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See also: History of computer animation
This is a chronological list of films and television programs that have been recognised as being pioneering in their use of
1960s-1970s [ edit ]
Rendering of a planned highway 1961
In 1960 a 30 second vector animation of a car traveling down a planned highway at 110 km/h was created at the
Swedish Royal Institute of Technology on the BESK computer. The short animation was broadcast on 9 November 1961 on national television. [1 ] [2 ]
A ten minute computer animated film by Charles Csuri and James Shaffer. Awarded a prize at the 4th International Experimental Film Competition, Brussels, Belgium, 1967 and in the collection of The Museum of Modern Art, New York City. The subject was a line drawing of a hummingbird for which a sequence of movements appropriate to the bird were programmed. Over 30,000 images comprising some 25 motion sequences were generated by the computer.
[3 ] [4 ]
A group of Russian mathematicians and physicists headed by
N. Konstantinov created a mathematical model of a moving cat. A program was made for the computer BESM-4. The computer then printed hundreds of frames to be later converted to film. [5 ] [6 ] [7 ]
An experimental 2D animated short by
Peter Foldes drawn on a data tablet, who used the world's first key frame animation software, invented by Nestor Burtnyk and Marceli Wein. [8 ] [9 ] [10 ] [11 ]
A Computer Animated Hand 1972
Ed Catmull, the short demonstrates a computer animated hand, as well as human faces. The film was inducted into the National Film Registry in 2011.
First use of 2D computer animation in a significant entertainment
feature film. The point of view of Yul Brynner's gunslinger was achieved with raster graphics. [12 ] [13 ]
The Six Million Dollar Man 1974
television series to use CGI in the intro.
Oscar-winning 1975 short animated film about the life of the Victorian engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel contains a brief sequence of a rotating wire-frame model of Brunel's final project, the iron steam ship SS Great Eastern.
First use of
3D computer graphics for animated hand and face. Used 2D digital compositing to materialize characters over a background. [13 ]
Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope 1977
Used an animated 3D
wire-frame graphic for the trench run briefing sequence.
First film with a computer-generated title sequence.
The Black Hole 1979
wire-frame model rendering for the open credits depicting a 3D wireframe of a black hole. [15 ]
Alien Used raster
wire-frame model rendering for navigation monitors in the landing sequence. [13 ]
First CGI human character, Cindy. Also, first use of 3D shaded CGI.
[15 ] [16 ]
The Works 1982
New York Institute of Technology Computer Graphics Lab premiered a trailer at SIGGRAPH for their CGI project. This would have been the first feature-length CGI film, but it was never completed.
Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan
ILM computer graphics division develops "Genesis Effect", first use of fractal-generated landscape in a film. Bill Reeves leads the Genesis Effect programming team, and creates a new graphics technique called Particle Systems. [17 ]
Tron First extensive use (15 min. fully computer generated) of 3D CGI including the famous
Light Cycle sequence. Also includes very early facial animation (for the [18 ] Master Control Program).
Golgo 13: The Professional 1983
anime film to use CGI. Entirely digital models of revolvers, skeletons, helicopters and skyscrapers are used in the film's title sequence and part of the climax. [19 ]
Rock & Rule First animated film to use computer graphics.
The Last Starfighter 1984
Uses CGI for all spaceship shots, replacing traditional models. First use of 'integrated CGI' where the effects are supposed to represent real world objects.
Lensman: Secret of The Lens Uses CGI for spaceships and other scenes.
The Adventures of André and Wally B.
Lucasfilm's computer animation division creates an all-CGI-animated short. The first CGI animation with motion blur effects and squash and stretch motion.
2010: The Year We Make Contact
Jupiter's turbulent atmosphere is CGI-rendered, mostly during the black spot shots.
Tony de Peltrie 1985
First CGI-animated human character to express emotion through his face and body language.
The Black Cauldron First animated movie with CGI-effects.
Young Sherlock Holmes
Lucasfilm creates the first photorealistic CGI character, 'stained glass knight' with 10 seconds of screentime. [23 ] [24 ]
Dire Straits - Money for Nothing The first computer-generated
music video. The animators would go on to found [24 ] Mainframe Entertainment.
Flight of the Navigator 1986
The first use of
reflection mapping in a feature film, used for the flying alien spacecraft. [24 ]
Labyrinth First realistic
CGI animal. [24 ]
Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home First use of the
Cyberware (company) 3D scanner, first 3D morphing. [24 ]
Luxo Jr. First use of
shadows in CGI, made with special developed software Renderman. First Pixar film, and CGI film to be nominated for an Academy Award.
Captain Power and the Soldiers of the Future 1987
TV series to include characters modeled entirely with computers.
game show with interaction between humans and computer-generated surroundings.
First photorealistic use of morphing effect in a
feature film. [25 ]
Tin Toy First computer-animated short film to win an Oscar.
The Abyss 1989
First digital 3D water effect.
The Jim Henson Hour TV series with real-time and rendered CGI featuring digitally puppeteered CG character "Waldo."
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade First
all-digital composite. [26 ]
Die Hard 2 1990
matte painting. [26 ]
RoboCop 2 An early use of real-time computer graphics or "
digital puppetry" to create a character in a motion picture. [27 ]
First use of photorealistic CGI fire in a motion picture.
Terminator 2: Judgment Day First realistic human movements on a CGI character.
The first partially computer-generated main character and the first blockbuster movie to feature multiple morphing effects. [26 ] First use of a personal computer to create major movie 3D effects. [28 ]
Death Becomes Her 1992
skin CGI software. [26 ]
First broadcast series of animated CGI shorts.
Jurassic Park First photorealistic CG creatures.
VeggieTales First completely computer animated direct-to-video release.
Babylon 5 First
television series to use CGI as the primary method for its visual effects. First TV use of virtual sets.
Insektors [29 ] First fully computer animated TV series. First use of
character animation in a computer animated television series.
Radioland Murders 1994
First use of virtual CGI sets with live actors.
ReBoot First half-hour computer animated TV series.
The Flintstones First CGI-rendered fur.
First realistic CG water.
Casper First CGI lead character in feature-length film (preceded
Toy Story by six months). First CGI characters to interact realistically with live actors.
Toy Story First CGI feature-length animation.
Cassiopeia (film) 1996
A Brazilian CGI animated feature film produced and released by NDR Filmes in Brazil on April 1, 1996.
Dragonheart First 2D all-CGI backgrounds with live actors.
( Star Wars ) Episodes IV, V & VI Special Editions 1997
First re-release of a film to incorporate CGI characters and elements.
Marvin the Martian in 3D First computer animated movie viewed with 3D glasses.
Titanic First wide-release feature film with major elements rendered under the
open-source Linux operating system. Also included a number of advances, specifically in the rendering of flowing water. [32 ]
A Bug's Life 1998
First ever computer animated anamorphic widescreen film. First all digital transfer to DVD. First film to be reframed for home video release.
Invasion: Earth First major use of digital effects in a British TV series (BBC/Sci-Fi Channel co-production)
Toy Story 2 1999
First CGI feature-length animation sequel
( A Little Curious Bubble Love) First use of a CGI character on live action video.
Fight Club First realistic close-up of detailed facial deformation on a synthetic human.
The Matrix First use of CG
interpolation in Bullet Time effects.
Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace First film to use CG extensively for thousands of shots, including backgrounds, environmental effects, vehicles, and crowds. Several CG characters stood alongside real actors in dozens of shots, making them the first CG "supporting" cast members.
Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within 2001
First feature-length digital film to be made based on
photorealism and live action principles. The first theatrically released feature film to utilize performance capture ( motion capture) for all of its characters actions. [33 ]
Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius First CGI feature-length movie made using
off-the-shelf hardware and software.
The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring First use of
AI for digital actors (using the Massive software developed by Weta Digital).
The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers 2002
First photorealistic motion captured character for a film
. First virtual actor to win an award ( Critics' Choice Movie Awards by Andy Serkis playing Gollum), in the newly created category Best Digital Acting Performance
The Matrix Reloaded and Matrix Revolutions 2003
The Burly Brawl - the first use of " Universal Capture", the combination of dense (rather than point-based) motion capture, per-frame texture capture and optical flow of pixels over the data from 7 camera setup bought into a shared UV space by projection onto a neutral expression geometry leading to the introduction of realistic digital look-alikes, last missing piece into puzzle to make fully virtual cinematography possible.
Able Edwards 2004
First movie shot completely on a green screen using digitally scanned images as backgrounds.
Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow First movie with all-CGI backgrounds and live actors.
The Polar Express First
motion capture, computer-animated film in 3D.
Chicken Little 2005
computer animated film in 3D formats, Disney Digital 3D and RealD 3D.
Elephants Dream 2006
First CGI short movie released as completely open source. Made with
Open Source software, theatrical and DVD release under Creative Commons License. Unique that all 3D models, animatics and software are included on the DVD free for any use. [35 ]
First CGI feature film to be animated by one person. Made with
Lightwave 3D and Adobe After Effects. [36 ]
Beowulf Entirely made in CGI, features motion capture for all actors and has realism as its foremost goal. The largest team ever assembled for an Imageworks-produced movie (as of 2007) generated new animation tools for facial, body, and cloth design especially for the movie, and elements of keyframe animation were incorporated into the movie to capture the facial expressions of the actors and actresses.
First CGI feature-length movie made using
Open Source/ Free Software for all 3D models, animation, lighting and render process, under GNU/Linux operating system.
Avatar First full-length movie made using performance-capture to create photo-realistic 3D characters and to feature a fully CG 3D photo-realistic world. The first Virtual Art Department (VAD) and complete Virtual Production pipeline was developed by director James Cameron and team to create the film in real-time.
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Charles Csuri, Fragmentation Animations, 1968 - 1970: Hummingbird (1968) on YouTube
^ Kitty. - N.Konstantinov. on YouTube
^ Bowles, Scott (2004-09-15). ". 'Sky Captain' takes CGI to limit" USA Today . Retrieved . 2010-05-25
^ a b c Visual and Special Effects Film Milestones - Part 9
^ a b Visual and Special Effects Film Milestones - Part 10
^ Netzley, pg. 49.
^ Pegoraro, Rob (June 29, 2008). "Incredibles, Inc; The story of how computer programmers transformed the art of movie animation". . p. W8. The Washington Post
^ Tron - The 1982 movie
^ Hughes, David (2003). Comic Book Movies. Virgin Books. p. 27. ISBN 0-7535-0767-6.
^ a b Visual and Special Effects Film Milestones - Part 11
^ Along the Banks of the St. Lawrence
^ Netzley, 246.
^ a b c d e Visual and Special Effects Film Milestones - Part 12
^ Netzley, 239.
^ a b c d e f g h Netzley, 50.
^ a b Part 14
^ "Visual and Special Effects Film Milestones". Filmsite.org . Retrieved . October 3, 2012
^ Created in 1993. 2nd Prize for the category 3D Animation Imagina in 1993 for the episode " Some Flowers for Bakrakra" 
^ Marcus Hearn (2005). The Cinema of George Lucas. New York City: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. pp. 79–80. ISBN 0-8109-4968-7.
^ Bernstein, Sharon (1994-11-10). ". LA Times 'Reboot' Is First Series to Be Fully Computerized" . Retrieved . 2010-08-23
^ Rowe, Robin (2003-01-01). "Linux and Star Trek". Linux Journal.
^ "Cinema: A Painstaking Fantasy". Time. 2000-07-31.
^ "Kid Robot and the World of Tomorrow". Wired.
^ "Flatland director Ladd Ehlinger Jr. starts column Filmmaker's Perspective for GreenCine.com". Flatland.
Netzley, Patricia D.
Encyclopedia of Movie Special Effects. Checkmark Books, 2001.
External links [ edit ]