from the Kingdom of Italy. Vatican City itself is the capital.
1928 December 29 The Republic of China establishes Nanking as its official capital, later codified in the 1947 Chinese Constitution.
September 1 The Kingdom of Albania supersedes the Republic of Albania. Tirana remains the capital.
1927 May 9 The Commonwealth of Australia moves its capital from Melbourne to Canberra.
April 12 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland changes its name to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. London remains the capital.
1926 June 9 Afghanistan becomes the Kingdom of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
The Kingdom of Belgium moves the capital of its colony of the Congo from Boma to Leopoldville.
1925 July 1 The Republic of China relocates its provisional capital from Nanking to Canton.
January 22 The Republic of Albania supersedes the Principality of Albania. Tirana remains the capital.
January 1 The Kingdom of Norway changes the name of its capital from Kristiania to Oslo.
1924 November 26 The Mongolian People's Republic is established. Ulan Bator is the capital.
1923 October 29 The Republic of Turkey is established following the fall of the Ottoman Empire. Ankara is the capital.
1922 December 30 The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic unite to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Tbilisi, Kharkov, and Smolensk yield to Moscow as the capital.
December 6 The Irish Free State gains independence from the United Kingdom. Dublin is the capital.
November 17 The Ottoman Empire is dissolved. Its territories are mostly made protectorates of the victorious Allies of World War I.
March 12 The Socialist Conciliar Republic of Georgia, Azerbaijani Socialist Conciliar Republic, and the Armenian Socialist Conciliar Republic unite to form the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. Baku and Yerevan yield to Tbilisi as the capital.
February 2 The Kingdom of Egypt gains independence from the United Kingdom. Cairo is the capital.
1921 November 22 The United Kingdom recognizes the independence of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
February 25 The Socialist Conciliar Republic of Georgia supersedes the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Tbilisi remains the capital until 1922.
1920 November 29 The Armenian Socialist Conciliar Republic supersedes the Democratic Republic of Armenia. Yerevan remains the capital until 1922.
April 28 The Azerbaijani Socialist Conciliar Republic supersedes the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. Baku remains the capital until 1922.

1910s[edit]

Year Date Event
1919 August 14 The Weimar Republic supersedes the second German Empire. Berlin remains the capital.
August 8 Afghanistan declares its independence from the United Kingdom. Kabul is the capital.
February 27 The Lithuanian-Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic supersedes the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Vilnius is the capital.
January 1 The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic supersedes the Belarusian People's Republic. Minsk and Smolensk remain joint capitals.
1918 December 1 The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbia unite to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Zagreb yields to Belgrade as the capital.
November 28 The Kingdom of Serbia annexes the Kingdom of Montenegro.
November 18 The Republic of Latvia gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Riga is the capital.
November 14 The Republic of Poland supersedes the Kingdom of Poland. Warsaw remains the capital.
November 2 The Republic of Lithuania supersedes the Kingdom of Lithuania. Vilnius remains the capital.
November 1 The Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (North Yemen) gains independence from the Ottoman Empire. Ta'izz is the capital.
October 29 The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs gains independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Zagreb is the capital.
July 25 The Kingdom of Belgium reabsorbs the Independent State of Flanders.
July 9 The Kingdom of Lithuania supersedes the State of Lithuania. Vilnius remains the capital.
May 30 Armenia changes its name to the Democratic Republic of Armenia. Yerevan remains the capital.
May 28 Armenia and Azerbaijan Democratic Republic dissolve the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Yerevan and Baku are the respective capitals.
May 26 The Democratic Republic of Georgia secedes from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Tbilisi is the capital.
May 11 The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus annexes the Emirate of Chechenia.
April 22 The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Tbilisi is the capital.
April 19 The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic annexes the Abkhazian Republic (Abkhazia).
March 25 The Abkhazian Republic (Abkhazia) gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Sukhumi is the capital.
March 25 The Belarusian People's Republic declares its independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Minsk and Hrodna are named the joint capitals.
March 12 The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic moves its capital from Petrograd to Moscow.
February 24 The Republic of Estonia gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Tallinn is the capital.
February 16 The State of Lithuania declares its independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Vilnius is named the capital despite occupation by the Kingdom of Poland.
January 22 The Ukrainian People's Republic gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Kiev is the capital.
1917 December 22 The Independent State of Flanders declares its independence from the Kingdom of Belgium. Brussels is the capital.
December 6 The Republic of Finland gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Helsinki is the capital.
December 2 The Emirate of Chechenia declares its independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Vedeno is the capital.
November 7 The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic supersedes the Russian Empire. Petrograd remains the capital.
1916 November 5 Germany and Austria-Hungary proclaim the establishment of the Kingdom of Poland. Warsaw is the capital.
1914 March 7 Albania becomes the Principality of Albania. Tirana remains the capital.
1912 November 28 Albania declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire. Tirana is the capital.
January 1 The Republic of China supersedes the Qing Dynasty of China. Nanking is the provisional capital.
1910 October 5 The first Portuguese Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Portugal. Lisbon remains the capital.
August 22 The Korean Empire capitulates and is annexed by the Empire of Japan.
May 31 The Cape Colony, the Colony of Natal, the Transvaal, and the Orange River Colony unite as the Union of South Africa to gain independence from the United Kingdom.
January 15 The French Republic creates French Equatorial Africa from its colonies of Gabon, Middle Congo, and Oubangui-Chari. Libreville and Bangui yield to Brazzaville as the capital.

1900s[edit]

Year Date Event
1908 November 15 King Leopold II of Belgium sells his private Congo Free State to the Kingdom of Belgium. The colony is renamed the Belgian Congo. Boma remains the capital.
August 5 The Kingdom of Bulgaria gains independence from the Ottoman Empire. Sofia is the capital.
1907 December 17 Ugyen Wangchuck establishes the Kingdom of Bhutan. Punakha is the winter capital and Thimphu is the summer capital.
September 26 New Zealand gains independence from the United Kingdom. Wellington is the capital.
The border between the Republic of the United States of Brazil and the Republic of Colombia is defined by the Bogotá Treaty. Brazil gains lands on the margins of the Solimoes River, at the area known as Cabeça de Cachorro (The Dog's Head).
1906 The French Republic divides its colony of French Congo into the colonies of Gabon and Middle Congo. Libreville remains the capital of Gabon. Brazzaville becomes the capital of Middle Congo.
1905 October 26 The Kingdom of Sweden recognises the independence of the Kingdom of Norway.
June 7 The Kingdom of Norway declares its independence from the Kingdom of Sweden through dissolution of the personal union. Kristiania is the capital.
1904 The border between the Republic of the United States of Brazil and British Guiana is defined by arbitration. About half of the disputed land goes to each side.
1903 November 18 The new Republic of Panama grants the United States of America control of the Panama Canal Zone. Balboa is the administrative center.
November 11 The Republic of Bolivia and the Republic of the United States of Brazil sign the Treaty of Petrópolis. Bolivia receives land in Mato Grosso from Brazil, and Brazil absorbes the Republic of Acre.
November 3 The Republic of Panama secedes from the Republic of Colombia. Panama City is the capital.
January 27 The third Republic of Acre declares its independence from Bolivia. The capital is Antimary.
1902 May 20 The Republic of Cuba gains independence from the United States of America. Havana is the capital.
1901 January 1 The Commonwealth of Australia is established by federation of the British colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania. Melbourne is the capital until 1927.
1900 March The first Republic of Acre capitulates and is reabsorbed by the Republic of Bolivia. Later the same year, the second Republic of Acre is declared with Antimary as its capital, and it is again reabsorbed by Bolivia.
The border between the Republic of the United States of Brazil and the French colony of Guyane (French Guyana) is defined by arbitration. The French troops that advanced to the margins of Araguari River had to repair to the Oiapoque River.

1890s[edit]

Year Date Event
1899 July 14 The first Republic of Acre declares independence from Bolivia. The capital is Antimary.
April 11 The Monarchy of Spain cedes the Captaincy General of Cuba and the Captaincy General of Puerto Rico to the United States of America with the Treaty of Paris at the conclusion of the Spanish-American War. Havana and San Juan are the respective capitals.
The Monarchy of Spain cedes the Island of Guam to the United States of America with the Treaty of Paris at the conclusion of the Spanish-American War.
The Monarchy of Spain cedes the Captaincy General of the Philippines to the United States of America with the Treaty of Paris at the conclusion of the Spanish-American War. Manila is the Spanish capital. The Philippine Republic maintains its sovereignty with Malolos as its the capital.
1898 The Republic of Bolivia moves its administrative capital from Sucre to La Paz. Sucre remains the constitutional and judicial capital.
July 25 The United States of America seizes control of Puerto Rico from the Spanish Empire during the Spanish-American War. San Juan remains the capital.
July 7 The United States of America annexes the Republic of Hawaii as the Territory of Hawaii. Honolulu remains the capital.
June 12 The Philippine Republic declares independence from Kingdom of Spain. Malolos is the capital.
1897 The Joseon Dynasty becomes the Korean Empire. Hanseong remains the capital.
1895 November 16 The United Kingdom annexes the Crown Colony of British Bechuanaland to the Cape Colony. Vryburg yields to Cape Town as the capital.
October 23 The Empire of Japan conquers the Republic of Formosa. Takasago Koku (Taiwan) becomes a Japanese colony. Taihoku (Taipei) is the capital.
June The Republic of Formosa moves its capital from Taipei to Tainan.
May 23 The Republic of Formosa declares independence from the Qing Dynasty of China. Taipei is its capital.
The border between the Republic of the United States of Brazil and the Argentine Republic is defined.
1894 July 4 The Republic of Hawaii supersedes the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. Honolulu remains the capital.

1880s[edit]

Year Date Event
1889 November 15 The Republic of the United States of Brazil supersedes the Empire of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro remains the capital.
March 9 Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia moves his capital to Addis Ababa.
1888 The Republic of Honduras moves its capital from Comayagua to Tegucigalpa, ending a century of indecision as to the country's capital.
1886 May 1 King Leopold II of Belgium selects Boma as the capital of his Congo Free State.
1885 September 6 The Principality of Bulgaria annexes Eastern Rumelia. Sofia remains the capital.
September 1 The United Kingdom establishes the Crown Colony of British Bechuanaland. Vryburg is the capital.
May 2 King Leopold II of Belgium establishes his Congo Free State, a private government run by the International African Association.
1884 The United Kingdom establishes the Crown Colony of the Territory of Basutoland. Maseru is the capital.
1882 March 6 The Kingdom of Serbia supersedes the Principality of Serbia. Belgrade remains the capital.
1880 The French Republic establishes the protectorate of French Congo. Brazzaville is the capital.

1870s[edit]

Year Date Event
1878 July 13 The Principality of Bulgaria moves its capital from Plovdiv to Sofia.
May 21 The Principality of Romania gains independence from the Ottoman Empire. Bucharest is the capital.
March 3 The Principality of Bulgaria is established by the Treaty of San Stefano. Plovdiv is the capital.
1874 December 29 The restored Monarchy of Spain supersedes the first Spanish Republic. Madrid remains the capital.
1873 February 11 The first Spanish Republic supersedes the Monarchy of Spain. Madrid remains the capital.
1872 The Empire of Brazil gains lands in the border with Republic of Paraguay after the Paraguayan War.
1871 January 1 The second German Empire supersedes the North German Confederation. Berlin remains the capital.
1870 September 4 The third French Republic supersedes the second French Empire. Paris remains the capital.
July 20 The Crown Colony of British Columbia joins the Dominion of Canada.

1860s[edit]

Year Date Event
1868 October 10 Cuba declares its independence from the Monarchy of Spain.
October 1 The Bolivian Republic changes its name to the Republic of Bolivia. Sucre remains the capital until 1898.
January 3 Japan becomes the Empire of Greater Japan. Tokyo remains the capital.
1867 October 18 The Russian Empire sells Alaska to the United States of America. New Archangel (Novoarkhangelsk now Sitka) is the capital.
July 1 The United Kingdom unites its colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and the Crown Colony of the United Province of Canada as the Dominion of Canada. Ottawa is the capital.
The North German Confederation supersedes the German Confederation. Berlin remains the capital.
June 19 The United Mexican States supersedes the Mexican Empire. México remains the capital.
1866 August 2 The United Kingdom unites the colonies of British Columbia and the Island of Vancouver and its Dependencies as the Crown Colony of British Columbia. New Westminster yields to Victoria as the capital.
The United Kingdom moves the capital of the Crown Colony of the United Province of Canada from the city of Québec to Ottawa.
1865 April 11 The Confederate States of America capitulates and is reabsorbed by the United States of America. The USA will readmit the 11 CSA states to full statehood between July 24, 1866, and July 15, 1870.
April 3 The Confederate States of America moves its capital to Danville, Virginia.
March 3 The Dominican Republic regains its independence from the Monarchy of Spain. Santo Domingo is the capital.
1864 July The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom is conquered by the Qing Dynasty of China.
April 10 The Mexican Empire supersedes the United Mexican States. México remains the capital.
1863 June 20 The Union-occupied northwestern counties of the Commonwealth of Virginia (which considered itself a part of the Confederate States of America) secede from the state and are admitted to the United States of America as the State of West Virginia.
1862 The United Kingdom creates the Crown Colony of British Honduras at the Settlement of Belize in the Bay of Honduras. The capital is Belize City.
June 3 The Province of Buenos Aires reunites with the Argentine Republic. The capital is moved from Paraná back to Buenos Aires.
1861 The Dominican Republic returns to Spanish rule.
May 29 The Confederate States of America moves its capital from Montgomery, Alabama, to Richmond, Virginia.
May 20 The State of North Carolina secedes from the United States of America and joins the Confederate States of America.
May 7 The State of Tennessee secedes from the United States of America and joins the Confederate States of America.
May 6 The State of Arkansas secedes from the United States of America and joins the Confederate States of America.
April 17 The Commonwealth of Virginia secedes from the United States of America and joins the Confederate States of America.
February 4 The Confederate States of America, formed from the seven seceding states, declare their independence from the United States of America. Montgomery, Alabama, is the capital for three months. Four more slave states will join by May 20.
February 1 The State of Texas secedes from the United States of America, declaring itself the Republic of Texas. Austin is the capital.
January 26 The State of Louisiana secedes from the United States of America, declaring itself the Republic of Louisiana. Baton Rouge is the capital.
January 19 The State of Georgia secedes from the United States of America, declaring itself the Republic of Georgia. Milledgeville is the capital.
January 11 The State of Alabama secedes from the United States of America, declaring itself the Alabama Republic. Montgomery is the capital.
January 10 The State of Florida secedes from the United States of America, declaring itself the Republic of Florida. Tallahassee is the capital.
January 9 The State of Mississippi secedes from the United States of America, declaring itself the Republic of Mississippi. Jackson is the capital.
1860 December 20 The State of South Carolina secedes from the United States of America, declaring itself the Republic of South Carolina. Columbia is the capital. Six more slave states will secede by February 1, 1861.
October 1 The Argentine Republic supersedes the Argentine Confederation. Paraná remains the capital until 1862.

1850s[edit]

Year Date Event
1859 The United Kingdom moves the capital of the Crown Colony of the United Province of Canada from the city of Québec back to Toronto.
1858 The United Kingdom moves the capital of the Crown Colony of the United Province of Canada from Toronto back to the city of Québec.
1856 The United Kingdom moves the capital of the Crown Colony of the United Province of Canada from the city of Québec back to Toronto.
1853 March The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom establishes its capital at Tianjing.
1852 December 2 The second French Empire supersedes the second French Republic. Paris remains the capital.
September 11 The Province of Buenos Aires secedes from the Argentine Confederation. The confederation moves its capital to Paraná.
The United Kingdom moves the capital of the Crown Colony of the United Province of Canada from Toronto to the city of Québec.
1851 January 11 The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom gains independence from the Qing Dynasty of China.

1840s[edit]

Year Date Event
1849 The United Kingdom moves the capital of the Crown Colony of the United Province of Canada from Montréal to Toronto.
1848 February 24 The second French Republic supersedes the Kingdom of France. Paris remains the capital.
February 2 The United Mexican States surrenders its northern territory to the United States of America with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo at the conclusion of the Mexican-American War.
1847 July 26 The African American colony of Liberia declares its independence as the Republic of Liberia. Monrovia is the capital.
1846 August 22 The United Mexican States supersedes the Mexican Republic. México remains the capital.
1845 December 29 The Republic of Texas joins the United States of America as the State of Texas.
The Netherlands splits its colonial possessions in the Americas into two parts: Suriname and Curaçao and Dependencies. Paramaribo remains the capital of Suriname, while Willemstad on Curaçao becomes the capital of the six Caribbean islands.
The Kingdom of Hawaiʻi moves its capital from Lāhainā to Honolulu.
The United Kingdom moves the capital of the Falkland Islands from Port Louis to Stanley.
March 1 The Riograndense Republic is reabsorbed by the Brazilian Empire as the province of Rio Grande do Sul again.
1844 The United Kingdom moves the capital of the Crown Colony of the United Province of Canada from Kingston to Montréal.
April 25 The Republic of Chile gains independence from the Monarchy of Spain. Santiago is the capital.
February 27 The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti. Santo Domingo is the capital.
1841 February 10 The United Kingdom unites Upper Canada and Lower Canada as the Crown Colony of the United Province of Canada. Kingston is the capital.
February 2 The sole remnant of the Federal Republic of Central America changes its name back to the Republic of El Salvador. San Salvador remains the capital.

1830s[edit]

Year Date Event
1839 November 17 The Republic of Guatemala secedes from the Federal Republic of Central America. Guatemala City becomes the capital.
August 25 The Peruvian Republic and the Bolivian Republic are formed from the dissolution of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. Lima and Sucre (previously Chuquisaca) are the respective capitals.
July 24 The Juliana Republic declares independence from Brazil. Laguna is the capital. The Republic capitulates and is reabsorbed later in the year.
The Principality of Serbia moves its capital from Kragujevac to Belgrade.
The Republic of Texas establishes its permanent capital at Austin.
1838 November 5 The Republic of Costa Rica, the Republic of Nicaragua, and the Republic of Honduras secede from the Federal Republic of Central America. San José, Managua, and Comayagua are the respective capitals.
1836 October 28 The Republic of North Peru, the Republic of South Peru, and the Bolivian Republic unite to form the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. Tacna is the capital.
September 6 The Riograndense Republic declares independence from Brazil. Piratini is the first of five provisional capitals.
August 11 The Republic of North Peru supersedes the Peruvian Republic. Lima remains the capital.
March 17 The Republic of South Peru secedes from Peruvian Republic. Cusco is the capital.
March 2 The Republic of Texas declares its independence from México. Washington is the first of six cities that will serve as temporary capital until 1839.
1835 October 23 The Mexican Republic supersedes the United Mexican States. México remains the capital.
1834 The Federal Republic of Central America moves its capital from Guatemala City to San Salvador.
The Kingdom of Greece moves its capital from Nafplio to Athens.
1833 January 3 The United Kingdom seizes the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) from Spain. Port Louis becomes the capital.
1831 July 21 Belgium becomes the Kingdom of Belgium. Brussels remains the capital
January 4 The United Kingdom combines Essequibo-Demerara and Berbice as the Crown Colony of British Guiana. Georgetown is the capital.
January 4 The Argentine Confederation supersedes the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. Buenos Aires remains the capital until 1852.
1830 October 4 Belgium declares its independence from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Brussels is the capital.
May 13 The Republic of Colombia, the Republic of Ecuador, and the Republic of Venezuela are created from the dissolution of Gran Colombia. Bogotá, Quito, and Caracas are the respective capitals.
February 3 The Ottoman Empire recognizes the independence of Greece. Nafplio is the capital.

1820s[edit]

Year Date Event
1828 August 27 The Eastern Republic of Uruguay gains independence from Argentina. Montevideo is the capital.
1826 July 9 The Republic of Chile supersedes the State of Chile. Santiago remains the capital.
1825 November 15 The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves changes its name back to the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Lisbon remains the capital.
August 29 The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves recognizes the independence of the Empire of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro remains the capital.
August 25 The United Provinces of the Río de la Plata supersedes the United Provinces in South America. Buenos Aires remains the capital.
August 11 The Bolivian Republic gains independence from the Monarchy of Spain at the conclusion of the Bolivian War of Independence. Chuquisaca (later Sucre) is the capital.
The Netherlands administratively combines its three colonies of Suriname, Curaçao and Dependencies (the ABC islands), and Sint Eustatius and Dependencies (the SSS islands). The capital is Paramaribo.
1824 October 4 The United Mexican States supersedes the Mexican Empire upon the execution of Emperor Maximilian I. México remains the capital.
July 2 The Confederation of the Equator declares independence from Brazil. Recife is the capital, but the Confederation capitulates and is reabsorbed at the same year.
1823 July The Republic of Guatemala, the Republic of El Salvador, the Republic of Nicaragua, the Republic of Honduras, and the Republic of Costa Rica unite to form the Federal Republic of Central America. Guatemala City is the capital.
May 16 The Republic of Costa Rica moves its capital from Cartago to San José.
1822 December 19 The Peruvian Republic supersedes the State of Peru. Lima remains the capital.
October 12 The Empire of Brazil supersedes the Independent Kingdom of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro remains the capital.
September 7 The Independent Kingdom of Brazil declares its independence from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Rio de Janeiro is the capital.
1821 September 21 The Republic of Costa Rica gains independence from the Monarchy of Spain. Cartago is the capital.
September 15 The Republic of Guatemala, the Republic of Honduras, the Republic of Nicaragua and the Republic of El Salvador become independent from the Monarchy of Spain. Guatemala City, Comayagua, Managua, and San Salvador are the respective capitals.
August 24 The Monarchy of Spain recognizes the independence of the Mexican Empire. México remains the capital.
August 3 Peru becomes the State of Peru. Lima remains the capital.
July 28 Peru declares its independence from the Monarchy of Spain. Lima is the capital.
July 3 The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves returns the capital from exile in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to Lisbon.
March 25 Greece declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire. Nafplion is the capital.
The Argentine Republic (Argentina) gains independence from the Monarchy of Spain. Buenos Aires is the capital.
1820 October 8 The Kingdom of Haiti collapses upon the suicide of King Henri I. Haiti is unified under the Republic of Haiti with its capital at Port-au-Prince.
The Kingdom of Hawaiʻi establishes its capital at Lāhainā.

1810s[edit]

Year Date Event
1819 August 7 The Republic of Colombia (Gran Colombia) gains independence from the Monarchy of Spain. Bogotá is the capital.
1818 January 12 The State of Chile again declares its independence from the Monarchy of Spain. Santiago is the capital.
1816 July 9 The United Provinces in South America (Argentina, Bolivia, and Uruguay) declares its independence from the Monarchy of Spain. Buenos Aires remains the capital.
1815 December 16 The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves supersedes the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Rio de Janeiro remains the capital-in-exile.
November 21 Miloš Obrenović establishes the Principality of Serbia. Kragujevac is the capital.
July 8 The restored Kingdom of France supersedes the first French Empire. Paris remains the capital.
June 20 The Congress of Vienna establishes the German Confederation. Frankfurt is the capital.
March 20 The first French Empire supersedes the Kingdom of France. Paris remains the capital.
March 16 The United Kingdom of the Netherlands supersedes the Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands. Amsterdam and Brussels are the joint capitals.
Sir Robert Brownrigg establishes the Crown Colony of Ceylon. Colombo becomes the capital.
1814 October 2 The Monarchy of Spain reconquers Chile.
April 6 The restored Kingdom of France supersedes the first French Empire. Paris remains the capital.
1813 December 2 The Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands is created from the ruins of the first French Empire. Amsterdam is the capital.
October 19 The Confederation of the Rhine dissolves.
October 12 Paraguay becomes the Republic of Paraguay. Asunción remains the capital.
July 23 The British Malta Colony supersedes the Malta Protectorate. Valletta remains the capital.
1811 May 14 Paraguay gains independence from the Monarchy of Spain. Asunción is the capital.
March 28 The Kingdom of Haiti supersedes the State of Haiti. Cap-Haïtien is the capital.
1810 September 18 Chile declares its independence from the Monarchy of Spain. Santiago is the capital.
September 16 México declares its independence from the Monarchy of Spain.
July 20 Colombia declares its independence from the Monarchy of Spain.
July 13 The Kingdom of Holland (Netherlands) is annexed by the first French Empire.
May 25 The United Provinces in South America (Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay) is created from colonies of the Monarchy of Spain. Buenos Aires is the capital.
April Kalani Paiea Wohi o Kaleikini Keali`ikui Kamehameha o `Iolani i Kaiwikapu kaui Ka Liholiho Kunuiakea unifies the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi.

1800s[edit]

Year Date Event
1808 March 7 The Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves removes the capital from Lisbon to exile in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
1806 October 17 The Empire of Haiti collapses upon the assassination of Emperor Jacques I. Haiti splits in two with the State of Haiti in the north with its capital at Milot, and the Republic of Haiti in the south with its capital at Port-au-Prince.
August 6 Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, dissolves the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.
July 25 Napoleon I of France establishes the Confederation of the Rhine. Frankfurt is the capital.
June 5 The Kingdom of Holland (Netherlands) supersedes the Batavian Republic. Amsterdam remains the capital.
January 8 The United Kingdom establishes the Cape Colony. Cape Town is the capital.
1804 September 22 Jean-Jacques Dessalines establishes the Empire of Haiti. Port-au-Prince remains the capital.
May 18 The first French Empire supersedes the first French Republic. Paris remains the capital.
March 4 The French Republic sells Louisiane to the United States of America. New Orleans (Nouvelle-Orléans) is the capital of the unorganized territory.
January 1 The French colony of Saint-Domingue (Hispaniola) declares its independence from the French Republic as Haiti. Port-au-Prince remains the capital.
1801 June 6 The Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal signs the Treaty of Badajoz. Spain cedes the South American Misiones Orientales to Portugal.
The Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal signs the Treaty of Badajoz. Portugal cedes Olivenza to Spain.
January 1 The Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland unite to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Dublin yields to London as the capital.
1800 November 17 The United States of America moves its capital from Philadelphia to its permanent location at Washington in the District of Columbia.
September 5 French forces in Malta surrender to the British. Malta and Gozo form the Malta Protectorate with Valletta as capital.

1790s[edit]

Year Date Event
1798 October 28 Gozo gains de facto independence from Malta with Rabat as its capital.
June 11 The Order of Saint John capitulates to French forces and Malta is under French occupation with Valletta remaining the capital.
1797 April 17 The House of Habsburg annexes the Republic of Venice.
1795 January 19 The Batavian Republic supersedes the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. Amsterdam is the capital.
1792 September 21 The first French Republic supersedes the Kingdom of France. Paris remains the capital.
1791 March 4 The Vermont Republic joins the United States of America as the State of Vermont. Windsor yields to Philadelphia as the federal capital.
1790 December 7 The United States of Belgium capitulates to the House of Habsburg.
December 6 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from New York City to Philadelphia pending the construction of the new capital permitted by the new United States Constitution.
January 11 The United States of Belgium declares its independence from the House of Habsburg. Brussels is the capital.

1780s[edit]

Year Date Event
1785 January 11 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from Trenton to New York City.
1784 November 1 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from Annapolis to Trenton.
1783 November 26 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from Princeton to Annapolis.
September 3 The Kingdom of Great Britain signs the Treaty of Paris, recognizing the independence of the United States of America. Princeton remains the temporary capital.
November 26 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from Philadelphia to Princeton.
Province of Trinidad moves its capital from San José de Oruña to Puerto de España, its present location.
1782 April  21 Siam moves its capital from Thonburi to Bangkok, its present location.

1770s[edit]

Year Date Event
1778 July 27 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from York back to Philadelphia.
1777 October 1 The Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal sign the First Treaty of San Ildefonso, confirming almost all the borders defined by the Treaty of Madrid, with the exception that Spain would rule both Colonia del Sacramento and the Misiones Orientales.
September 30 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from Lancaster to York.
September 27 United States of America moves its temporary capital from Philadelphia to Lancaster for one day, following the capture of Philadelphia by British forces.
July 8 The Republic of New Connecticut changes its name to the Vermont Republic. Windsor remains the capital.
June 4 The Republic of New Connecticut moves its capital to Windsor.
March 4 The United States of America moves its temporary capital back from Baltimore to Philadelphia.
January 15 The Republic of New Connecticut declares its independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. Westminster is the temporary capital.
1776 December 20 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from Philadelphia to Baltimore.
July 4 The United States of America (including the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations) declares its independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. Philadelphia is the first of eight cities that will serve as a temporary capital until 1800.
May 4 Rhode Island and Providence Plantations declares its independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. Providence is the capital.
1775 The Kingdom of Portugal reunites its South American colonies of the State of Brazil, the State of Great-Pará, and the State of Maranhão into the Colony of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro is the capital.
1772 The Kingdom of Portugal divides its colony of the State of Great-Pará and Maranhão into the State of Great-Pará (capital, Belém) and the State of Maranhão (capital, São Luis).
Ayutthaya having been destroyed in 1767, the new capital of Siam is created in Thonburi.

1760s[edit]

Year Date Event
1768 December 21 Prithvi Narayan Shah unifies the Kingdom of Nepal. Kathmandu is the capital.
1763 February 12 The Kingdom of Portugal moves the capital of its colony of the State of Brazil from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.
1761 February 12 The Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal sign the Treaty of El Pardo, nullifying the Treaty of Madrid.

1750s[edit]

Year Date Event
1751 The Kingdom of Portugal changes the name of its colonial State of Maranhão to State of Great-Pará and Maranhão.
1750 January 13 The Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal signs the Treaty of Madrid. Based on the uti possidetis concept, Portugal gains lands on the actual south, central and north regions of Brazil. The treaty also stipulated that Spain would receive the Colonia del Sacramento and Portugal the Misiones Orientales.

1730s[edit]

Year Date Event
1737 The Kingdom of Portugal moves the capital of its colonial State of Maranhão from São Luís to Belém.

1710s[edit]

Year Date Event
1715 The Kingdom of Spain returns Colonia del Sacramento to the Kingdom of Portugal.
1713 March and April The Treaty of Utrecht is signed. The United Kingdom takes sovereigny over Gibraltar and Minorca from the Kingdom of Spain. Spain also ceded: Sicily and parts of the Duchy of Milan to Savoy; Spanish Netherlands, the Kingdom of Naples, Sardinia, and the bulk of the Duchy of Milan to Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor; lands in South America between Amazon River and Oiapoque River to the Kingdom of Portugal.

1700s[edit]

Year Date Event
1707 May 1 The Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland unite to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.[3] Edinburgh yields to London as the capital for all but judicial functions.

1680s[edit]

Year Date Event
1684 The English Crown Colony of Bermuda supersedes the Somers Isles Company. Hamilton is the capital.

1660s[edit]

Year Date Event
1660 May 27 The Kingdom of Sweden cedes Trøndelag to the Kingdom of Denmark and Norway, the Wends and the Goths as part of the Treaty of Copenhagen.
April 4 The restored Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Scotland, and Kingdom of Ireland supersede the republican Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland. London, Edinburgh, and Dublin are the respective capitals.

1650s[edit]

Year Date Event
1658 February 26 The Kingdom of Denmark and Norway, the Wends and the Goths cedes Skåne, Blekinge, Halland, Bornholm, Båhus and Trøndelag to the Kingdom of Sweden as part of the Treaty of Roskilde.
December 16 The Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland supersedes the Commonwealth of England, the Kingdom of Scotland, and the Kingdom of Ireland. Edinburgh and Dublin yield to London as the capital.

1640s[edit]

Year Date Event
1649 May 19 The republican Commonwealth of England supersedes the Kingdom of England. London remains the capital.
1645 August 13 The Kingdom of Denmark and Norway, the Wends and the Goths cedes Jämtland, Härjedalen, Idre & Särna, Gotland, Ösel and Halland, the latter for a period of 30 years, to the Kingdom of Sweden as part of the Treaty of Brömsebro.
1644 October 30 The Qing Dynasty of China supersedes the Ming Dynasty. Beijing remains the capital.

1630s[edit]

Year Date Event
1636 England establishes the Crown Colony of Connecticut. Hartford is the capital.
1635 Fasilides makes Gondar the first permanent capital of Ethiopia since the fall of the Zagwe Dynasty

1620s[edit]

Year Date Event
1628 The Colony of Barbados moves its capital from Saint James Town to Bridgetown.
1627 The Kingdom of England establishes the Colony of Barbados with its capital at Saint James Town.
1621 The Kingdom of Portugal divides the Colony of Brazil into the State of Brazil (capital, Salvador) and the State of Maranhão (capital, São Luis).

1610s[edit]

Year Date Event
1612 The Kingdom of Portugal reunites North Brazil and South Brazil into the Colony of Brazil. The capital is Salvador.

1600s[edit]

Year Date Event
1608 The Kingdom of Portugal divides the Colony of Brazil into North Brazil (capital, Salvador) and South Brazil (capital, Rio de Janeiro) for the second time.

1590s[edit]

Year Date Event
1594 Virmadhalasuriya I of Sri Lanka moves the capital of the Kingdom of Sri Lanka to Kandy

1580s[edit]

Year Date Event
1581 July 26 The Republic of the Seven United Netherlands declares its independence from the Monarchy of Spain.

1570s[edit]

Year Date Event
1578 The Kingdom of Portugal reunites North Brazil and South Brazil into the Colony of Brazil. The capital is Salvador.
1573 The Kingdom of Portugal divides the Colony of Brazil into North Brazil (capital, Salvador) and South Brazil (capital, Rio de Janeiro).
1571 The Order of Saint John moves the capital of Malta to Valletta.

1560s[edit]

Year Date Event
1569 July 1 The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania unite to form the Commonwealth of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Vilnius yields to Kraków as the capital.

1540s[edit]

Year Date Event
1549 The Kingdom of Portugal establishes a central government for its Colony of Brazil, with Salvador as the capital.
1542 The Kingdom of Ireland supersedes the feudal Lordship of Ireland. Dublin remains the capital.
The Kingdom of England annexes the Principality of Wales.

1530s[edit]

Year Date Event
1534 The Kingdom of Portugal divides its Colony of Brazil into 15 independent captaincies.
1532 The Kingdom of France annexes the Duchy of Brittany.
1530 October 26 The Order of Saint John annexes Malta and moves the capital from Mdina to Vittoriosa.

1520s[edit]

Year Date Event
1529 April 22 Representatives of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Kingdom of Spain sign the Treaty of Zaragoza, settling the countries' boundary of conquest in Asia and Oceania at a meridian about 144°40' west of Greenwich.)
1521 August 13 The combined forces of Hernán Cortés conquer Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec Empire. The Kingdom of Spain subsequently renames the region New Spain. The destroyed capital is rebuilt and renamed México.
King Mayadunne I moves the capital of the Kingdom of Sri Lanka to Sitawaka.

1500s[edit]

Year Date Event
1500 April 22 Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral arrives at the coast of Brazil and claims all land in South America east of the Tordesillas Meridian for the Kingdom of Portugal, thus establishing the Portuguese Colony of Brazil.

1490s[edit]

Year Date Event
1495 June 7 Representatives of the Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas, settling the countries' boundary of conquest in the Americas (and Africa and Asia) at a meridian about 46°0' west of Greenwich.
1493 May 4 Spanish Pope Alexander VI issues the papal bull Inter caetera granting to the Crowns of Castile and Aragon (Spain) all newly discovered lands west of the meridian 100 leagues west of any of the islands of the Azores (approximately 38°11' west of Greenwich.)
1492 October 12 While seeking a route to the East Indies, Genoese navigator Cristoforo Colombo (Christopher Columbus) lands on the island of Guanahani in the Lucayan Archipelago, which he mistakes for the Japanese Archipelago. Columbus claims the archipelago for his patrons the Crowns of Castile and Aragon (Spain), and subsequently explores and claims Cuba and Hispaniola.

1450s[edit]

Year Date Event
1453 29 May The Byzantine Empire falls to the Ottoman Empire. The capital of the Ottoman Empire is moved to Constantinople, present day Istanbul.

1420s[edit]

Year Date Event
1421 The Ming Dynasty of China moves its capital from Nanjing to Beijing.

1410s[edit]

Year Date Event
1412 King Parakramabahu VI moves the capital of Kingdom of Sri Lanka to Kotte.

1390s[edit]

Year Date Event
1392 The Joseon Dynasty succeed the Goryeo Dynasty of Korea. Hanseong is the capital.

1360s[edit]

Year Date Event
1368 The Ming Dynasty supersedes the Yuan Dynasty of China. Nanjing is the capital.

1350s[edit]

Year Date Event
1350 With the foundation of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, its capital is created in Ayutthaya, instead of the former Sukhothai.

1320s[edit]

Year Date Event
1325 March 13 The Mexicas (Aztecs) founded Tenochtitlan, the foundation of México. It is the oldest continuous capitol in the Americas.

1280s[edit]

Year Date Event
1287 King Parakramabahu III moves the capital of the Kingdom of Sri Lanka back to Polonnaruwa.

1270s[edit]

Year Date Event
1279 March 19 The Song Dynasty is conquered by the Yuan Dynasty of China.
1272 The Yuan Dynasty of China moves its capital from Shangdu to Dadu.
August 10 Yekuno Amlak overthrows the Zagwe dynasty, establishing the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia. Lalibela ceases to be the capital, and the Emperor of Ethiopia rules from a continually moving encampment around his domains for the following centuries.

1220s[edit]

Year Date Event
1220 King Vijayabahu III moves the capital of the Kingdom of Sri Lanka to Dambadeniya.

1180s[edit]

Year Date Event
1185 The Second Bulgarian Empire gains independence from the Byzantine Empire under Peter IV of Bulgaria.

1130s[edit]

Year Date Event
1139 The Kingdom of Portugal gains independence from the Kingdom of León.

1120s[edit]

Year Date Event
1127 The Song Dynasty of China moves its capital from Bianjing to Lin'an.

1090s[edit]

Year Date Event
1097 King William II moves the capital of the Kingdom of England to London.

1050s[edit]

Year Date Event
1055 King Vijayabahu I moves the capital of the Kingdom of Sri Lanka to Polonnaruwa.

980s[edit]

Year Date Event
987 Hughe Capet confirmes Paris as the capital of the Kingdom of the West Franks (soon to become the Kingdom of France).

960s[edit]

Year Date Event
962 February 2 Otto the Great re-establishes the Holy Roman Empire. Rome is the official capital.
960 January 3 Emperor Taizu of Song establishes the Song Dynasty of China. Bianjing remains the capital.

930s[edit]

Year Date Event
936 Goryeo Dynasty unified the Later Three Kingdoms of Korea.

920s[edit]

Year Date Event
927 July 12 King Athelstan of Wessex establishes the Kingdom of England. Winchester is the capital.

910s[edit]

Year Date Event
918 King Taejo establishes Goryeo Dynasty on the Korean Peninsula. Gaegyeong is the official capital.

840s[edit]

Year Date Event
843 Charles the Bald, grandson of Emperor Charlemagne, made Paris the capital of the Kingdom of the West Franks, established as the result of the Treaty of Verdun.

800s[edit]

Year Date Event
800 December 25 Charlemagne establishes the Holy Roman Empire. While Rome is the official capital of the empire, Aix-la-Chapelle is the de facto capital.

690s[edit]

Year Date Event
690 King Go establishes Balhae on the Manchuria and northern Korean Peninsula.

680s[edit]

Year Date Event
681 Khan Asparukh crosses the Danube Delta and settles in the Ongal area (Southern Bessarabia or northern Dobruja). Asparukh, with his Slav allies, defeats Byzantine Emperor Constantine IV and establishes the First Bulgarian Empire. Pliska is the capital.

670s[edit]

Year Date Event
676 Silla unified the Three Kingdoms of Korea.

630s[edit]

Year Date Event
630 January 11 The Prophet Muhammad (Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullāh) conquers Mecca and unites Arabia. Medina is the capital.

530s[edit]

Year Date Event
538 The Baekje of Korea moves its capital from Ungjin to Sabi.

500s[edit]

Year Date Event
508 Frankish King Clovis the Frank made Paris the capital of the Frankish Kingdom.

470s[edit]

Year Date Event
476 September 4 Germanic General Odoacer forces Roman Emperor Romulus Augustus to abdicate, bringing the Western Roman Empire to an end.
475 The Baekje of Korea moves its capital from Wirye to Ungjin by pressure of Goguryeo.

420s[edit]

Year Date Event
427 The Goguryeo of Korea moves its capital from Gungnae to Pyongyang.

390s[edit]

Year Date Event
395 January 17 At his death, Roman Emperor Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius) permanently splits the Roman Empire between his two sons. Arcadius (Flavius Arcadius) rules the Eastern Roman Empire from Constantinopolis (now Istanbul, Turkey), and Honorius (Flavius Honorius) rules the Western Roman Empire from Mediolanum (now Milan, Italy).

330s[edit]

Year Date Event
330 May 11 Roman Emperor Constantine the Great builds a new capital for the Roman Empire at Byzantium which he renames Constantinopolis (now Istanbul, Turkey).

320s[edit]

Year Date Event
324 September 18 Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus) reunites the Roman Empire. Nicomedia (now İzmit, Turkey) becomes the capital.

290s[edit]

Year Date Event
293 Roman co-emperors Diocletian and Maximian split the Roman Empire into a tetrarchy with capitals at Mediolanum (now Milan, Italy), Augusta Treverorum (now Trier, Germany), Nicomedia (now İzmit, Turkey), and Sirmium (now Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia).

280s[edit]

Year Date Event
286 April 1 Roman Emperor Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus) appoints Maximian (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius) co-emperor, splitting the Roman Empire into a dyarchy with capitals at Mediolanum (now Milan, Italy) and Augusta Treverorum (now Trier, Germany).

270s[edit]

Year Date Event
274 Roman Emperor Aurelian conquers the Palmyrene Empire which is subsumed back into the Roman Empire.
273 Roman Emperor Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus) conquers the Gallic Empire which is subsumed back into the Roman Empire.

260s[edit]

Year Date Event
269 The Palmyrene Empire conquers the Roman Province of Egypt.
260 Syrian Queen Zenobia breaks from the Roman Empire and establishes the Palmyrene Empire. Palmyra is the capital.
Postumus (Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus) breaks from the Roman Empire and establishes the Gallic Empire. Colonia Agrippina (now Cologne, Germany) is the capital.

First decade[edit]

Year Date Event
3 The Goguryeo of Korea moves its capital from Jolbon to Gungnae.

Before the Common Era[edit]

Note: The common year numbering system follows the ordinal numbers rather than the cardinal numbers, thus there was no year "zero". The date January 1, 1 CE immediately followed the date December 31, 1 BCE, thus the Third Millennium officially began on January 1, 2001 CE.

First Millennium BCE[edit]

Year Date Event
18 BCE Onjo establishes Baekje on the central Korean Peninsula. Wiryeseong is the capital.
27 BCE January 16 The Roman Senate grants Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus the title Augustus. This effectively ends the Roman Republic and establishes the Roman Empire. The city of Rome remains the capital.
30 BCE August 1 Roman consul Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus conquers the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. Octavianus organizes Egypt as a province under his personal control.
37 BCE Dongmyeong establishes Goguryeo on the northern Korean Peninsula. Jolbon is the capital.
57 BCE Hyeokgeose establishes Silla on the southeast Korean Peninsula. Gyeongju is the capital.
194 BCE Wanggeom-seong becomes the capital of Wiman Joseon on the Korean Peninsula.
202 BCE February 28 Gaozu establishes the Han Dynasty of China. Chang'an becomes the capital.
221 BCE Qin Shi Huang unifies ancient China as the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty of China. Xianyang becomes the capital.
238 BCE Arsaces I of Parthia establishes the Arsacid Dynasty of Parthia. Hecatompylus becomes the capital.
305 BCE Macedonian general Ptolemy establishes the Ptolemaic Dynasty of Egypt as King Ptolemy I Soter. Alexandria remains the capital.
312 BCE Macedonian general Seleucus establishes the Seleucid Empire. Babylon is the capital.
322 BCE Chandragupta establishes the Maurya Empire of ancient India. Pataliputra (now Patna) is the capital.
330 BCE Alexander the Great of Macedon conquers Persia. Alexander makes Babylon the capital.
332 BCE Alexander the Great of Macedon conquers Persian-occupied Egypt and establishes the Argead Dynasty of Egypt as Pharaoh Alexander III. Alexander builds a new capital at Alexandria.
343 BCE Artaxerxes III of Persia reconquers Egypt and establishes the Persian Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt as Pharaoh Artaxerxes III.
380 BCE November Pharaoh Nectanebo I establishes the Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt. Sebennytos becomes the capital.
399 BCE autumn Pharaoh Nefaarud I establishes the Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt. Mendes becomes the capital.
404 BCE Amyrtaeus expels the Persians from Egypt and establishes the Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt as Pharaoh Amyrtaeus. Sais is the capital.
504 BCE King Panduvasudeva moves the capital of the Kingdom of Lanka to Upatissa Nuwara.
509 BCE The Roman Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Rome. The city of Rome remains the capital.
515 BCE Darius the Great moves the capital of the Persian Empire to Persepolis.
525 BCE May Cambyses II of Persia conquers Egypt and establishes the Persian Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt as Pharaoh Cambyses II.
543 BCE King Vijaya establishes the Kingdom of Lanka and makes Tambapanni the new capital.
546 BCE Cyrus the Great establishes the Persian Empire and makes Pasargadae the new capital.
660 BCE February 11 Emperor Jimmu establishes the Empire of Japan.
about 664 BCE Pharaoh Necho I establishes the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt. Sais is the capital.
694 BCE Deioces is elected the first King of the Medes. Ecbatana (now Hamadan) is the capital.
about 700 BCE Phoenicians establish a colony in Malta with Maleth as capital.
about 728 BCE Pharaoh Tefnakhte establishes the Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt. Sais becomes the capital.
about 740 BCE Nubian King Piye establishes the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt and rules Egypt from Napata in Nubia.
753 BCE April 21 Romulus establishes the Kingdom of Rome. The new city of Rome becomes the capital.
808 BCE Karanus establishes the Argead Dynasty of Macedon and builds Aigai to be the capital.
about 875 BCE Pharaoh Pedubast I establishes the Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt. Thebes is the capital of Upper Egypt.
879 BCE Ashurnasirpal II moves the capital of the New Assyrian Empire to Kalhu.
911 BCE Adad-nirari II establishes the New Assyrian Empire. Assur remains the capital.
about 930 BCE The Kingdom of Israel under Jeroboam I separates from the Kingdom of Judah under Rehoboam. Samaria becomes the capital of Israel, Jerusalem remains the capital of Judah.
about 945 BCE Pharaoh Shoshenq I establishes the Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt. Tanis remains the capital.

Second Millennium BCE[edit]

Year Event
about 1004 BCE King David conquers the city of Jebus and makes the renamed City of David (now Jerusalem) the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
about 1047 BCE Shaul ben Qysh establishes the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah. Gibeah is the capital.
about 1070 BCE Pharaoh Nesbanebdjed I establishes the Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt. Tanis becomes the capital.
about 1184 BCE Greeks destroy the city-state of Troy.
about 1188 BCE Pharaoh Setnakhte establishes the Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt. Pi-Ramesses Aa-nakhtu remains the capital.
about 1243 BCE Ashur-nadin-apli of the Middle Assyrian Empire moves capital back to Assur.
about 1230 BCE Pharaoh Ramesses II builds a new capital for the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt at the site of Avaris and names it Pi-Ramesses Aa-nakhtu.
about 1243 BCE Tukulti-Ninurta I of the Middle Assyrian Empire moves capital to Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta.
about 1272 BCE Mursili III of the Hittite empire moves capital back to Hattusa.
about 1293 BCE Pharaoh Ramesses I establishes the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis remains the capital.
about 1295 BCE Pharaoh Muwatalli II of the Hittite empire moves capital to Tarhuntassa.
about 1332 BCE Pharaoh Tutankhamun of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt moves capital to Memphis.
about 1340 BCE Ashur-uballit I establishes the Middle Assyrian Empire. Assur is the capital.
about 1345 BCE Pharaoh Akhenaten of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt moves capital to Amarna (Akhetaton).
about 1400 BCE Kurigalzu I a Kassite king in Mesopotamia moves the capital to Dur-Kurigalzu.
about 1534 BCE Agum II establishes the rule of the Kassites in Mesopotamia. Babylon becomes the capital.
about 1534 BCE Pharaoh Ahmose I establishes the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Thebes remains the capital.
about 1619 BCE Rahotep Sekhenrewahkhaw establishes the Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt. Thebes remains the capital.
about 1620 BCE Djehuti establishes the Sixteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Thebes is the capital.
about 1624 BCE Salitis establishes the Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Avaris is the capital.
about 1710 BCE Nehesy establishes the Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Xois is the capital.
about 1763 BCE Hammurabi establishes the Babylonian Empire. Babylon remains the capital.
about 1778 BCE Wegaf Khutawyre establishes the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Amenemhat-itj-tawy remains the capital.
about 1810 BCE Sumu-Epuh first attested king of the empire of Yamhad. Aleppo is the capital.
about 1894 BCE Sumu-abum establishes the First Babylonian Dynasty. Babylon is the capital.
about 1900 BCE Zulilu establishes the Old Assyrian Empire. Assur is the capital.
about 1983 BCE Amenemhat I establishes the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt and builds Amenemhat-itj-tawy to be the new capital.

Third Millennium BCE[edit]

Year Event
about 2047 BCE Ur-Nammu establishes the Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur. Ur is the capital.
about 2130 BCE Mentuhotep I establishes the Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt. Thebes becomes the capital of Upper Egypt.
Meryhathor establishes the Tenth Dynasty of Egypt. Henen-nesut remains the capital of Lower Egypt.
about 2160 BCE Meryibre Khety establishes the Ninth Dynasty of Egypt. Henen-nesut becomes the capital of Lower Egypt.
about 2165 BCE Neferkare Pepiseneb establishes the Eighth Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis remains the capital.
about 2175 BCE Netjerkare establishes the Seventh Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis remains the capital.
about 2270 BCE Sargon of Akkad establishes the Sumerian First Dynasty of Akkad. Akkad is the capital.
about 2333 BCE Dangun Wanggeom establishes Gojoseon on the Korean Peninsula.
about 2380 BCE Ur-Nanshe establishes the Sumerian First Dynasty of Lagash. Lagash is the capital.
about 2336 BCE Teti establishes the Sixth Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis remains the capital.
about 2484 BCE Userkaf establishes the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis remains the capital.
about 2580 BCE Mesannepada establishes the First Dynasty of Ur. Ur becomes the de facto capital of Sumer.
about 2655 BCE Sneferu establishes the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis remains the capital.
about 2727 BCE Djoser establishes the Third Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis becomes the capital.
about 2860 BCE Hotepsekhemwy establishes the Second Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis remains the capital.

Fourth Millennium BCE[edit]

Year Event
about 3080 BCE Narmer (or Menes) unites Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt under the First Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis becomes the capital of all Egypt.
about 3200 BCE The regional power centers of Thinis, Naqada, and Nekhen dominate Upper Egypt.
about 3200 BCE The city-states of Eridu, Bad-tibira, Larsa, Sippar, and Shuruppak rise to prominence in Sumer.

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 1st Millennium CE   1st Millennium BCE   2nd Millennium BCE   3rd Millennium BCE   4th Millennium BCE 

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See also[edit]

References[edit]