Timeline of carbon nanotubes

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Inside a carbon nanotube

1952[edit]

  • Radushkevich and Lukyanovich publish a paper in the Soviet Journal of Physical Chemistry showing hollow graphitic carbon fibers that are 50 nanometers in diameter.[1]

1960[edit]

  • Bollmann and Spreadborough discuss friction properties of carbon due to rolling sheets of graphene in Nature. Electron Microscope picture clearly shows MWCNT[2]

1976[edit]

  • Oberlin, Endo and Koyama report CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) growth of nanometer-scale carbon fibers.[3]

1979[edit]

1985[edit]

1987[edit]

  • Howard G. Tennent of Hyperion Catalysis issued a U.S. patent for graphitic, hollow core "fibrils".[6]

1991[edit]

  • Nanotubes discovered in the soot of arc discharge at NEC, by Japanese researcher Sumio Iijima.[7]
  • August — Nanotubes discovered in CVD by Al Harrington and Tom Maganas of Maganas Industries, leading to development of a method to synthesize monomolecular thin film nanotube coatings.[8]

1992[edit]

1993[edit]

1995[edit]

  • Swiss researchers are the first to demonstrate the electron emission properties of carbon nanotubes.[14] German inventors Till Keesmann and Hubert Grosse-Wilde predicted this property of carbon nanotubes earlier in the year in their patent application.[15]

1997[edit]

  • First carbon nanotube single-electron transistors (operating at low temperature) are demonstrated by groups at Delft University[16] and UC Berkeley.[17]
  • The first suggestion of using carbon nanotubes as optical antennas is made in the patent application of inventor Robert Crowley filed in January 1997.[18]

1998[edit]

2000[edit]

  • First demonstration proving that bending carbon nanotubes changes their resistance[21]

2001[edit]

  • April — first report on a technique for separating semiconducting and metallic nanotubes.[22]

2002[edit]

  • January — Multi-walled nanotubes demonstrated to be fastest known oscillators (> 50 GHz).[23]

2003[edit]

  • September — NEC announced stable fabrication technology of carbon nanotube transistors[24]

2004[edit]

  • March — Nature published a photo of an individual 4 cm long single-wall nanotube (SWNT).[25]

2005[edit]

  • May — A prototype high-definition 10-centimetre flat screen made using nanotubes was exhibited.[26]
  • August — University of California finds Y-shaped nanotubes to be ready-made transistors.[27]
  • August — General Electric announced the development of an ideal carbon nanotube diode that operates at the "theoretical limit" (the best possible performance). A photovoltaic effect was also observed in the nanotube diode device that could lead to breakthroughs in solar cells, making them more efficient and thus more economically viable.[28]
  • August — Nanotube sheet synthesised with dimensions 5 × 100 cm.[29]

2006[edit]

The winning nanotube-enhanced bike
  • March — IBM announces that they have built an electronic circuit around a CNT.[30]
  • March — Nanotubes used as a scaffold for damaged nerve regeneration.[31]
  • May — Method of placing nanotube accurately is developed by IBM.[32]
  • June — Gadget invented by Rice University that can sort nanotubes by size and electrical properties[33]
  • July — Nanotubes were alloyed into the carbon fiber bike that won the 2006 Tour de France.[34]

2009[edit]

  • April — Nanotubes incorporated in virus battery[35]
  • A single-walled carbon nanotube was grown by chemical vapor deposition across a 10-micron gap in a silicon chip, then used in cold atom experiments, creating a blackhole like effect on single atoms.[36] Anne Goodsell, Trygve Ristroph, J. A. Golovchenko, and Lene Vestergaard Hau

2012[edit]

  • January — IBM creates 9 nm carbon nanotube transistor that outperforms silicon[37]

2013[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Monthioux, Marc; Kuznetsov, V (2006). "Who should be given the credit for the discovery of carbon nanotubes?" (PDF). CARBON 44 (9): 1621. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2006.03.019. 
  2. ^ Monthioux, Marc; Spreadborough, J. (1960). "Action of Graphite as Lubricant" (PDF). Nature 186 (4718): 29. Bibcode:1960Natur.186...29B. doi:10.1038/186029a0. 
  3. ^ Oberlin, A.; M. Endo; T. Koyama (1976). "Filamentous growth of carbon through benzene decomposition". J. Cryst. Growth 32 (3): 335. Bibcode:1976JCrGr..32..335O. doi:10.1016/0022-0248(76)90115-9. 
  4. ^ "1D Diamond Crystal — A continuous pseudo-one dimensional diamond crystal — maybe a nanotube?". Retrieved 2006-10-21. 
    "Audacious & Outrageous: Space Elevators". NASA. 7 September 2000. Retrieved 2006-10-21. 
  5. ^ Kroto, H. W.; et al. (1985). "C60: Buckminsterfullerene". Nature 318 (6042): 162–163. Bibcode:1985Natur.318..162K. doi:10.1038/318162a0. 
  6. ^ Tennent, Howard G (5 May 1987). Carbon fibrils, method for producing same and compositions containing same. U.S. Patent 4,663,230. 
  7. ^ Iijima, Sumio (7 November 1991). "Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon". Nature 354 (6348): 56–58. Bibcode:1991Natur.354...56I. doi:10.1038/354056a0. 
  8. ^ Maganas, Thomas C; Alan L. Harrington (1 September 1992). Intermittent film deposition method and system. U.S. Patent 5,143,745. 
  9. ^ Mintmire, J.W.; et al. (3 February 1992). "Are Fullerene Tubules Metallic?". Physical Review Letters 68 (5): 631–634. Bibcode:1992PhRvL..68..631M. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.68.631. PMID 10045950. 
  10. ^ Saito, R.; et al. (15 July 1992). "Electronic structure of graphene tubules based on C60". Physical Review B 46 (3): 1804–1811. Bibcode:1992PhRvB..46.1804S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.46.1804. 
  11. ^ Hamada, N.; et al. (9 March 1992). "New One-Dimensional Conductors: Graphitic Microtubules". Physical Review Letters 68 (10): 1579–1581. Bibcode:1992PhRvL..68.1579H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.68.1579. PMID 10045167. 
  12. ^ Bethune, D. S.; et al. (17 June 1993). "Cobalt-catalysed growth of carbon nanotubes with single-atomic-layer walls". Nature 363 (6430): 605–607. Bibcode:1993Natur.363..605B. doi:10.1038/363605a0. 
  13. ^ Iijima, Sumio; Toshinari Ichihashi (17 June 1993). "Single-shell carbon nanotubes of 1-nm diameter". Nature 363 (6430): 603–605. Bibcode:1993Natur.363..603I. doi:10.1038/363603a0. 
  14. ^ de Heer, W. A.; et al. (17 November 1995). "A Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Electron Source". Science 270 (5239): 1179–1180. Bibcode:1995Sci...270.1179D. doi:10.1126/science.270.5239.1179. 
  15. ^ FIELD-EMISSION CATHODE AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURING IT - Patent EP0801805
  16. ^ Tans, S.; et al. (3 April 1997). "Individual single-wall carbon nanotubes as quantum wires" (PDF). Nature 386 (6624): 474–477. Bibcode:1997Natur.386..474T. doi:10.1038/386474a0. 
  17. ^ Bockrath, M.; et al. (28 March 1997). "Single-Electron Transport in Ropes of Carbon Nanotubes" (PDF). Science 275 (5308): 1922–1925. doi:10.1126/science.275.5308.1922. PMID 9072967. 
  18. ^ "Patent US6700550 - Optical antenna array for harmonic generation, mixing and signal amplification — Google Patents". Google.com. Retrieved 2013-01-30. 
  19. ^ Tans, S.; et al. (7 May 1998). "Room-temperature transistor based on a single carbon nanotube" (PDF). Nature 393 (6680): 49–52. Bibcode:1998Natur.393...49T. doi:10.1038/29954. 
  20. ^ Martel, R.; et al. (26 October 1998). "Single- and multi-wall carbon nanotube field-effect transistors". Applied Physics Letters 73 (17): 2447–2449. Bibcode:1998ApPhL..73.2447M. doi:10.1063/1.122477. 
  21. ^ Tombler, Tw; Zhou, C; Alexseyev, L; Kong, J; Dai, H; Liu, L; Jayanthi, Cs; Tang, M; Wu, Sy (Jun 2000). "Reversible electromechanical characteristics of carbon nanotubes under local-probe manipulation". Nature 405 (6788): 769–72. doi:10.1038/35015519. PMID 10866192. 
  22. ^ Collins, Philip; Michael S. Arnold; Phaedon Avouris (27 April 2001). "Engineering Carbon Nanotubes and Nanotube Circuits Using Electrical Breakdown". Science 292 (5517): 706–709. Bibcode:2001Sci...292..706C. doi:10.1126/science.1058782. PMID 11326094. 
  23. ^ "Nanotubes in the Fast Lane". 18 January 2002. Retrieved 2006-10-21. 
  24. ^ "Tests Verify Carbon Nanotube Enable Ultra High Performance Transistor" (Press release). NEC. 19 September 2003. Retrieved 2006-10-21. 
  25. ^ Zheng, L. X.; et al. (2004). "Ultralong single-wall carbon nanotubes". Nature Materials 3 (10): 673–676. Bibcode:2004NatMa...3..673Z. doi:10.1038/nmat1216. PMID 15359345. 
  26. ^ "Carbon nanotubes used in computer and TV screens". New Scientist. 21 May 2005. p. 28. 
  27. ^ Knight, Will (15 August 2005). "Y-shaped nanotubes are ready-made transistors". New Scientist Tech. Retrieved 2006-10-21. 
  28. ^ "GE's Research Program Achieves Major Feat in Nanotechnology" (Press release). GE. Retrieved 2006-10-22. 
  29. ^ "Carbon-nanotube fabric measures up". Nanotechweb.org. 18 August 2005. 
  30. ^ "IBM takes step towards chip nanotechnology". CNN Money. 24 March 2006. 
    Hutson, Stu (23 March 2006). "Nanotube circuit could boost chip speeds". 
    "Nano circuit offers big promise". BBC News. 24 March 2006. 
  31. ^ "Optic nerve regrown with a nanofibre scaffold". 13 March 2006. 
  32. ^ "Carbon nanotubes pinned down at last". 30 May 2006. 
  33. ^ "Gadget sorts nanotubes by size". 27 June 2006. 
  34. ^ "Carbon nanotubes enter Tour de France". 7 July 2006. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. 
  35. ^ "New virus-built battery could power cars, electronic devices". 2 April 2009. 
  36. ^ [ Cold atoms and nanotubes come together in an atomic ‘black hole’: Atoms spiral towards a charged carbon nanotube under dramatic acceleration before splitting apart : Field Ionization of Cold Atoms near the Wall of a Single Carbon Nanotube http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v104/i13/e133002]
  37. ^ "IBM creates 9nm carbon nanotube transistor that outperforms silicon". 26 January 2012. 
  38. ^ "Researchers Build a Working Carbon Nanotube Computer". NY Times. 26 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013. 

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