Timeline of biotechnology
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The historical application of Biotechnology throughout is provided below in chronological order. These discoveries, inventions and modifications are evidence of the evolution of biotechnology since before the common era.
- 7000 BCE – Chinese discover fermentation through beer making.
- 6000 BCE – Yogurt and cheese made with lactic acid-producing bacteria by various cultures.
- 4000 BCE – Egyptians bake leavened bread using yeast.
- 500 BCE – Moldy soybean curds used as an antibiotic.
- 250 BCE – The Greeks practice crop rotation for maximum soil fertility.
- 100 CE – Chinese use chrysanthemum as a natural insecticide.
- 1663 – First recorded description of living cells recorded by Robert Hooke
- 1675 – Antonie van Leeuwenhoek discovers and describes bacteria and protozoa.
- 1798 – Edward Jenner uses first viral vaccine to inoculate a child from smallpox.
- 1802 – The first recorded use of the word biology.
- 1824 – Henri Dutrochet discovers that tissues are composed of living cells.
- 1838 – Protein discovered, named and recorded by Gerardus Johannes Mulder and Jöns Jacob Berzelius.
- 1862 – Louis Pasteur discovers the bacterial origin of fermentation.
- 1863 – Gregor Mendel discovers the laws of inheritance.
- 1864 – Antonin Prandtl invest first centrifuge to separate cream from milk.
- 1869 – Friedrich Miescher identifies DNA in the sperm of a trout
- 1871 – Ernst Hoppe-Seyler discovers invertase, which is still used for making artificial sweeteners.
- 1877 – Robert Koch develops a technique for staining bacteria for identification.
- 1878 – Walther Flemming discovered chromatin leading to the discovery of chromosomes.
- 1881 – Louis Pasteur develops vaccines against bacteria that cause cholera and anthrax in chickens.
- 1885 – Louis Pasteur and Emile Roux developed the first rabies vaccine and use it on Joseph Meister.
- 1919 – Károly Ereky, a Hungarian agricultural engineer, first uses the word biotechnology.
- 1928 – Alexander Fleming notices that a certain mould could stop the duplication of bacteria, leading to the first antibiotic: penicillin.
- 1952 – L.V. Radushkevich and V.M. Lukyanovich published clear images of 50 nanometer diameter tubes made of carbon, in the Soviet Journal of Physical Chemistry.
- 1953 – James D. Watson and Francis Crick describe the structure of DNA.
- 1958 – The term bionics was coined by Jack E. Steele
- 1964 – The first commercial myoelectric arm was developed by the Central Prosthetic Research Institute of the USSR, and distributed by the Hangar Limb Factory of the UK.
- 1972 – The DNA composition of chimpanzees and gorillas is discovered to be 99% similar to that of humans.
- 1973 – Stanley Norman Cohen and Herbert Boyer perform the first successful recombinant DNA experiment, using bacterial genes.
- 1974 – Scientist invent the first biocement for industrial applications.
- 1975 – Method for producing monoclonal antibodies developed by Köhler and César Milstein.
- 1978 – North Carolina scientists Clyde Hutchison and Marshall Edgell show it is possible to introduce specific mutations at specific sites in a DNA molecule.
- 1980 – The U.S. patent for gene cloning is awarded to Cohen and Boyer.
- 1982 – Humulin, Genentech's human insulin drug produced by genetically engineered bacteria for the treatment of diabetes, is the first biotech drug to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration.
- 1983 – The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique is conceived.
- 1990 – First federally approved gene therapy treatment is performed successfully on a young girl who suffered from an immune disorder.
- 1994 – The United States Food and Drug Administration approves the first GM food: the "Flavr Savr" tomato.
- 1997 – British scientists, led by Ian Wilmut from the Roslin Institute, report cloning Dolly the sheep using DNA from two adult sheep cells.
- 1989 – Discovery of the gene responsible for developing cystic fibrosis.
- 2000 – Completion of a "rough draft" of the human genome in the Human Genome Project
- 2001 – Celera Genomics and the Human Genome Project create a draft of the human genome sequence and have it published by Science and Nature Magazine.
- 2002 – Rice becomes the first crop to have its genome decoded.
- 2003 – The Human Genome Project is completed, providing information on the locations and sequence of human genes on all 46 chromosomes.
- 2007 – The first Nanoradio is described by Alex Zettl
- 2008 – Japanese astronomers launched the first Medical Experiment Module called "Kibo", to be used on the International Space Station.
- 2009 – Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute uses modified SAN heart genes to create the first viral pacemaker in guinea pigs, now known as iSAN's.
- 2012 – 31 year-old Zac Vawter successfully uses a nervous system controlled bionic leg to climb the Chicago Willis Tower
- "Highlights in the History of Biotechnology". St Louis Science Center. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
- "Agriculture in Ancient Greece". The Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
- "Biotechnology Timeline". Biotechnology Institute of Washington DC. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
- C A Hutchison, 3rd, S Phillips, M H Edgell, S Gillam, P Jahnke and M Smith (1978). "Mutagenesis at a specific position in a DNA sequence". J Biol Chem 253: 6551–6560. PMID 681366.